An Illustrated History of Ireland from AD 400 to 1800
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An Illustrated History of Ireland from AD 400 to 1800

By Mary Frances Cusack
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  • The Project Gutenberg eBook, An Illustrated History of Ireland from AD 400 to 1800, by Mary Frances Cusack, Illustrated by Henry Doyle
    • E-text prepared by Project Rastko, Zoran Stefanovic, Nenad Petrovic, Susan Skinner, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team
    • AN ILLUSTRATED
  • HISTORY OF IRELAND
    • From AD 400 to 1800
      • Mary Frances Cusack
        • 'The Nun of Kenmare'
        • Illustrations by
        • Henry Doyle
        • TO THE
      • 'The Nun of Kenmare'
      • Illustrations by
      • Henry Doyle
      • TO THE
      • RIGHT HONORABLE JUDGE O'HAGAN,
        • AND TO
      • AND TO
      • HIS SISTER MARY,
        • THIS VOLUME
        • IS AFFECTIONATELY AND RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
      • THIS VOLUME
      • IS AFFECTIONATELY AND RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
      • By
      • The Author.
    • Mary Frances Cusack
      • 'The Nun of Kenmare'
      • Illustrations by
      • Henry Doyle
      • TO THE
    • 'The Nun of Kenmare'
    • Illustrations by
    • Henry Doyle
    • TO THE
    • RIGHT HONORABLE JUDGE O'HAGAN,
      • AND TO
    • AND TO
    • HIS SISTER MARY,
      • THIS VOLUME
      • IS AFFECTIONATELY AND RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
    • THIS VOLUME
    • IS AFFECTIONATELY AND RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
    • By
    • The Author.
    • List of Full-Page Illustrations
      • ETC.
    • ETC.
    • Table of Contents
    • PREFACE
      • TO THE SECOND EDITION.
    • TO THE SECOND EDITION.
    • PREFACE
      • TO THE FIRST EDITION.
        • The Emigrants' Farewell.
      • The Emigrants' Farewell.
      • AN
    • TO THE FIRST EDITION.
      • The Emigrants' Farewell.
    • The Emigrants' Farewell.
    • AN
    • ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF IRELAND.
    • CHAPTER I
      • Celtic Literature—Antiquity of our Annals—Moore—How we should estimate Tradition—The Materials for Irish History—List of the Lost Books—The Cuilmenn—The Saltair of Tara, &c.—The Saltair of Cashel—Important MSS. preserved in Trinity College—By the Royal Irish Academy—In Belgium.
        • SITE OF TARA.
        • (A) MS. in the "Domhnach Airgid," [R.I.A. (temp. St. Patrick, circa A.D. 430.)]
        • (B) MS. in the "Cathach," (6th century MS attributed to St. Colum Cillé)
        • DOORWAY OF CLONMACNOIS.
        • CLONMACNOIS.
      • SITE OF TARA.
      • (A) MS. in the "Domhnach Airgid," [R.I.A. (temp. St. Patrick, circa A.D. 430.)]
      • (B) MS. in the "Cathach," (6th century MS attributed to St. Colum Cillé)
      • DOORWAY OF CLONMACNOIS.
      • CLONMACNOIS.
    • Celtic Literature—Antiquity of our Annals—Moore—How we should estimate Tradition—The Materials for Irish History—List of the Lost Books—The Cuilmenn—The Saltair of Tara, &c.—The Saltair of Cashel—Important MSS. preserved in Trinity College—By the Royal Irish Academy—In Belgium.
      • SITE OF TARA.
      • (A) MS. in the "Domhnach Airgid," [R.I.A. (temp. St. Patrick, circa A.D. 430.)]
      • (B) MS. in the "Cathach," (6th century MS attributed to St. Colum Cillé)
      • DOORWAY OF CLONMACNOIS.
      • CLONMACNOIS.
    • SITE OF TARA.
    • (A) MS. in the "Domhnach Airgid," [R.I.A. (temp. St. Patrick, circa A.D. 430.)]
    • (B) MS. in the "Cathach," (6th century MS attributed to St. Colum Cillé)
    • DOORWAY OF CLONMACNOIS.
    • CLONMACNOIS.
    • CHAPTER II.
      • Tighernach and his Annals—Erudition and Research of our Early Writers—The Chronicum Scotorum—Duald Mac Firbis—Murdered, and his Murderer is protected by the Penal Laws—The Annals of the Four Masters—Michael O'Clery—His Devotion to his Country—Ward—Colgan—Dedication of the Annals—The Book of Invasions—Proofs of our Early Colonization.
        • BEREHAVEN
      • BEREHAVEN
    • Tighernach and his Annals—Erudition and Research of our Early Writers—The Chronicum Scotorum—Duald Mac Firbis—Murdered, and his Murderer is protected by the Penal Laws—The Annals of the Four Masters—Michael O'Clery—His Devotion to his Country—Ward—Colgan—Dedication of the Annals—The Book of Invasions—Proofs of our Early Colonization.
      • BEREHAVEN
    • BEREHAVEN
    • CHAPTER III.
      • First Colonists—The Landing of Ceasair, before the Flood—Landing of Partholan, after the Flood, at Inver Scene—Arrival of Nemedh—The Fomorians—Emigration of the Nemenians—The Firbolgs—Division of Ireland by the Firbolg Chiefs—The Tuatha Dé Dananns—Their Skill as Artificers—Nuada of the Silver Hand—The Warriors Sreng and Breas—The Satire of Cairbré—Termination of the Fomorian Dynasty.
        • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
        • CAVITY, CONTAINING OVAL BASIN. NEW GRANGE.
        • THE SEVEN CASTLES OF CLONMINES
      • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • CAVITY, CONTAINING OVAL BASIN. NEW GRANGE.
