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Handbook of the Trees of New England

By Henry M. (Henry Mason) Brooks, Lorin Low Dame
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Table of Contents
  • HANDBOOK OF THE
  • TREES OF NEW ENGLAND
    • WITH RANGES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
      • BY
    • BY
    • LORIN L. DAME, S.D.
      • AND
    • AND
    • HENRY BROOKS
      • PLATES FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS
        • BY
      • BY
      • ELIZABETH GLEASON BIGELOW
    • PLATES FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS
      • BY
    • BY
    • ELIZABETH GLEASON BIGELOW
    • CONTENTS
    • PREFACE.
    • KEY TO THE TREES OF NEW ENGLAND.
    • LIST OF PLATES.
    • BOTANICAL AUTHORITIES.
    • ABBREVIATIONS.
    • TREES OF NEW ENGLAND.
    • PINOIDEÆ. PINE FAMILY. CONIFERS.
      • ABIETACEÆ. CUPRESSACEÆ.
      • ABIETACEÆ.
        • Larix. Pinus. Picea. Tsuga. Abies.
      • Larix. Pinus. Picea. Tsuga. Abies.
      • CUPRESSACEÆ.
        • Thuja. Cupressus. Juniperus.
        • Larix Americana, Michx.
        • Tamarack. Hacmatack. Larch. Juniper.
        • Plate I.—Larix Americana.
      • Thuja. Cupressus. Juniperus.
      • Larix Americana, Michx.
      • Tamarack. Hacmatack. Larch. Juniper.
      • Plate I.—Larix Americana.
    • ABIETACEÆ. CUPRESSACEÆ.
    • ABIETACEÆ.
      • Larix. Pinus. Picea. Tsuga. Abies.
    • Larix. Pinus. Picea. Tsuga. Abies.
    • CUPRESSACEÆ.
      • Thuja. Cupressus. Juniperus.
      • Larix Americana, Michx.
      • Tamarack. Hacmatack. Larch. Juniper.
      • Plate I.—Larix Americana.
    • Thuja. Cupressus. Juniperus.
    • Larix Americana, Michx.
    • Tamarack. Hacmatack. Larch. Juniper.
    • Plate I.—Larix Americana.
    • PINUS.
      • Pinus Strobus, L.
        • White Pine.
        • Plate II.  Pinus Strobus.
      • White Pine.
      • Plate II.  Pinus Strobus.
      • Pinus rigida, Mill.
        • Pitch Pine. Hard Pine.
        • Plate III.—Pinus rigida.
      • Pitch Pine. Hard Pine.
      • Plate III.—Pinus rigida.
      • Pinus Banksiana, Lamb.
        • Scrub Pine. Gray Pine. Spruce Pine. Jack Pine.
        • Plate IV.—Pinus Banksiana.
      • Scrub Pine. Gray Pine. Spruce Pine. Jack Pine.
      • Plate IV.—Pinus Banksiana.
      • Pinus resinosa, Ait.
        • Red Pine. Norway Pine.
        • Plate V.—Pinus resinosa.
      • Red Pine. Norway Pine.
      • Plate V.—Pinus resinosa.
      • Pinus sylvestris, L.
        • Scotch Pine (sometimes incorrectly called the Scotch fir).
      • Scotch Pine (sometimes incorrectly called the Scotch fir).
      • Picea nigra, Link.
        • Black Spruce. Swamp Spruce. Double Spruce. Water Spruce.
        • Plate VI.—Picea nigra.
      • Black Spruce. Swamp Spruce. Double Spruce. Water Spruce.
      • Plate VI.—Picea nigra.
      • Picea rubra, Link.
        • Red Spruce.
        • Plate VII.--Picea rubra.
      • Red Spruce.
      • Plate VII.--Picea rubra.
      • Picea alba, Link.
        • White Spruce. Cat Spruce. Skunk Spruce.[1] Labrador Spruce.
        • Plate VIII.--Picea alba.
      • White Spruce. Cat Spruce. Skunk Spruce.[1] Labrador Spruce.
      • Plate VIII.--Picea alba.
      • Tsuga Canadensis, Carr.
        • Hemlock.
        • Plate IX.—Tsuga Canadensis.
      • Hemlock.
      • Plate IX.—Tsuga Canadensis.
      • Abies balsamea, Mill.
        • Fir Balsam. Balsam. Fir.
        • Plate X.—Abies balsamea.
      • Fir Balsam. Balsam. Fir.
      • Plate X.—Abies balsamea.
      • Thuja occidentalis, L.
        • Arbor-Vitæ. White Cedar. Cedar.
        • Plate XI.—Thuja occidentalis.
      • Arbor-Vitæ. White Cedar. Cedar.
      • Plate XI.—Thuja occidentalis.
      • Cupressus thyoides, L.
        • White Cedar. Cedar.
        • Plate XII.—Cupressus thyoides.
      • White Cedar. Cedar.
      • Plate XII.—Cupressus thyoides.
      • Juniperus Virginiana, L.
        • Red Cedar. Cedar. Savin.
        • Plate XIII.—Juniperus Virginiana.
      • Red Cedar. Cedar. Savin.
      • Plate XIII.—Juniperus Virginiana.
    • Pinus Strobus, L.
      • White Pine.
      • Plate II.  Pinus Strobus.
    • White Pine.
    • Plate II.  Pinus Strobus.
    • Pinus rigida, Mill.
      • Pitch Pine. Hard Pine.
      • Plate III.—Pinus rigida.
    • Pitch Pine. Hard Pine.
    • Plate III.—Pinus rigida.
    • Pinus Banksiana, Lamb.
      • Scrub Pine. Gray Pine. Spruce Pine. Jack Pine.
      • Plate IV.—Pinus Banksiana.
    • Scrub Pine. Gray Pine. Spruce Pine. Jack Pine.
    • Plate IV.—Pinus Banksiana.
