A grammar of Mauwake
Free

A grammar of Mauwake

By Liisa Berghäll
Free
Book Description

This grammar provides a synchronic grammatical description of Mauwake, a Papuan Trans-New Guinea (TNG) language of about 2000 speakers on the north coast of the Madang Province in Papua New Guinea. It is the first book-length treatment of the Mauwake language and the only published grammar of the Kumil subgroup to date. Relying on other existing published and unpublished grammars, the author shows how the language is similar to, or different from, related TNG languages especially in the Madang province. The grammar gives a brief introduction to the Mauwake people, their environment and their culture. Although the book mainly covers morphology and syntax, it also includes ashort treatment of the phonological system and the orthography. The description of the grammatical units proceeds from the words/morphology to the phrases, clauses, sentence types and clause combinations. The chapter on functional domains is the only one where the organization is based on meaning/function rather than structure. The longest chapter in the book is on morphology, with verbs taking the central stage. The final chapter deals with the pragmatic functions theme, topic and focus. 13 texts by native speakers, mostly recorded and transcribed but some originally written, are included in the Appendix with morpheme-by-morpheme glosses and a free translation. The theoretical approach used is that of Basic Linguistic Theory. Language typologists and professional Papuanist linguists are naturally one target audience for the grammar. But also two other possible, and important, audiences influenced especially the style the writing: well educated Mauwake speakers interested in their language, and those other Papua New Guineans who have some basic training in linguistics and are keen to explore their own languages.