      • THE SEVEN CASTLES OF CLONMINES
    • First Colonists—The Landing of Ceasair, before the Flood—Landing of Partholan, after the Flood, at Inver Scene—Arrival of Nemedh—The Fomorians—Emigration of the Nemenians—The Firbolgs—Division of Ireland by the Firbolg Chiefs—The Tuatha Dé Dananns—Their Skill as Artificers—Nuada of the Silver Hand—The Warriors Sreng and Breas—The Satire of Cairbré—Termination of the Fomorian Dynasty.
      • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • CAVITY, CONTAINING OVAL BASIN. NEW GRANGE.
      • THE SEVEN CASTLES OF CLONMINES
    • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
    • CAVITY, CONTAINING OVAL BASIN. NEW GRANGE.
    • THE SEVEN CASTLES OF CLONMINES
    • CHAPTER IV.
      • The Scythians Colonists—Testimony of Josephus—Magog and his Colony—Statements of our Annals confirmed by a Jewish Writer—By Herodotus—Nennius relates what is told by the "Most Learned of the Scoti"—Phoenician Circumnavigation of Africa—Phoenician Colonization of Spain—Iberus and Himerus—Traditions of Partholan—Early Geographical Accounts of Ireland—Early Social Accounts of Ireland.
        • CROSS AT GLENDALOUGH, CO. WICKLOW.
        • CROMLECH AT DUNMORE, WATERFORD.
      • CROSS AT GLENDALOUGH, CO. WICKLOW.
      • CROMLECH AT DUNMORE, WATERFORD.
    • The Scythians Colonists—Testimony of Josephus—Magog and his Colony—Statements of our Annals confirmed by a Jewish Writer—By Herodotus—Nennius relates what is told by the "Most Learned of the Scoti"—Phoenician Circumnavigation of Africa—Phoenician Colonization of Spain—Iberus and Himerus—Traditions of Partholan—Early Geographical Accounts of Ireland—Early Social Accounts of Ireland.
      • CROSS AT GLENDALOUGH, CO. WICKLOW.
      • CROMLECH AT DUNMORE, WATERFORD.
    • CROSS AT GLENDALOUGH, CO. WICKLOW.
    • CROMLECH AT DUNMORE, WATERFORD.
    • CHAPTER V.
      • Landing of the Milesians—Traditions of the Tuatha Dé Dananns in St. Patrick's time—The Lia Fail, or Stone of Destiny—The Milesians go back to sea "nine waves"—They conquer ultimately—Reign of Eremon—Landing of the Picts—Bede's Account of Ireland—Fame of its Fish and Goats—Difficulties of Irish Chronology—Importance and Authenticity of Irish Pedigrees—Qualifications of an Ollamh—Milesian Genealogies—Historical Value of Pedigrees—National Feelings should be respected—Historic Tales—Poems.
        • ANCIENT FLINT AXE.
        • FROM SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
        • ROUND TOWER OF DYSART, NEAR CROOM, LIMERICK.
      • ANCIENT FLINT AXE.
      • FROM SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
      • ROUND TOWER OF DYSART, NEAR CROOM, LIMERICK.
    • Landing of the Milesians—Traditions of the Tuatha Dé Dananns in St. Patrick's time—The Lia Fail, or Stone of Destiny—The Milesians go back to sea "nine waves"—They conquer ultimately—Reign of Eremon—Landing of the Picts—Bede's Account of Ireland—Fame of its Fish and Goats—Difficulties of Irish Chronology—Importance and Authenticity of Irish Pedigrees—Qualifications of an Ollamh—Milesian Genealogies—Historical Value of Pedigrees—National Feelings should be respected—Historic Tales—Poems.
      • ANCIENT FLINT AXE.
      • FROM SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
      • ROUND TOWER OF DYSART, NEAR CROOM, LIMERICK.
    • ANCIENT FLINT AXE.
    • FROM SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • ROUND TOWER OF DYSART, NEAR CROOM, LIMERICK.
    • CHAPTER VI.
      • Tighearnmas—His Death—Introduces Colours as a Distinction of Rank—Silver Shields and Chariots first used—Reign of Ugainé Môr—The Treachery of Cobhthach—Romantic Tales—Queen Mab—Dispute which led to the celebrated Cattle Spoil—The Story of the Táin bó Chuailgné—The Romans feared to invade Ireland—Tacitus—Revolt of the Attacotti—Reign of Tuathal—Origin of the Boromean Tribute.
        • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
        • LOUGH HYNE.
        • ORATORY AT GALLARUS, CO. KERRY.
      • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • LOUGH HYNE.
      • ORATORY AT GALLARUS, CO. KERRY.
    • Tighearnmas—His Death—Introduces Colours as a Distinction of Rank—Silver Shields and Chariots first used—Reign of Ugainé Môr—The Treachery of Cobhthach—Romantic Tales—Queen Mab—Dispute which led to the celebrated Cattle Spoil—The Story of the Táin bó Chuailgné—The Romans feared to invade Ireland—Tacitus—Revolt of the Attacotti—Reign of Tuathal—Origin of the Boromean Tribute.
      • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • LOUGH HYNE.
      • ORATORY AT GALLARUS, CO. KERRY.
    • FLINT SPEAR-HEAD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
    • LOUGH HYNE.
    • ORATORY AT GALLARUS, CO. KERRY.
    • CHAPTER VII.
      • Tuathal-Conn "of the Hundred Battles"—The Five Great Roads of Ancient Erinn—Conn's Half—Conairé II.—The Three Cairbrés—Cormac Mac Airt—His Wise Decision—Collects Laws—His Personal Appearance-The Saltair of Tara written in Cormac's Reign—Finn Mac Cumhaill—His Courtship with the Princess Ailbhé—The Pursuit of Diarmaid and Grainné—Nial "of the Nine Hostages"—Dathi.