    • Pinus resinosa, Ait.
      • Red Pine. Norway Pine.
      • Plate V.—Pinus resinosa.
    • Red Pine. Norway Pine.
    • Plate V.—Pinus resinosa.
    • Pinus sylvestris, L.
      • Scotch Pine (sometimes incorrectly called the Scotch fir).
    • Scotch Pine (sometimes incorrectly called the Scotch fir).
    • Picea nigra, Link.
      • Black Spruce. Swamp Spruce. Double Spruce. Water Spruce.
      • Plate VI.—Picea nigra.
    • Black Spruce. Swamp Spruce. Double Spruce. Water Spruce.
    • Plate VI.—Picea nigra.
    • Picea rubra, Link.
      • Red Spruce.
      • Plate VII.--Picea rubra.
    • Red Spruce.
    • Plate VII.--Picea rubra.
    • Picea alba, Link.
      • White Spruce. Cat Spruce. Skunk Spruce.[1] Labrador Spruce.
      • Plate VIII.--Picea alba.
    • White Spruce. Cat Spruce. Skunk Spruce.[1] Labrador Spruce.
    • Plate VIII.--Picea alba.
    • Tsuga Canadensis, Carr.
      • Hemlock.
      • Plate IX.—Tsuga Canadensis.
    • Hemlock.
    • Plate IX.—Tsuga Canadensis.
    • Abies balsamea, Mill.
      • Fir Balsam. Balsam. Fir.
      • Plate X.—Abies balsamea.
    • Fir Balsam. Balsam. Fir.
    • Plate X.—Abies balsamea.
    • Thuja occidentalis, L.
      • Arbor-Vitæ. White Cedar. Cedar.
      • Plate XI.—Thuja occidentalis.
    • Arbor-Vitæ. White Cedar. Cedar.
    • Plate XI.—Thuja occidentalis.
    • Cupressus thyoides, L.
      • White Cedar. Cedar.
      • Plate XII.—Cupressus thyoides.
    • White Cedar. Cedar.
    • Plate XII.—Cupressus thyoides.
    • Juniperus Virginiana, L.
      • Red Cedar. Cedar. Savin.
      • Plate XIII.—Juniperus Virginiana.
    • Red Cedar. Cedar. Savin.
    • Plate XIII.—Juniperus Virginiana.
    • SALICACEÆ. WILLOW FAMILY.
      • POPULUS.
      • SALIX.
      • Populus tremuloides, Michx.
        • Poplar. Aspen.
        • Plate XIV.—Populus tremuloides.
      • Poplar. Aspen.
      • Plate XIV.—Populus tremuloides.
      • Populus grandidentata, Michx.
        • Poplar. Large-toothed Aspen.
        • Plate XV.—Populus grandidentata.
      • Poplar. Large-toothed Aspen.
      • Plate XV.—Populus grandidentata.
      • Populus heterophylla, L.
        • Poplar. Swamp Poplar. Cottonwood.
        • Plate XVI.—Populus heterophylla.
      • Poplar. Swamp Poplar. Cottonwood.
      • Plate XVI.—Populus heterophylla.
      • Populus deltoides, Marsh.
        • Cottonwood. Poplar.
        • Plate XVII.—Populus deltoides.
      • Cottonwood. Poplar.
      • Plate XVII.—Populus deltoides.
      • Populus balsamifera, L.
        • Balsam. Poplar. Balm of Gilead.
        • Plate XVIII.—Populus balsamifera.
      • Balsam. Poplar. Balm of Gilead.
      • Plate XVIII.—Populus balsamifera.
      • Populus candicans, Ait.
        • Balm of Gilead.
        • Plate XIX.—Populus candicans.
      • Balm of Gilead.
      • Plate XIX.—Populus candicans.
      • Populus alba, L.
        • Abele. White Poplar. Silver-leaf Poplar.
      • Abele. White Poplar. Silver-leaf Poplar.
      • Salix discolor. Muhl.
        • Pussy Willow. Glaucous Willow.
        • Plate XX.—Salix discolor.
      • Pussy Willow. Glaucous Willow.
      • Plate XX.—Salix discolor.
      • Salix nigra, Marsh.
        • Black Willow
        • Plate XXI.—Salix nigra.
      • Black Willow
      • Plate XXI.—Salix nigra.
      • Salix fragilis and Salix alba.
      • Salix fragilis, L.
        • Crack Willow. Brittle Willow.
      • Crack Willow. Brittle Willow.
      • Salix alba, L.
        • White Willow.
      • White Willow.
    • POPULUS.
    • SALIX.
    • Populus tremuloides, Michx.
      • Poplar. Aspen.
      • Plate XIV.—Populus tremuloides.
    • Poplar. Aspen.
    • Plate XIV.—Populus tremuloides.
    • Populus grandidentata, Michx.
      • Poplar. Large-toothed Aspen.
      • Plate XV.—Populus grandidentata.
    • Poplar. Large-toothed Aspen.
    • Plate XV.—Populus grandidentata.
    • Populus heterophylla, L.
      • Poplar. Swamp Poplar. Cottonwood.
      • Plate XVI.—Populus heterophylla.
    • Poplar. Swamp Poplar. Cottonwood.
    • Plate XVI.—Populus heterophylla.
    • Populus deltoides, Marsh.
      • Cottonwood. Poplar.
      • Plate XVII.—Populus deltoides.
    • Cottonwood. Poplar.
    • Plate XVII.—Populus deltoides.
    • Populus balsamifera, L.
      • Balsam. Poplar. Balm of Gilead.
      • Plate XVIII.—Populus balsamifera.
    • Balsam. Poplar. Balm of Gilead.
    • Plate XVIII.—Populus balsamifera.
    • Populus candicans, Ait.
      • Balm of Gilead.
      • Plate XIX.—Populus candicans.
    • Balm of Gilead.
    • Plate XIX.—Populus candicans.