Table of Contents
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abbreviations and symbols
  • Introduction
    • Background
    • Purpose and theoretical orientation of the study
      • Purpose
      • Theoretical considerations
      • Audience
      • On the data and examples
    • The Mauwake people, their environment and culture
      • Geography and administration
      • On the history of the Mauwake people
      • Demography
      • Economy
      • Cultural notes
      • Mauwake kinship system
    • The Mauwake language
      • Genealogical affiliation and previous research
      • Typological overview of morphological and syntactic features
        • Mauwake as a lan]Trans New GuineaTrans New Guinea language
        • Mauwake as an sov language
      • Dialects
  • Phonology: a brief overview
    • Phonemes
      • Consonants
      • Vowels
      • Suprasegmentals: stress and intonation
        • Stress
        • Intonation
      • Orthographic symbols
    • Syllables and phonotactics
      • Syllable patterns
      • Vowel sequences
      • Consonant sequences
    • Word
      • Defining a phonological word in Mauwake
      • Distribution of syllables in a word
      • Morphophonology
        • Elision of word-final vowel
        • Reduplication
          • Type 1
          • Type 2: v1c1v1 - v1c1v2c2v(v3)x
          • Type 3: v1v1c1 - v1v1c1v2x
          • Type 4: c1v1v2 - c1v1v2x
          • Unusual reduplications
        • Past tense and medial verb suffixes
        • Inchoative suffix
        • Completive aspect marker
      • Loan words
  • Morphology
    • Introduction
    • Nouns
      • General discussion
      • Nouns and adjectives: one or two word classes?
      • Common vs. proper nouns
      • Alienable and inalienable possession
      • Noun compounding
      • Derived nouns
        • Action nominals
        • Noun reduplication
    • Adjectives
    • Quantifiers
      • Numerals
      • Non-numeral quantifiers
    • Pronouns
      • Introduction
      • Free pronouns
        • Unmarked pronouns
        • Focal pronouns
      • Accusative pronouns
      • Genitive pronouns
      • Dative pronouns
      • Isolative pronouns
      • Restrictive pronouns
      • Reflexive-reciprocal pronouns
      • Comitative pronouns
      • Primary and secondary reference of personal pronouns
      • Use of personal pronouns in text
    • Spatial deictics
      • The basic spatial deixis in Mauwake
      • Demonstratives
      • Deictic locative adverbs
      • Deictic manner adverbs
    • Question words and indefinites
      • Question words
      • Indefinites
    • Verbs
      • General discussion
        • Definition
        • General characteristics of verbs in Mauwake
        • Verb structure
      • Verb derivatives
        • Derivation vs. inflection
        • Category-changing derivation: verb formation
          • Zero verb formation
          • Inchoative suffix
        • Category-maintaining derivation: suffixes
          • Causative suffix
          • Distributive suffix
          • Benefactive suffix
        • Derivational prefixes
          • Reduplication
          • Bring-prefixes
      • Verb inflection
        • Beneficiary
        • Counterfactual
        • Mood
          • Indicative
          • Imperative
        • Tense and person/number in final verbs
        • Medial verb marking
          • Same-sbj]subjectsubject marking
          • Different-sbj]subjectsubject marking
          • Tense and sbj]medialmedial verbs
      • Verb classes
        • Conjugation classes
        • Verb classes based on transitivity
          • Intransitive verbs
          • Transitive verbs
          • Ambitransitive verbs
          • Object cross-referencing verbs
        • Valence changes
          • Causatives
          • Benefactive
          • Decreasing semantic valence
        • Semantically based verb classes
          • Stative/existential verb ik-
          • Position-taking verbs
          • Location verbs
          • Resultative verbs
          • Directional verbs
          • Utterance verbs
          • Impersonal experience verbs
        • Auxiliary verbs
      • Verbal clusters
        • Verbal groups
          • Main verb plus sbj]auxiliaryauxiliary: aspect
            • Completive aspect
            • Continuous sbj]aspectaspect: sbj]progressiveprogressive and habitual
            • Stative aspect
          • Serial verbs
        • Adjunct plus verb constructions
          • Nominal adjunct plus verb
          • Adverbial adjunct plus verb
    • Adverbs
      • Material adverbs
        • Locative adverbs
        • Temporal adverbs
        • Manner adverbs
      • Intensity adverbs
      • Modal adverbs
      • Free adverbs
    • Negators
    • Connectives
      • Pragmatic connectives
      • Semantic connectives
    • Postpositions and clitics
      • Comitative clitic and postpositions
      • Reason postposition muuta (nain)
      • Comparison postposition saarik
      • Locative clitic -pa
      • Instrumental clitic -iw
      • Limiter -iw
      • Topic and focus markers
        • Topic markers
        • Focus clitics
      • Question marker
      • Co-occurrence of the clitics
    • Interjections
  • Phrase level syntax
    • Noun phrase
      • Basic noun phrase
      • Coordinate noun phrase
      • Comitative noun phrase
      • Appositional noun phrase
    • Adjective phrase
    • Quantifier phrase
    • Possessive phrase
    • Verb phrase
    • Adverbial phrases
      • Locative phrases
      • Temporal phrase
      • Manner phrase
  • Clause
    • Order of constituents
    • Syntactic arguments
    • Transitive clauses
      • Monotransitive clauses
      • Ditransitive clauses
        • Inherent ditransitivity
        • Derived ditransitivity
        • Possessor raising
    • Intransitive clauses
    • Existential and possessive clauses
      • Existential clauses
      • Possessive clauses
    • Verbless clauses
      • Equative and classifying clauses
      • Descriptive clauses
      • Negated existential and possessive clauses
    • Nominalized clauses
      • Type 1: with a nominalized verb
      • Type 2: with a finite verb
  • Functional domains
    • Modality
      • Epistemic modality
      • Deontic modality
    • Negation
      • Clausal negation
      • Constituent negation
      • Negative interjection
      • Other cases of negation
    • Deixis
      • Person deixis
      • Locative deixis
      • Temporal deixis
    • Quantification
      • Quantification in the noun phrase
      • Quantification devices in the verbs
    • Comparison
      • Comparison of inequality: comparative constructions
      • Comparison of similarity: equative constructions
  • Sentence types
    • Statements
    • Questions
      • Non-polar questions
      • Polar questions
      • Echo questions
      • Confirmation questions
      • Indirect questions
      • Rhetorical questions
      • Answers to questions
    • Commands
  • Clause combinations
    • Coordination of clauses
      • Conjunction
        • Juxtaposition
        • Conjunction with coordinating connectives
      • Disjunction
      • Adversative coordination
      • Consecutive coordination
      • Causal coordination, ``afterthought reason''
      • Apprehensive coordination
    • Clause chaining
      • Chained clauses as coordinate clauses
      • Temporal relations in chained clauses
      • Person reference in chained clauses
        • Partitioning of the participant set
        • Tracking a subject high in topicality
        • Apparent mismatches of reference
        • Medial clauses as a complementation strategy for perception verbs
        • Tail-head linkage
    • Subordinate clauses: embedding and hypotaxis
      • Relative clauses
        • The type and position of the relative clause
        • The structure of the relative clause
        • Relativizable noun phrase positions
        • Non-restrictive relative clauses
      • Complement clauses and other complementation strategies
        • Complements of utterance verbs
          • Direct speech
          • Indirect speech
          • Desiderative clauses
          • Purpose clauses
          • Conative clauses: `try'
          • Complements of other utterance verbs
        • Complements of perception verbs
        • Complements of cognitive verbs
        • Complement clauses as subjects
      • Adverbial clauses
        • Temporal clauses
        • Locative clauses
      • Adversative subordinate clause
      • Conditional clauses
      • Concessive clauses
      • Coordination of subordinate clauses
  • Theme, topic, and focus
    • Theme
    • Topic
      • Introducing a new topic
      • Maintaining an established topic
      • Re-activating an earlier topic
      • Highlighted topic
    • Focus constructions
      • Contrastive focus
      • Neutral focus
      • Other focusing devices
  • Appendix
  • List of main texts used
  • Texts
    • World War 2
    • Uncle Tup
    • Catching a turtle
    • Fishing customs
    • Dog and snake
    • Piglet
    • Man’s lover
    • A flood story
    • Copra work
    • Garden work
    • Girls’ initiation customs
    • Funeral customs
    • Tidal wave
  • References
  • Index
    • Name index
    • Language index
    • Subject index
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