        • GAP OF DUNLOE, KILLARNEY.
        • ARMAGH.
      • GAP OF DUNLOE, KILLARNEY.
      • ARMAGH.
    • Tuathal-Conn "of the Hundred Battles"—The Five Great Roads of Ancient Erinn—Conn's Half—Conairé II.—The Three Cairbrés—Cormac Mac Airt—His Wise Decision—Collects Laws—His Personal Appearance-The Saltair of Tara written in Cormac's Reign—Finn Mac Cumhaill—His Courtship with the Princess Ailbhé—The Pursuit of Diarmaid and Grainné—Nial "of the Nine Hostages"—Dathi.
      • GAP OF DUNLOE, KILLARNEY.
      • ARMAGH.
    • GAP OF DUNLOE, KILLARNEY.
    • ARMAGH.
    • CHAPTER VIII.
      • St. Patrick—How Ireland was first Christianized—Pagan Rome used providentially to promote the Faith—The Mission of St. Palladius—Innocent I. claims authority to found Churches and condemn Heresy—Disputes concerning St. Patrick's Birthplace—Ireland receives the Faith generously—Victoricus—St. Patrick's Vision—His Roman Mission clearly proved—Subterfuges of those who deny it—Ancient Lives of the Saint—St. Patrick's Canons—His Devotion and Submission to the Holy See.
        • ANCIENT SWORD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT HILLSWOOD, CO. GALWAY.
        • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
      • ANCIENT SWORD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT HILLSWOOD, CO. GALWAY.
      • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • St. Patrick—How Ireland was first Christianized—Pagan Rome used providentially to promote the Faith—The Mission of St. Palladius—Innocent I. claims authority to found Churches and condemn Heresy—Disputes concerning St. Patrick's Birthplace—Ireland receives the Faith generously—Victoricus—St. Patrick's Vision—His Roman Mission clearly proved—Subterfuges of those who deny it—Ancient Lives of the Saint—St. Patrick's Canons—His Devotion and Submission to the Holy See.
      • ANCIENT SWORD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT HILLSWOOD, CO. GALWAY.
      • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • ANCIENT SWORD, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT HILLSWOOD, CO. GALWAY.
    • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • CHAPTER IX.
      • St. Patrick visits Tara—Easter Sunday—St. Patrick's Hymn—Dubtach salute him—He overthrows the Idols at Magh Slecht—The Princesses Ethnea and Fethlimia—Their Conversion—Baptism of Aengus—St. Patrick travels through Ireland—His Success in Munster—He blesses the whole country from Cnoc Patrick—The First Irish Martyr—St. Patrick's Death—Pagan Prophecies—Conor Mac Nessa—Death of King Laeghairé—The Church did not and does not countenance Pagan Superstition—Oilioll Molt—Death of King Aengus—Foundation of the Kingdom of Scotland—St. Brigid—Shrines of the Three Saints—St Patrick's Prayer for Ireland, and its Fulfilment.
        • St. Patrick going to Tara.
        • ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
        • CROMLECH, AT CASTLE MARY, CLOYNE.
      • St. Patrick going to Tara.
      • ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
      • CROMLECH, AT CASTLE MARY, CLOYNE.
    • St. Patrick visits Tara—Easter Sunday—St. Patrick's Hymn—Dubtach salute him—He overthrows the Idols at Magh Slecht—The Princesses Ethnea and Fethlimia—Their Conversion—Baptism of Aengus—St. Patrick travels through Ireland—His Success in Munster—He blesses the whole country from Cnoc Patrick—The First Irish Martyr—St. Patrick's Death—Pagan Prophecies—Conor Mac Nessa—Death of King Laeghairé—The Church did not and does not countenance Pagan Superstition—Oilioll Molt—Death of King Aengus—Foundation of the Kingdom of Scotland—St. Brigid—Shrines of the Three Saints—St Patrick's Prayer for Ireland, and its Fulfilment.
      • St. Patrick going to Tara.
      • ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
      • CROMLECH, AT CASTLE MARY, CLOYNE.
    • St. Patrick going to Tara.
    • ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
    • CROMLECH, AT CASTLE MARY, CLOYNE.
    • CHAPTER X.
      • The Religion of Ancient Erinn—The Druids and their Teaching—The Irish were probably Fire-worshippers—The Customs of Ancient Erinn—Similarity between Eastern and Irish Customs—Beal Fires—Hunting the Wren—"Jacks," a Grecian game—"Keen," an Eastern Custom—Superstitions—The Meaning of the Word—What Customs are Superstitious and what are not—Holy Wells—The Laws of Ancient Erinn—Different kinds of Laws—The Lex non Scripta and the Lex Scripta—Christianity necessitated the Revision of Ancient Codes—The Compilation of the Brehon Laws—Proofs that St. Patrick assisted thereat—Law of Distress—Law of Succession—The Language of Ancient Erinn—Writing in pre-Christian Erinn—Ogham Writing— Antiquities of pre-Christian Erinn—Round Towers—Cromlechs—Raths—Crannoges.
        • RUNES FROM THE RUNIC CROSS AT RUTHWELL.
        • CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS.
        • The Quipus
        • Ogham stone
        • SAGRANI FILI CUNOTAMI
        • URN AND ITS CONTENTS FOUND IN A CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN.
        • GOLD HEAD-DRESS, R.I.A.
        • CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK. The urn and necklace, figured at page 154, were found in this tomb.
        • CLONDALKIN ROUND TOWER.
      • RUNES FROM THE RUNIC CROSS AT RUTHWELL.
      • CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS.
      • The Quipus
      • Ogham stone
      • SAGRANI FILI CUNOTAMI
      • URN AND ITS CONTENTS FOUND IN A CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN.
      • GOLD HEAD-DRESS, R.I.A.
      • CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK. The urn and necklace, figured at page 154, were found in this tomb.
      • CLONDALKIN ROUND TOWER.
    • The Religion of Ancient Erinn—The Druids and their Teaching—The Irish were probably Fire-worshippers—The Customs of Ancient Erinn—Similarity between Eastern and Irish Customs—Beal Fires—Hunting the Wren—"Jacks," a Grecian game—"Keen," an Eastern Custom—Superstitions—The Meaning of the Word—What Customs are Superstitious and what are not—Holy Wells—The Laws of Ancient Erinn—Different kinds of Laws—The Lex non Scripta and the Lex Scripta—Christianity necessitated the Revision of Ancient Codes—The Compilation of the Brehon Laws—Proofs that St. Patrick assisted thereat—Law of Distress—Law of Succession—The Language of Ancient Erinn—Writing in pre-Christian Erinn—Ogham Writing— Antiquities of pre-Christian Erinn—Round Towers—Cromlechs—Raths—Crannoges.
      • RUNES FROM THE RUNIC CROSS AT RUTHWELL.
      • CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS.
      • The Quipus
      • Ogham stone
      • SAGRANI FILI CUNOTAMI
      • URN AND ITS CONTENTS FOUND IN A CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN.
      • GOLD HEAD-DRESS, R.I.A.
      • CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK. The urn and necklace, figured at page 154, were found in this tomb.
      • CLONDALKIN ROUND TOWER.
    • RUNES FROM THE RUNIC CROSS AT RUTHWELL.
    • CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS.
    • The Quipus
    • Ogham stone
    • SAGRANI FILI CUNOTAMI
    • URN AND ITS CONTENTS FOUND IN A CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN.
    • GOLD HEAD-DRESS, R.I.A.
    • CROMLECH IN THE PHOENIX PARK. The urn and necklace, figured at page 154, were found in this tomb.
    • CLONDALKIN ROUND TOWER.
    • CHAPTER XI.
      • Pestilence of the Blefed—The Cursing of Tara by St. Rodanus—Extent and Importance of Ancient Tara—The First Mill in Ireland—The Lia Fail—Cormac's House—The Rath of the Synods—The Banqueting Hall—Chariots and Swords—St. Columba—St. Brendan and his Voyages—Pre-Columbian Discovery of America—The Plague again—St. Columba and St. Columbanus—Irish Saints and Irish Schools—Aengus the Culdee.
        • ANCIENT ADZE, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY.
        • CROSS AT FINGLAS.
      • ANCIENT ADZE, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY.
      • CROSS AT FINGLAS.
    • Pestilence of the Blefed—The Cursing of Tara by St. Rodanus—Extent and Importance of Ancient Tara—The First Mill in Ireland—The Lia Fail—Cormac's House—The Rath of the Synods—The Banqueting Hall—Chariots and Swords—St. Columba—St. Brendan and his Voyages—Pre-Columbian Discovery of America—The Plague again—St. Columba and St. Columbanus—Irish Saints and Irish Schools—Aengus the Culdee.
      • ANCIENT ADZE, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY.
      • CROSS AT FINGLAS.
    • ANCIENT ADZE, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY.
    • CROSS AT FINGLAS.
    • CHAPTER XII.
      • Christianity improves the Social State of Ireland—A Saxon Invasion of Ireland—Domestic Wars—The English come to Ireland for Instruction—A Famine and Tempests—The First Danish Invasion—Cruelty of the Danes—The Black and White Gentiles—King Cormac Mac Cullinan—Cashel—Amlaff the Dane—Plunder of the Towns—Arrival of Sitric—Death of Nial Glundubh—The Circuit of Ireland—Malachy the Second—Entries in the Annals.
        • ROCK OF CASHEL.
        • GREY MAN'S PATH, GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.
        • RATH AT LEIGHLIN, CARLOW
      • ROCK OF CASHEL.
      • GREY MAN'S PATH, GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.
      • RATH AT LEIGHLIN, CARLOW
    • Christianity improves the Social State of Ireland—A Saxon Invasion of Ireland—Domestic Wars—The English come to Ireland for Instruction—A Famine and Tempests—The First Danish Invasion—Cruelty of the Danes—The Black and White Gentiles—King Cormac Mac Cullinan—Cashel—Amlaff the Dane—Plunder of the Towns—Arrival of Sitric—Death of Nial Glundubh—The Circuit of Ireland—Malachy the Second—Entries in the Annals.
      • ROCK OF CASHEL.
      • GREY MAN'S PATH, GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.
      • RATH AT LEIGHLIN, CARLOW
    • ROCK OF CASHEL.
    • GREY MAN'S PATH, GIANT'S CAUSEWAY.
    • RATH AT LEIGHLIN, CARLOW
    • CHAPTER XIII.
      • The Battle of Dundalk—The Danes supposed to be Christianized—Brian Boroimhé and his Brother Mahoun—The Dalcassians fight the Danes—Mahoun is assassinated—Brian revenges his Brother's Murder—Malachy's Exploits against the Danes—Malachy and Brian form a Treaty and fight the Danes—Malachy wins "the Collar of Gold"—Brian's "Happy Family" at Kincora—He usurps the Supreme Power, and becomes Monarch of Ireland—Remote Causes of the Battle of Clontarf—Gormflaith is "grim" with Brian—Blockade of Dublin—The Danes prepare for a Fierce Conflict—Brian prepares also—The Battle of Clontarf—Disposition of the Forces—Brian's Death—Defeat of the Danes.
        • King Brian Boroimhé killed by the Viking.
        • COVER OF ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
        • DESMOND CASTLE AND RATH, LIMERICK.
      • King Brian Boroimhé killed by the Viking.
      • COVER OF ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
      • DESMOND CASTLE AND RATH, LIMERICK.