    • Populus alba, L.
      • Abele. White Poplar. Silver-leaf Poplar.
    • Abele. White Poplar. Silver-leaf Poplar.
    • Salix discolor. Muhl.
      • Pussy Willow. Glaucous Willow.
      • Plate XX.—Salix discolor.
    • Pussy Willow. Glaucous Willow.
    • Plate XX.—Salix discolor.
    • Salix nigra, Marsh.
      • Black Willow
      • Plate XXI.—Salix nigra.
    • Black Willow
    • Plate XXI.—Salix nigra.
    • Salix fragilis and Salix alba.
    • Salix fragilis, L.
      • Crack Willow. Brittle Willow.
    • Crack Willow. Brittle Willow.
    • Salix alba, L.
      • White Willow.
    • White Willow.
    • JUGLANDACEÆ. WALNUT FAMILY.
      • Juglans cinerea, L.
        • Butternut. Oilnut. Lemon Walnut.
        • Plate XXII.—Juglans cinerea.
      • Butternut. Oilnut. Lemon Walnut.
      • Plate XXII.—Juglans cinerea.
      • Juglans nigra, L.
        • Black Walnut.
        • Plate XXIII.—Juglans nigra.
      • Black Walnut.
      • Plate XXIII.—Juglans nigra.
      • Carya alba, Nutt.
        • Shagbark. Shagbark or Shellbark Hickory. Walnut.
        • Plate XXIV.—Carya alba.
      • Shagbark. Shagbark or Shellbark Hickory. Walnut.
      • Plate XXIV.—Carya alba.
      • Carya tomentosa, Nutt.
        • Mockernut. White-heart Hickory. Walnut.
        • Plate XXV.—Carya tomentosa.
      • Mockernut. White-heart Hickory. Walnut.
      • Plate XXV.—Carya tomentosa.
      • Carya porcina, Nutt.
        • Pignut. White Hickory.
        • Plate XXVI.—Carya porcina.
      • Pignut. White Hickory.
      • Plate XXVI.—Carya porcina.
      • Carya amara, Nutt.
        • Bitternut. Swamp Hickory.
        • Plate XXVII.—Carya amara.
      • Bitternut. Swamp Hickory.
      • Plate XXVII.—Carya amara.
    • Juglans cinerea, L.
      • Butternut. Oilnut. Lemon Walnut.
      • Plate XXII.—Juglans cinerea.
    • Butternut. Oilnut. Lemon Walnut.
    • Plate XXII.—Juglans cinerea.
    • Juglans nigra, L.
      • Black Walnut.
      • Plate XXIII.—Juglans nigra.
    • Black Walnut.
    • Plate XXIII.—Juglans nigra.
    • Carya alba, Nutt.
      • Shagbark. Shagbark or Shellbark Hickory. Walnut.
      • Plate XXIV.—Carya alba.
    • Shagbark. Shagbark or Shellbark Hickory. Walnut.
    • Plate XXIV.—Carya alba.
    • Carya tomentosa, Nutt.
      • Mockernut. White-heart Hickory. Walnut.
      • Plate XXV.—Carya tomentosa.
    • Mockernut. White-heart Hickory. Walnut.
    • Plate XXV.—Carya tomentosa.
    • Carya porcina, Nutt.
      • Pignut. White Hickory.
      • Plate XXVI.—Carya porcina.
    • Pignut. White Hickory.
    • Plate XXVI.—Carya porcina.
    • Carya amara, Nutt.
      • Bitternut. Swamp Hickory.
      • Plate XXVII.—Carya amara.
    • Bitternut. Swamp Hickory.
    • Plate XXVII.—Carya amara.
    • BETULACEÆ. BIRCH FAMILY.
      • Ostrya Virginica, Willd.
        • Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood. Leverwood.
        • Plate XXVIII.—Ostrya Virginica.
      • Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood. Leverwood.
      • Plate XXVIII.—Ostrya Virginica.
      • Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.
        • Hornbeam. Blue Beech. Ironwood. Water Beech.
        • Plate XXIX.—Carpinus Caroliniana.
      • Hornbeam. Blue Beech. Ironwood. Water Beech.
      • Plate XXIX.—Carpinus Caroliniana.
      • BETULA.
      • Betula lenta, L.
        • Black Birch. Cherry Birch. Sweet Birch.
        • Plate XXX.—Betula lenta.
      • Black Birch. Cherry Birch. Sweet Birch.
      • Plate XXX.—Betula lenta.
      • Betula lutea, Michx. f.
        • Yellow Birch. Gray Birch.
        • Plate XXXI.—Betula lutea.
      • Yellow Birch. Gray Birch.
      • Plate XXXI.—Betula lutea.
      • Betula nigra, L.
        • Red Birch. River Birch.
        • Plate XXXII.—Betula nigra.
      • Red Birch. River Birch.
      • Plate XXXII.—Betula nigra.
      • Betula populifolia, Marsh.
        • White Birch. Gray Birch. Oldfield Birch. Poplar Birch. Poverty Birch. Small White Birch.
        • Plate XXXIII.—Betula populifolia.
      • White Birch. Gray Birch. Oldfield Birch. Poplar Birch. Poverty Birch. Small White Birch.
      • Plate XXXIII.—Betula populifolia.
      • Betula papyrifera, Marsh.
        • Canoe Birch. White Birch. Paper Birch.
        • Plate XXXIV.—Betula papyrifera.
      • Canoe Birch. White Birch. Paper Birch.
      • Plate XXXIV.—Betula papyrifera.
      • Alnus glutinosa, Medic.
        • European Alder.
      • European Alder.
    • Ostrya Virginica, Willd.
      • Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood. Leverwood.
      • Plate XXVIII.—Ostrya Virginica.
    • Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood. Leverwood.
    • Plate XXVIII.—Ostrya Virginica.
    • Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt.
      • Hornbeam. Blue Beech. Ironwood. Water Beech.
      • Plate XXIX.—Carpinus Caroliniana.
    • Hornbeam. Blue Beech. Ironwood. Water Beech.
    • Plate XXIX.—Carpinus Caroliniana.
    • BETULA.
    • Betula lenta, L.
      • Black Birch. Cherry Birch. Sweet Birch.
      • Plate XXX.—Betula lenta.
    • Black Birch. Cherry Birch. Sweet Birch.
    • Plate XXX.—Betula lenta.
    • Betula lutea, Michx. f.
      • Yellow Birch. Gray Birch.
      • Plate XXXI.—Betula lutea.
    • Yellow Birch. Gray Birch.
    • Plate XXXI.—Betula lutea.
    • Betula nigra, L.
      • Red Birch. River Birch.
      • Plate XXXII.—Betula nigra.
    • Red Birch. River Birch.
    • Plate XXXII.—Betula nigra.
    • Betula populifolia, Marsh.
      • White Birch. Gray Birch. Oldfield Birch. Poplar Birch. Poverty Birch. Small White Birch.
      • Plate XXXIII.—Betula populifolia.
    • White Birch. Gray Birch. Oldfield Birch. Poplar Birch. Poverty Birch. Small White Birch.
    • Plate XXXIII.—Betula populifolia.
    • Betula papyrifera, Marsh.
      • Canoe Birch. White Birch. Paper Birch.
      • Plate XXXIV.—Betula papyrifera.
    • Canoe Birch. White Birch. Paper Birch.
    • Plate XXXIV.—Betula papyrifera.
    • Alnus glutinosa, Medic.
      • European Alder.
    • European Alder.
    • FAGACEÆ. BEECH FAMILY.
      • Fagus ferruginea, Ait.
        • Beech.
        • Plate XXXV.—Fagus ferruginea.
      • Beech.
      • Plate XXXV.—Fagus ferruginea.
      • Castanea sativa, var. Americana, Watson and Coulter.
        • Chestnut.
        • Plate XXXVI.—Castanea sativa, var. Americana.
      • Chestnut.
      • Plate XXXVI.—Castanea sativa, var. Americana.
      • QUERCUS.
        • White Oaks.
        • Black Oaks.
      • White Oaks.
      • Black Oaks.
      • Quercus alba, L.
        • White Oak.
        • Plate XXXVII.—Quercus alba.
      • White Oak.
      • Plate XXXVII.—Quercus alba.
      • Quercus stellata, Wang.
        • Post Oak. Box White Oak.
        • Plate XXXVIII.—Quercus stellata.
      • Post Oak. Box White Oak.
      • Plate XXXVIII.—Quercus stellata.
      • Quercus macrocarpa, Michx.
        • Bur Oak. Over-cup Oak. Mossy-cup Oak.
        • Plate XXXIX.—Quercus macrocarpa.
      • Bur Oak. Over-cup Oak. Mossy-cup Oak.
      • Plate XXXIX.—Quercus macrocarpa.
      • Quercus bicolor, Willd.
        • Swamp White Oak.
        • Plate XL.—Quercus bicolor.
      • Swamp White Oak.
      • Plate XL.—Quercus bicolor.
      • Quercus Prinus, L.
        • Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak.
        • Plate XLI.—Quercus Prinus.
      • Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak.
      • Plate XLI.—Quercus Prinus.
      • Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm.
        • Chestnut Oak.
        • Plate XLII.—Quercus Muhlenbergii.
      • Chestnut Oak.
      • Plate XLII.—Quercus Muhlenbergii.
      • Quercus prinoides, Willd.
        • Scrub White Oak. Scrub Chestnut Oak.
      • Scrub White Oak. Scrub Chestnut Oak.
      • Quercus rubra, L.
        • Red Oak.
        • Plate XLIII.—Quercus rubra.
      • Red Oak.
      • Plate XLIII.—Quercus rubra.
      • Quercus coccinea, Wang.
        • Scarlet Oak.
        • Plate XLIV.—Quercus coccinea.
      • Scarlet Oak.
      • Plate XLIV.—Quercus coccinea.
      • Quercus velutina, Lam.
        • Black Oak. Yellow Oak.
        • Plate XLV.—Quercus velutina.
      • Black Oak. Yellow Oak.
      • Plate XLV.—Quercus velutina.
      • Quercus palustris, Du Roi.
        • Pin Oak. Swamp Oak. Water Oak.
        • Plate XLVI.—Quercus palustris.
      • Pin Oak. Swamp Oak. Water Oak.
      • Plate XLVI.—Quercus palustris.
      • Quercus ilicifolia, Wang.
        • Scrub Oak. Bear Oak.
        • Plate XLVII.—Quercus ilicifolia.
      • Scrub Oak. Bear Oak.
      • Plate XLVII.—Quercus ilicifolia.
    • Fagus ferruginea, Ait.
      • Beech.
      • Plate XXXV.—Fagus ferruginea.
    • Beech.
    • Plate XXXV.—Fagus ferruginea.
    • Castanea sativa, var. Americana, Watson and Coulter.
      • Chestnut.
      • Plate XXXVI.—Castanea sativa, var. Americana.
    • Chestnut.
    • Plate XXXVI.—Castanea sativa, var. Americana.
    • QUERCUS.
      • White Oaks.
      • Black Oaks.
    • White Oaks.
    • Black Oaks.
    • Quercus alba, L.
      • White Oak.
      • Plate XXXVII.—Quercus alba.
    • White Oak.
    • Plate XXXVII.—Quercus alba.
    • Quercus stellata, Wang.
      • Post Oak. Box White Oak.
      • Plate XXXVIII.—Quercus stellata.
    • Post Oak. Box White Oak.
    • Plate XXXVIII.—Quercus stellata.
    • Quercus macrocarpa, Michx.
      • Bur Oak. Over-cup Oak. Mossy-cup Oak.