    • The Battle of Dundalk—The Danes supposed to be Christianized—Brian Boroimhé and his Brother Mahoun—The Dalcassians fight the Danes—Mahoun is assassinated—Brian revenges his Brother's Murder—Malachy's Exploits against the Danes—Malachy and Brian form a Treaty and fight the Danes—Malachy wins "the Collar of Gold"—Brian's "Happy Family" at Kincora—He usurps the Supreme Power, and becomes Monarch of Ireland—Remote Causes of the Battle of Clontarf—Gormflaith is "grim" with Brian—Blockade of Dublin—The Danes prepare for a Fierce Conflict—Brian prepares also—The Battle of Clontarf—Disposition of the Forces—Brian's Death—Defeat of the Danes.
      • King Brian Boroimhé killed by the Viking.
      • COVER OF ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
      • DESMOND CASTLE AND RATH, LIMERICK.
    • King Brian Boroimhé killed by the Viking.
    • COVER OF ST. PATRICK'S BELL.
    • DESMOND CASTLE AND RATH, LIMERICK.
    • CHAPTER XIV.
      • Distinguished Irish Scholars and Religious—Domestic Feuds—O'Brien's Illness caused by Fright—Pestilence and Severe Winters—Contentions between the Northerns and Southerns—Murtough's Circuit of Ireland—The Danes attempt an Invasion—An Irish King sent to the Isle of Man—Destruction of Kincora—St. Celsus makes Peace—The Synod of Fidh Aengussa—Subjects considered by the Synod: (1) The Regulation of the Number of Dioceses, (2) the Sacrament of Matrimony, (3) the Consecration of Bishops, (4) Ceremonies at Baptism—St. Malachy—The Traitor Dermod—Synod at Mellifont Abbey—St. Laurence O'Toole.
        • BANGOR CASTLE.
        • ARDMORE ROUND TOWER.
      • BANGOR CASTLE.
      • ARDMORE ROUND TOWER.
    • Distinguished Irish Scholars and Religious—Domestic Feuds—O'Brien's Illness caused by Fright—Pestilence and Severe Winters—Contentions between the Northerns and Southerns—Murtough's Circuit of Ireland—The Danes attempt an Invasion—An Irish King sent to the Isle of Man—Destruction of Kincora—St. Celsus makes Peace—The Synod of Fidh Aengussa—Subjects considered by the Synod: (1) The Regulation of the Number of Dioceses, (2) the Sacrament of Matrimony, (3) the Consecration of Bishops, (4) Ceremonies at Baptism—St. Malachy—The Traitor Dermod—Synod at Mellifont Abbey—St. Laurence O'Toole.
      • BANGOR CASTLE.
      • ARDMORE ROUND TOWER.
    • BANGOR CASTLE.
    • ARDMORE ROUND TOWER.
    • CHAPTER XV.
      • Social life previous to the English Invasion—Domestic Habitations—Forts—Granard and Staigue—Crannoges and Log-houses—Interior of the Houses—The Hall—Food and Cooking Utensils—Regulations about Food—The Kind of Food used—Animal Food—Fish—Game—Drink and Drinking Vessels—Whisky—Heath Beer—Mead—Animal Produce—Butter and Cheese—Fire—Candles—Occupations and Amusements—Chess—Music—Dress—Silk—Linen—Ancient Woollen Garments—Gold Ornaments—Trade—General Description of the Fauna and Flora of the Country.
        • CELT.
        • STONE AXE.
        • STONE DRINKING-CUP.
        • PALSTAVE CELT.
        • MOULD FOR CASTING BRONZE CELTS.
        • ANCIENT BOOT.
        • ANCIENT SHOE.
        • HEAD OF OX.
        • HEADS OF IRISH WOLF DOGS.
        • FERRITER'S CASTLE.
      • CELT.
      • STONE AXE.
      • STONE DRINKING-CUP.
      • PALSTAVE CELT.
      • MOULD FOR CASTING BRONZE CELTS.
      • ANCIENT BOOT.
      • ANCIENT SHOE.
      • HEAD OF OX.
      • HEADS OF IRISH WOLF DOGS.
      • FERRITER'S CASTLE.
    • Social life previous to the English Invasion—Domestic Habitations—Forts—Granard and Staigue—Crannoges and Log-houses—Interior of the Houses—The Hall—Food and Cooking Utensils—Regulations about Food—The Kind of Food used—Animal Food—Fish—Game—Drink and Drinking Vessels—Whisky—Heath Beer—Mead—Animal Produce—Butter and Cheese—Fire—Candles—Occupations and Amusements—Chess—Music—Dress—Silk—Linen—Ancient Woollen Garments—Gold Ornaments—Trade—General Description of the Fauna and Flora of the Country.
      • CELT.
      • STONE AXE.
      • STONE DRINKING-CUP.
      • PALSTAVE CELT.
      • MOULD FOR CASTING BRONZE CELTS.
      • ANCIENT BOOT.
      • ANCIENT SHOE.
      • HEAD OF OX.
      • HEADS OF IRISH WOLF DOGS.
      • FERRITER'S CASTLE.
    • CELT.
    • STONE AXE.
    • STONE DRINKING-CUP.
    • PALSTAVE CELT.
    • MOULD FOR CASTING BRONZE CELTS.
    • ANCIENT BOOT.
    • ANCIENT SHOE.
    • HEAD OF OX.
    • HEADS OF IRISH WOLF DOGS.
    • FERRITER'S CASTLE.
    • CHAPTER XVI.