      • Plate XXXIX.—Quercus macrocarpa.
    • Bur Oak. Over-cup Oak. Mossy-cup Oak.
    • Plate XXXIX.—Quercus macrocarpa.
    • Quercus bicolor, Willd.
      • Swamp White Oak.
      • Plate XL.—Quercus bicolor.
    • Swamp White Oak.
    • Plate XL.—Quercus bicolor.
    • Quercus Prinus, L.
      • Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak.
      • Plate XLI.—Quercus Prinus.
    • Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak.
    • Plate XLI.—Quercus Prinus.
    • Quercus Muhlenbergii, Engelm.
      • Chestnut Oak.
      • Plate XLII.—Quercus Muhlenbergii.
    • Chestnut Oak.
    • Plate XLII.—Quercus Muhlenbergii.
    • Quercus prinoides, Willd.
      • Scrub White Oak. Scrub Chestnut Oak.
    • Scrub White Oak. Scrub Chestnut Oak.
    • Quercus rubra, L.
      • Red Oak.
      • Plate XLIII.—Quercus rubra.
    • Red Oak.
    • Plate XLIII.—Quercus rubra.
    • Quercus coccinea, Wang.
      • Scarlet Oak.
      • Plate XLIV.—Quercus coccinea.
    • Scarlet Oak.
    • Plate XLIV.—Quercus coccinea.
    • Quercus velutina, Lam.
      • Black Oak. Yellow Oak.
      • Plate XLV.—Quercus velutina.
    • Black Oak. Yellow Oak.
    • Plate XLV.—Quercus velutina.
    • Quercus palustris, Du Roi.
      • Pin Oak. Swamp Oak. Water Oak.
      • Plate XLVI.—Quercus palustris.
    • Pin Oak. Swamp Oak. Water Oak.
    • Plate XLVI.—Quercus palustris.
    • Quercus ilicifolia, Wang.
      • Scrub Oak. Bear Oak.
      • Plate XLVII.—Quercus ilicifolia.
    • Scrub Oak. Bear Oak.
    • Plate XLVII.—Quercus ilicifolia.
    • ULMACEÆ. ELM FAMILY.
      • Ulmus Americana, L.
        • Elm. American Elm. White Elm.
        • Plate XLVIII.—Ulmus Americana.
      • Elm. American Elm. White Elm.
      • Plate XLVIII.—Ulmus Americana.
      • Ulmus fulva, Michx.
        • Slippery Elm. Red Elm.
        • Plate XLIX.—Ulmus fulva.
      • Slippery Elm. Red Elm.
      • Plate XLIX.—Ulmus fulva.
      • Ulmus racemosa, Thomas.
        • Cork Elm. Rock Elm.
        • Plate L.—Ulmus racemosa.
      • Cork Elm. Rock Elm.
      • Plate L.—Ulmus racemosa.
      • Celtis occidentalis, L.
        • Hackberry. Nettle Tree. Hoop Ash. Sugar Berry.
        • Plate LI.—Celtis occidentalis.
      • Hackberry. Nettle Tree. Hoop Ash. Sugar Berry.
      • Plate LI.—Celtis occidentalis.
    • Ulmus Americana, L.
      • Elm. American Elm. White Elm.
      • Plate XLVIII.—Ulmus Americana.
    • Elm. American Elm. White Elm.
    • Plate XLVIII.—Ulmus Americana.
    • Ulmus fulva, Michx.
      • Slippery Elm. Red Elm.
      • Plate XLIX.—Ulmus fulva.
    • Slippery Elm. Red Elm.
    • Plate XLIX.—Ulmus fulva.
    • Ulmus racemosa, Thomas.
      • Cork Elm. Rock Elm.
      • Plate L.—Ulmus racemosa.
    • Cork Elm. Rock Elm.
    • Plate L.—Ulmus racemosa.
    • Celtis occidentalis, L.
      • Hackberry. Nettle Tree. Hoop Ash. Sugar Berry.
      • Plate LI.—Celtis occidentalis.
    • Hackberry. Nettle Tree. Hoop Ash. Sugar Berry.
    • Plate LI.—Celtis occidentalis.
    • MORACEÆ. MULBERRY FAMILY.
      • Morus rubra, L.
        • Mulberry.
        • Plate LII.—Morus rubra.
      • Mulberry.
      • Plate LII.—Morus rubra.
      • Morus alba, L.
    • Morus rubra, L.
      • Mulberry.
      • Plate LII.—Morus rubra.
    • Mulberry.
    • Plate LII.—Morus rubra.
    • Morus alba, L.
    • MAGNOLIACEÆ. MAGNOLIA FAMILY.
      • Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.
        • Tulip Tree. Whitewood. Poplar.
        • Plate LIII.—Liriodendron Tulipifera.
      • Tulip Tree. Whitewood. Poplar.
      • Plate LIII.—Liriodendron Tulipifera.
    • Liriodendron Tulipifera, L.
      • Tulip Tree. Whitewood. Poplar.
      • Plate LIII.—Liriodendron Tulipifera.
    • Tulip Tree. Whitewood. Poplar.
    • Plate LIII.—Liriodendron Tulipifera.
    • LAURACEÆ. LAUREL FAMILY.
      • Sassafras officinale, Nees.
        • Sassafras.
        • Plate LIV.—Sassafras officinale.
      • Sassafras.
      • Plate LIV.—Sassafras officinale.
    • Sassafras officinale, Nees.
      • Sassafras.
      • Plate LIV.—Sassafras officinale.
    • Sassafras.
    • Plate LIV.—Sassafras officinale.
    • HAMAMELIDACEÆ. WITCH HAZEL FAMILY.
      • Liquidambar Styraciflua, L.
        • Sweet Gum.
        • Plate LV.—Liquidambar styraciflua.
      • Sweet Gum.
      • Plate LV.—Liquidambar styraciflua.
    • Liquidambar Styraciflua, L.
      • Sweet Gum.
      • Plate LV.—Liquidambar styraciflua.
    • Sweet Gum.
    • Plate LV.—Liquidambar styraciflua.
    • PLATANACEÆ. PLANE-TREE FAMILY.
      • Platanus occidentalis, L.
        • Buttonwood. Sycamore. Buttonball. Plane Tree.
        • Plate LVI.—Platanus occidentalis.
      • Buttonwood. Sycamore. Buttonball. Plane Tree.
      • Plate LVI.—Platanus occidentalis.
    • Platanus occidentalis, L.
      • Buttonwood. Sycamore. Buttonball. Plane Tree.
      • Plate LVI.—Platanus occidentalis.
    • Buttonwood. Sycamore. Buttonball. Plane Tree.
    • Plate LVI.—Platanus occidentalis.
    • POMACEÆ. APPLE FAMILY.
      • Pyrus. Malus. Amelanchier. Cratægus.
      • Pyrus Americana, DC.
        • Mountain Ash.
        • Plate LVII.—Pyrus Americana.
      • Mountain Ash.
      • Plate LVII.—Pyrus Americana.
      • Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht.
        • Mountain Ash.
        • Plate LVIII.—Pyrus sambucifolia.
      • Mountain Ash.
      • Plate LVIII.—Pyrus sambucifolia.
      • Pyrus communis, L.
        • Pear Tree.
      • Pear Tree.
      • Pyrus Malus, L.
        • Apple Tree.
      • Apple Tree.
      • Amelanchier Canadensis, Medic.
        • Shadbush. June-berry.
        • Plate LIX.—Amelanchier Canadensis.
      • Shadbush. June-berry.
      • Plate LIX.—Amelanchier Canadensis.
      • Cratægus.
      • Cratægus Crus-Galli, L.
        • Cockspur Thorn.
      • Cockspur Thorn.
      • Cratægus punctata, Jacq.
      • Cratægus coccinea, L.
      • Cratægus mollis, Scheele.
        • Thorn.
        • Plate LX.—Cratægus mollis.
      • Thorn.
      • Plate LX.—Cratægus mollis.
    • Pyrus. Malus. Amelanchier. Cratægus.
    • Pyrus Americana, DC.
      • Mountain Ash.
      • Plate LVII.—Pyrus Americana.
    • Mountain Ash.
    • Plate LVII.—Pyrus Americana.
    • Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht.
      • Mountain Ash.
      • Plate LVIII.—Pyrus sambucifolia.
    • Mountain Ash.
    • Plate LVIII.—Pyrus sambucifolia.
    • Pyrus communis, L.
      • Pear Tree.
    • Pear Tree.
    • Pyrus Malus, L.
      • Apple Tree.
    • Apple Tree.
    • Amelanchier Canadensis, Medic.
      • Shadbush. June-berry.
      • Plate LIX.—Amelanchier Canadensis.
    • Shadbush. June-berry.
    • Plate LIX.—Amelanchier Canadensis.
    • Cratægus.
    • Cratægus Crus-Galli, L.
      • Cockspur Thorn.
    • Cockspur Thorn.
    • Cratægus punctata, Jacq.
    • Cratægus coccinea, L.
    • Cratægus mollis, Scheele.
      • Thorn.
      • Plate LX.—Cratægus mollis.
    • Thorn.
    • Plate LX.—Cratægus mollis.
    • DRUPACEÆ. PLUM FAMILY.
      • Prunus nigra, Ait.
        • Wild Plum. Red Plum. Horse Plum. Canada Plum.
        • Plate LXI.—Prunus nigra.
      • Wild Plum. Red Plum. Horse Plum. Canada Plum.
      • Plate LXI.—Prunus nigra.
      • Prunus Americana, Marsh.
        • Plate LXII.—Prunus Americana.
      • Plate LXII.—Prunus Americana.
      • Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f.
        • Red Cherry. Pin Cherry. Pigeon Cherry. Bird Cherry.
        • Plate LXIII.—Prunus Pennsylvanica.
      • Red Cherry. Pin Cherry. Pigeon Cherry. Bird Cherry.
      • Plate LXIII.—Prunus Pennsylvanica.
      • Prunus Virginiana, L.
        • Chokecherry.
        • Plate LXIV.—Prunus Virginia.
      • Chokecherry.
      • Plate LXIV.—Prunus Virginia.
      • Prunus serotina, Ehrh.
        • Rum Cherry. Black Cherry.
        • Plate LXV.—Prunus serotina.
      • Rum Cherry. Black Cherry.
      • Plate LXV.—Prunus serotina.
      • Prunus Avium, L.
        • Mazard Cherry.
      • Mazard Cherry.
    • Prunus nigra, Ait.
      • Wild Plum. Red Plum. Horse Plum. Canada Plum.
      • Plate LXI.—Prunus nigra.
    • Wild Plum. Red Plum. Horse Plum. Canada Plum.
    • Plate LXI.—Prunus nigra.
    • Prunus Americana, Marsh.
      • Plate LXII.—Prunus Americana.
    • Plate LXII.—Prunus Americana.
    • Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f.
      • Red Cherry. Pin Cherry. Pigeon Cherry. Bird Cherry.
      • Plate LXIII.—Prunus Pennsylvanica.
    • Red Cherry. Pin Cherry. Pigeon Cherry. Bird Cherry.
    • Plate LXIII.—Prunus Pennsylvanica.
    • Prunus Virginiana, L.
      • Chokecherry.
      • Plate LXIV.—Prunus Virginia.
    • Chokecherry.
    • Plate LXIV.—Prunus Virginia.
    • Prunus serotina, Ehrh.
      • Rum Cherry. Black Cherry.
      • Plate LXV.—Prunus serotina.
    • Rum Cherry. Black Cherry.
    • Plate LXV.—Prunus serotina.
    • Prunus Avium, L.
      • Mazard Cherry.