      • The English Invasion—Dermod's Interview with Henry II.—Henry grants Letters-patent—Dermod obtains the assistance of Strongbow, Earl de Clare—He returns to Ireland—Arrival of English Forces under FitzStephen—Fatal Indifference of Roderic, the Irish Monarch—He is at last roused to action, but acknowledges Dermod's Authority almost without a Struggle—Strongbow's Genealogy—He obtains a Tacit Permission to invade Ireland—His Arrival in Ireland—Marriage of Strongbow and Eva—Death of Dermod Mac Murrough—Strongbow proclaims himself King of Leinster—Difficulties of his Position—Siege of Dublin—Strongbow's Retreat—He returns to England.
        • BARGY CASTLE.
        • Marriage of Eva and Strongbow.
        • THE LOGAN STONE, KILLARNEY.
        • ANCIENT IRISH BROOCH.[285]
      • BARGY CASTLE.
      • Marriage of Eva and Strongbow.
      • THE LOGAN STONE, KILLARNEY.
      • ANCIENT IRISH BROOCH.[285]
    • The English Invasion—Dermod's Interview with Henry II.—Henry grants Letters-patent—Dermod obtains the assistance of Strongbow, Earl de Clare—He returns to Ireland—Arrival of English Forces under FitzStephen—Fatal Indifference of Roderic, the Irish Monarch—He is at last roused to action, but acknowledges Dermod's Authority almost without a Struggle—Strongbow's Genealogy—He obtains a Tacit Permission to invade Ireland—His Arrival in Ireland—Marriage of Strongbow and Eva—Death of Dermod Mac Murrough—Strongbow proclaims himself King of Leinster—Difficulties of his Position—Siege of Dublin—Strongbow's Retreat—He returns to England.
      • BARGY CASTLE.
      • Marriage of Eva and Strongbow.
      • THE LOGAN STONE, KILLARNEY.
      • ANCIENT IRISH BROOCH.[285]
    • BARGY CASTLE.
    • Marriage of Eva and Strongbow.
    • THE LOGAN STONE, KILLARNEY.
    • ANCIENT IRISH BROOCH.[285]
    • CHAPTER XVII.
      • Arrival of Henry II.—Some of the Native Princes pay him Homage—His Character—Dublin in the time of Henry II.—His Winter Palace—Norman Luxuries—King Henry holds a Court—Adrian's Bull—Temporal Power of the Popes in the Middle Ages—Conduct of the Clergy—Irish Property given to English Settlers—Henry II. returns to England—The Account Cambrensis gives of the Injuries done to Ireland by his Countrymen—Raymond, Montmarisco, and Strongbow—The latter is defeated—He recalls Raymond from Wales—Treaty between Roderic and Henry—Death of Strongbow.
        • RAM'S ISLAND, ARMAGH.
        • KEIM-AN-EIGH.
        • WICKLOW MOUNTAINS.
      • RAM'S ISLAND, ARMAGH.
      • KEIM-AN-EIGH.
      • WICKLOW MOUNTAINS.
    • Arrival of Henry II.—Some of the Native Princes pay him Homage—His Character—Dublin in the time of Henry II.—His Winter Palace—Norman Luxuries—King Henry holds a Court—Adrian's Bull—Temporal Power of the Popes in the Middle Ages—Conduct of the Clergy—Irish Property given to English Settlers—Henry II. returns to England—The Account Cambrensis gives of the Injuries done to Ireland by his Countrymen—Raymond, Montmarisco, and Strongbow—The latter is defeated—He recalls Raymond from Wales—Treaty between Roderic and Henry—Death of Strongbow.
      • RAM'S ISLAND, ARMAGH.
      • KEIM-AN-EIGH.
      • WICKLOW MOUNTAINS.
    • RAM'S ISLAND, ARMAGH.
    • KEIM-AN-EIGH.
    • WICKLOW MOUNTAINS.
    • CHAPTER XVIII.
      • FitzAldelm appointed Viceroy—De Courcy in Ulster—Arrival of Cardinal Vivian—Henry II. confers the Title of King of Ireland on his son John—Irish Bishops at the Council of Lateran—Death of St. Laurence O'Toole—Henry's Rapacity—John Comyn appointed Archbishop of Dublin—John's Visit to Ireland—Insolence of his Courtiers—De Lacy's Death—Death of Henry II.—Accession of Richard I.—An English Archbishop tries to obtain Justice for Ireland—John succeeds to the Crown—Cathal Crovderg—Massacres in Connaught—De Courcy's Disgrace and Downfall—His Death.
        • STALACTITE CAVE, TIPPERARY.
        • KING JOHN'S CASTLE, LIMERICK.
      • STALACTITE CAVE, TIPPERARY.
      • KING JOHN'S CASTLE, LIMERICK.
    • FitzAldelm appointed Viceroy—De Courcy in Ulster—Arrival of Cardinal Vivian—Henry II. confers the Title of King of Ireland on his son John—Irish Bishops at the Council of Lateran—Death of St. Laurence O'Toole—Henry's Rapacity—John Comyn appointed Archbishop of Dublin—John's Visit to Ireland—Insolence of his Courtiers—De Lacy's Death—Death of Henry II.—Accession of Richard I.—An English Archbishop tries to obtain Justice for Ireland—John succeeds to the Crown—Cathal Crovderg—Massacres in Connaught—De Courcy's Disgrace and Downfall—His Death.
      • STALACTITE CAVE, TIPPERARY.
      • KING JOHN'S CASTLE, LIMERICK.
    • STALACTITE CAVE, TIPPERARY.
    • KING JOHN'S CASTLE, LIMERICK.
    • CHAPTER XIX.
      • Quarrels of the English Barons—The Interdict—John crushes and starves an Archdeacon to Death—King John's Visit to Ireland—He starves the Wife and Son of Earl de Braose to Death—Henry de Londres—The Poet O'Daly—Obituaries of Good Men—Henry III.—Regulations about the Viceroy—The Scorch Villain—Scandalous Conduct of the Viceroys—Three Claimants for Connaught—Death of Hugh Crovderg—Felim O'Connor—Henry's Foreign Advisers—Plots against the Earl of Pembroke—He is wounded treacherously—His Pious Death—Misfortunes of the Early Settlers—De Marisco's Son is hanged for High Treason, and he dies miserably in Exile.