    • Mazard Cherry.
    • LEGUMINOSÆ. PULSE FAMILY.
      • Gleditsia triacanthos, L.
        • Honey Locust. Three-thorned Acacia.
        • Plate LXVI.—Gleditsia triacanthos.
      • Honey Locust. Three-thorned Acacia.
      • Plate LXVI.—Gleditsia triacanthos.
      • Robinia Pseudacacia, L.
        • Locust.
        • Plate LXVII.—Robinia Pseudacacia.
      • Locust.
      • Plate LXVII.—Robinia Pseudacacia.
      • Robinia viscosa, Vent.
        • Clammy Locust.
      • Clammy Locust.
    • Gleditsia triacanthos, L.
      • Honey Locust. Three-thorned Acacia.
      • Plate LXVI.—Gleditsia triacanthos.
    • Honey Locust. Three-thorned Acacia.
    • Plate LXVI.—Gleditsia triacanthos.
    • Robinia Pseudacacia, L.
      • Locust.
      • Plate LXVII.—Robinia Pseudacacia.
    • Locust.
    • Plate LXVII.—Robinia Pseudacacia.
    • Robinia viscosa, Vent.
      • Clammy Locust.
    • Clammy Locust.
    • SIMARUBACEÆ. AILANTHUS FAMILY.
      • Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf.
        • Ailanthus. Tree-of-heaven. Chinese Sumac.
      • Ailanthus. Tree-of-heaven. Chinese Sumac.
    • Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf.
      • Ailanthus. Tree-of-heaven. Chinese Sumac.
    • Ailanthus. Tree-of-heaven. Chinese Sumac.
    • ANACARDIACEÆ. SUMAC FAMILY.
      • Rhus typhina, L.
        • Staghorn Sumac.
        • Plate LXVIII.—Rhus typhina.
      • Staghorn Sumac.
      • Plate LXVIII.—Rhus typhina.
      • Rhus Vernix, L.
        • Dogwood. Poison Sumac. Poison Elder.
        • Plate LXIX.—Rhus Vernix.
      • Dogwood. Poison Sumac. Poison Elder.
      • Plate LXIX.—Rhus Vernix.
    • Rhus typhina, L.
      • Staghorn Sumac.
      • Plate LXVIII.—Rhus typhina.
    • Staghorn Sumac.
    • Plate LXVIII.—Rhus typhina.
    • Rhus Vernix, L.
      • Dogwood. Poison Sumac. Poison Elder.
      • Plate LXIX.—Rhus Vernix.
    • Dogwood. Poison Sumac. Poison Elder.
    • Plate LXIX.—Rhus Vernix.
    • AQUIFOLIACEÆ. HOLLY FAMILY.
      • Ilex opaca, Ait.
        • Holly. American Holly.
        • Plate LXX.—Ilex opaca.
      • Holly. American Holly.
      • Plate LXX.—Ilex opaca.
    • Ilex opaca, Ait.
      • Holly. American Holly.
      • Plate LXX.—Ilex opaca.
    • Holly. American Holly.
    • Plate LXX.—Ilex opaca.
    • ACERACEÆ. MAPLE FAMILY.
      • Acer rubrum, L.
        • Red Maple. Swamp Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple.
        • Plate LXXI.—Acer rubrum.
      • Red Maple. Swamp Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple.
      • Plate LXXI.—Acer rubrum.
      • Acer saccharinum, L.
        • Silver Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple. River Maple.
        • Plate LXXII.—Acer saccharinum.
      • Silver Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple. River Maple.
      • Plate LXXII.—Acer saccharinum.
      • Acer Saccharum, Marsh.
        • Rock Maple. Sugar Maple. Hard Maple. Sugar Tree.
        • Plate LXXIII.—Acer saccharum.
      • Rock Maple. Sugar Maple. Hard Maple. Sugar Tree.
      • Plate LXXIII.—Acer saccharum.
      • Acer saccharum, Marsh., var. nigrum, Britton.
        • Black Maple.
        • Plate LXXIV.—Acer Saccharum, var. nigrum.
      • Black Maple.
      • Plate LXXIV.—Acer Saccharum, var. nigrum.
      • Acer spicatum, Lam.
        • Mountain Maple.
        • Plate LXXV.—Acer spicatum.
      • Mountain Maple.
      • Plate LXXV.—Acer spicatum.
      • Acer Pennsylvanicum, L.
        • Striped Maple. Moosewood. Whistlewood.
        • Plate LXXVI.—Acer Pennsylvanicum.
      • Striped Maple. Moosewood. Whistlewood.
      • Plate LXXVI.—Acer Pennsylvanicum.
      • Acer Negundo, L.
        • Box Elder. Ash-leaved Maple.
        • Plate LXXVII.—Acer Negundo.
      • Box Elder. Ash-leaved Maple.
      • Plate LXXVII.—Acer Negundo.
    • Acer rubrum, L.
      • Red Maple. Swamp Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple.
      • Plate LXXI.—Acer rubrum.
    • Red Maple. Swamp Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple.
    • Plate LXXI.—Acer rubrum.
    • Acer saccharinum, L.
      • Silver Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple. River Maple.
      • Plate LXXII.—Acer saccharinum.
    • Silver Maple. Soft Maple. White Maple. River Maple.
    • Plate LXXII.—Acer saccharinum.
    • Acer Saccharum, Marsh.
      • Rock Maple. Sugar Maple. Hard Maple. Sugar Tree.
      • Plate LXXIII.—Acer saccharum.
    • Rock Maple. Sugar Maple. Hard Maple. Sugar Tree.
    • Plate LXXIII.—Acer saccharum.
    • Acer saccharum, Marsh., var. nigrum, Britton.
      • Black Maple.
      • Plate LXXIV.—Acer Saccharum, var. nigrum.
    • Black Maple.
    • Plate LXXIV.—Acer Saccharum, var. nigrum.