        • [A.D. 1201-1244.]
        • ATHLONE CASTLE.
      • [A.D. 1201-1244.]
      • ATHLONE CASTLE.
    • Quarrels of the English Barons—The Interdict—John crushes and starves an Archdeacon to Death—King John's Visit to Ireland—He starves the Wife and Son of Earl de Braose to Death—Henry de Londres—The Poet O'Daly—Obituaries of Good Men—Henry III.—Regulations about the Viceroy—The Scorch Villain—Scandalous Conduct of the Viceroys—Three Claimants for Connaught—Death of Hugh Crovderg—Felim O'Connor—Henry's Foreign Advisers—Plots against the Earl of Pembroke—He is wounded treacherously—His Pious Death—Misfortunes of the Early Settlers—De Marisco's Son is hanged for High Treason, and he dies miserably in Exile.
      • [A.D. 1201-1244.]
      • ATHLONE CASTLE.
    • [A.D. 1201-1244.]
    • ATHLONE CASTLE.
    • CHAPTER XX.
      • The Age was not all Evil—Good Men in the World and in the Cloister—Religious Houses and their Founders—The Augustinians and Cistercians—Franciscans and Dominicans—Their close Friendship—Dominican Houses—St. Saviour's, Dublin—The Black Abbey, Kilkenny—Franciscan Houses—Youghal—Kilkenny—Multifarnham—Timoleague—Donegal—Carmelite Convents and Friars—Rising of the Connaught Men—A Plunderer of the English—Battle of Downpatrick—The MacCarthys defeat the Geraldines at Kenmare—War between De Burgo and FitzGerald.
        • CURTAIN CAVE, TIPPERARY.
        • BERMINGHAM TOWER, DUBLIN CASTLE
      • CURTAIN CAVE, TIPPERARY.
      • BERMINGHAM TOWER, DUBLIN CASTLE
    • The Age was not all Evil—Good Men in the World and in the Cloister—Religious Houses and their Founders—The Augustinians and Cistercians—Franciscans and Dominicans—Their close Friendship—Dominican Houses—St. Saviour's, Dublin—The Black Abbey, Kilkenny—Franciscan Houses—Youghal—Kilkenny—Multifarnham—Timoleague—Donegal—Carmelite Convents and Friars—Rising of the Connaught Men—A Plunderer of the English—Battle of Downpatrick—The MacCarthys defeat the Geraldines at Kenmare—War between De Burgo and FitzGerald.
      • CURTAIN CAVE, TIPPERARY.
      • BERMINGHAM TOWER, DUBLIN CASTLE
    • CURTAIN CAVE, TIPPERARY.
    • BERMINGHAM TOWER, DUBLIN CASTLE
    • CHAPTER XXI.
      • Reign of Edward I.—Social State of Ireland—English Treachery—Irish Chieftains set at Variance—The Irish are refused the Benefit of English Law—Feuds between the Cusacks and the Barretts—Death of Boy O'Neill—The Burkes and the Geraldines—Quarrel between FitzGerald and De Vesci—Possessions obtained by Force or Fraud—Why the Celt was not Loyal—The Governors and the Governed—Royal Cities and their Charters—Dublin Castle, its Officers, Law Courts—A Law Court in the Fourteenth Century—Irish Soldiers help the English King—A Murder for which Justice is refused—Exactions of the Nobles—Invasion of Bruce—Remonstrance to the Pope—The Scotch Armies withdrawn from Ireland.
        • BUTLER'S TOMB, FRIARY CHURCH, CLONMEL.
        • CARRICKFERGUS.
      • BUTLER'S TOMB, FRIARY CHURCH, CLONMEL.
      • CARRICKFERGUS.
    • Reign of Edward I.—Social State of Ireland—English Treachery—Irish Chieftains set at Variance—The Irish are refused the Benefit of English Law—Feuds between the Cusacks and the Barretts—Death of Boy O'Neill—The Burkes and the Geraldines—Quarrel between FitzGerald and De Vesci—Possessions obtained by Force or Fraud—Why the Celt was not Loyal—The Governors and the Governed—Royal Cities and their Charters—Dublin Castle, its Officers, Law Courts—A Law Court in the Fourteenth Century—Irish Soldiers help the English King—A Murder for which Justice is refused—Exactions of the Nobles—Invasion of Bruce—Remonstrance to the Pope—The Scotch Armies withdrawn from Ireland.
      • BUTLER'S TOMB, FRIARY CHURCH, CLONMEL.
      • CARRICKFERGUS.
    • BUTLER'S TOMB, FRIARY CHURCH, CLONMEL.
    • CARRICKFERGUS.
    • CHAPTER XXII.
      • The Butlers—Quarrels of the Anglo-Norman Nobles—Treachery and its Consequences—The Burkes proclaim themselves Irish—Opposition Parliaments—The Statute of Kilkenny and its Effects—Mistakes of English Writers—Social Life in Ireland described by a French Knight—"Banishment" to Ireland—Richard II. visits Ireland.
        • Interview between MacMurrough and the Officers of Richard the Strong.
        • BUTTS' CROSS, KILKENNY.
      • Interview between MacMurrough and the Officers of Richard the Strong.
      • BUTTS' CROSS, KILKENNY.
    • The Butlers—Quarrels of the Anglo-Norman Nobles—Treachery and its Consequences—The Burkes proclaim themselves Irish—Opposition Parliaments—The Statute of Kilkenny and its Effects—Mistakes of English Writers—Social Life in Ireland described by a French Knight—"Banishment" to Ireland—Richard II. visits Ireland.