    • Acer spicatum, Lam.
      • Mountain Maple.
      • Plate LXXV.—Acer spicatum.
    • Mountain Maple.
    • Plate LXXV.—Acer spicatum.
    • Acer Pennsylvanicum, L.
      • Striped Maple. Moosewood. Whistlewood.
      • Plate LXXVI.—Acer Pennsylvanicum.
    • Striped Maple. Moosewood. Whistlewood.
    • Plate LXXVI.—Acer Pennsylvanicum.
    • Acer Negundo, L.
      • Box Elder. Ash-leaved Maple.
      • Plate LXXVII.—Acer Negundo.
    • Box Elder. Ash-leaved Maple.
    • Plate LXXVII.—Acer Negundo.
    • TILIACEÆ. LINDEN FAMILY.
      • Tilia Americana, L.
        • Basswood. Linden. Lime. Whitewood.
        • Plate LXXVIII.—Tilia Americana.
      • Basswood. Linden. Lime. Whitewood.
      • Plate LXXVIII.—Tilia Americana.
    • Tilia Americana, L.
      • Basswood. Linden. Lime. Whitewood.
      • Plate LXXVIII.—Tilia Americana.
    • Basswood. Linden. Lime. Whitewood.
    • Plate LXXVIII.—Tilia Americana.
    • CORNACEÆ. DOGWOOD FAMILY.
      • Cornus florida, L.
        • Flowering Dogwood. Boxwood.
        • Plate LXXIX.—Cornus florida.
      • Flowering Dogwood. Boxwood.
      • Plate LXXIX.—Cornus florida.
      • Cornus alternifolia, L. f.
        • Dogwood. Green Osier.
        • Plate LXXX.—Cornus alternifolia.
      • Dogwood. Green Osier.
      • Plate LXXX.—Cornus alternifolia.
      • Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.
        • Tupelo. Sour Gum. Pepperidge.
        • Plate LXXXI.—Nyssa sylvatica.
      • Tupelo. Sour Gum. Pepperidge.
      • Plate LXXXI.—Nyssa sylvatica.
    • Cornus florida, L.
      • Flowering Dogwood. Boxwood.
      • Plate LXXIX.—Cornus florida.
    • Flowering Dogwood. Boxwood.
    • Plate LXXIX.—Cornus florida.
    • Cornus alternifolia, L. f.
      • Dogwood. Green Osier.
      • Plate LXXX.—Cornus alternifolia.
    • Dogwood. Green Osier.
    • Plate LXXX.—Cornus alternifolia.
    • Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh.
      • Tupelo. Sour Gum. Pepperidge.
      • Plate LXXXI.—Nyssa sylvatica.
    • Tupelo. Sour Gum. Pepperidge.
    • Plate LXXXI.—Nyssa sylvatica.
    • EBENACEÆ. EBONY FAMILY.
      • Diospyros Virginiana, L.
        • Persimmon.
        • Plate LXXXII.—Diospyros Virginiana.
      • Persimmon.
      • Plate LXXXII.—Diospyros Virginiana.
    • Diospyros Virginiana, L.
      • Persimmon.
      • Plate LXXXII.—Diospyros Virginiana.
    • Persimmon.
    • Plate LXXXII.—Diospyros Virginiana.
    • OLEACEÆ. OLIVE FAMILY.
      • Fraxinus Americana, L.
        • White Ash.
        • Plate LXXXIII.—Fraxinus Americana.
      • White Ash.
      • Plate LXXXIII.—Fraxinus Americana.
      • Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.
        • Red Ash. Brown Ash. River Ash.
        • Plate LXXXIV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica.
      • Red Ash. Brown Ash. River Ash.
      • Plate LXXXIV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica.
      • Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata, Sarg.
        • Green Ash.
        • Plate LXXXV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. ceolata.
      • Green Ash.
      • Plate LXXXV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. ceolata.
      • Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.
        • Black Ash. Swamp Ash. Basket Ash. Hoop Ash. Brown Ash.
        • Plate LXXXVI.—Fraxinus nigra.
      • Black Ash. Swamp Ash. Basket Ash. Hoop Ash. Brown Ash.
      • Plate LXXXVI.—Fraxinus nigra.
    • Fraxinus Americana, L.
      • White Ash.
      • Plate LXXXIII.—Fraxinus Americana.
    • White Ash.
    • Plate LXXXIII.—Fraxinus Americana.
    • Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, Marsh.
      • Red Ash. Brown Ash. River Ash.
      • Plate LXXXIV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica.
    • Red Ash. Brown Ash. River Ash.
    • Plate LXXXIV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica.
    • Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata, Sarg.
      • Green Ash.
      • Plate LXXXV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. ceolata.
    • Green Ash.
    • Plate LXXXV.—Fraxinus Pennsylvanica, var. ceolata.
    • Fraxinus nigra, Marsh.
      • Black Ash. Swamp Ash. Basket Ash. Hoop Ash. Brown Ash.
      • Plate LXXXVI.—Fraxinus nigra.
    • Black Ash. Swamp Ash. Basket Ash. Hoop Ash. Brown Ash.
    • Plate LXXXVI.—Fraxinus nigra.
    • CAPRIFOLIACEÆ. HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY.
      • Viburnum Lentago, L.
        • Sheep Berry. Sweet Viburnum. Nanny Plum.
        • Plate LXXXVII.—Viburnum Lentago.
      • Sheep Berry. Sweet Viburnum. Nanny Plum.
      • Plate LXXXVII.—Viburnum Lentago.
    • Viburnum Lentago, L.
      • Sheep Berry. Sweet Viburnum. Nanny Plum.
      • Plate LXXXVII.—Viburnum Lentago.
    • Sheep Berry. Sweet Viburnum. Nanny Plum.
    • Plate LXXXVII.—Viburnum Lentago.
    • APPENDIX.
    • GLOSSARY.
    • INDEX.
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