      • Interview between MacMurrough and the Officers of Richard the Strong.
      • BUTTS' CROSS, KILKENNY.
    • Interview between MacMurrough and the Officers of Richard the Strong.
    • BUTTS' CROSS, KILKENNY.
    • CHAPTER XXIII.
      • Henry IV.—A Viceroy's Difficulties—The Houses of York and Lancaster—The Colony almost Bankrupt—Literary Ladies in Ireland—A Congress of Literati—The Duke of York is made Viceroy—Affection of the Irish for him—Popularity of the Yorkists in Ireland—A Book given for a Ransom—Desolating Effects of the Wars of the Roses—Accession of Henry VII.—Insurrection of the Yorkists—Simnel is crowned in Dublin—Warbeck's Insurrection—Poyning's Parliament—Poyning's Law and its Effects—The Earl of Kildare accused of Treason—His Defence and Pardon—His Quickwitted Speeches—He is acquitted honorably—His Letter to the Gherardini—Ariosto.
        • ROUND TOWER, DONAGHMORE, CO. MEATH.
        • RUINS OF SELSKER ABBEY, WEXFORD.
      • ROUND TOWER, DONAGHMORE, CO. MEATH.
      • RUINS OF SELSKER ABBEY, WEXFORD.
    • Henry IV.—A Viceroy's Difficulties—The Houses of York and Lancaster—The Colony almost Bankrupt—Literary Ladies in Ireland—A Congress of Literati—The Duke of York is made Viceroy—Affection of the Irish for him—Popularity of the Yorkists in Ireland—A Book given for a Ransom—Desolating Effects of the Wars of the Roses—Accession of Henry VII.—Insurrection of the Yorkists—Simnel is crowned in Dublin—Warbeck's Insurrection—Poyning's Parliament—Poyning's Law and its Effects—The Earl of Kildare accused of Treason—His Defence and Pardon—His Quickwitted Speeches—He is acquitted honorably—His Letter to the Gherardini—Ariosto.
      • ROUND TOWER, DONAGHMORE, CO. MEATH.
      • RUINS OF SELSKER ABBEY, WEXFORD.
    • ROUND TOWER, DONAGHMORE, CO. MEATH.
    • RUINS OF SELSKER ABBEY, WEXFORD.
    • CHAPTER XXIV.
      • The Reign of Henry VIII.—The Three Eras in Irish History: Military Violence, Legal Iniquity, and Religious Oppression—The Earl of Kildare—Report on the State of Ireland—The Insurrection of Silken Thomas—His Execution with his five Uncles—First Attempt to introduce the Reformation in Ireland—Real Cause of the English Schism—The King acts as Head of the Church—The New Religion enacted by Law, and enforced by the Sword—How the Act was opposed by the Clergy, and how the Clergy were disposed of—Dr. Browne's Letter to Henry—The Era of Religious Persecution—Massacre of a Prelate, Priest, and Friars—Wholesale Plunder of Religious Property.
        • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
        • ROSS ISLAND.
      • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
      • ROSS ISLAND.
    • The Reign of Henry VIII.—The Three Eras in Irish History: Military Violence, Legal Iniquity, and Religious Oppression—The Earl of Kildare—Report on the State of Ireland—The Insurrection of Silken Thomas—His Execution with his five Uncles—First Attempt to introduce the Reformation in Ireland—Real Cause of the English Schism—The King acts as Head of the Church—The New Religion enacted by Law, and enforced by the Sword—How the Act was opposed by the Clergy, and how the Clergy were disposed of—Dr. Browne's Letter to Henry—The Era of Religious Persecution—Massacre of a Prelate, Priest, and Friars—Wholesale Plunder of Religious Property.
      • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
      • ROSS ISLAND.
    • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • ROSS ISLAND.
    • CHAPTER XXV.
      • Creation of the Earls of Thomond and Clanrickarde—How the King procured Money—Prayers in English—Opposition of Dr. Dowdall—Accession of Queen Mary—Joy of the Irish—The Catholic Service restored Publicly—Accession of Queen Elizabeth—Shane O'Neill obtains his Dominions—Parliament assembled—Unfair Dealing—Martyrs in the Reign of Elizabeth—The Protestant Archbishop advises Persecution—Cruelties enacted by English Officers—Shane O'Neill—The Deputy tries to get him Poisoned or Assassinated, with the Queen's Concurrence—His Visit to England—He refuses to Dress in the English Fashion.
        • GOLD EAR-RING, TORQUE PATTERN, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT CASTLEREA, CO. ROSCOMMON.
        • KILCOLMAN CASTLE.
      • GOLD EAR-RING, TORQUE PATTERN, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT CASTLEREA, CO. ROSCOMMON.
      • KILCOLMAN CASTLE.
    • Creation of the Earls of Thomond and Clanrickarde—How the King procured Money—Prayers in English—Opposition of Dr. Dowdall—Accession of Queen Mary—Joy of the Irish—The Catholic Service restored Publicly—Accession of Queen Elizabeth—Shane O'Neill obtains his Dominions—Parliament assembled—Unfair Dealing—Martyrs in the Reign of Elizabeth—The Protestant Archbishop advises Persecution—Cruelties enacted by English Officers—Shane O'Neill—The Deputy tries to get him Poisoned or Assassinated, with the Queen's Concurrence—His Visit to England—He refuses to Dress in the English Fashion.
      • GOLD EAR-RING, TORQUE PATTERN, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT CASTLEREA, CO. ROSCOMMON.
      • KILCOLMAN CASTLE.
    • GOLD EAR-RING, TORQUE PATTERN, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND AT CASTLEREA, CO. ROSCOMMON.
    • KILCOLMAN CASTLE.
    • CHAPTER XXVI.
      • Spenser's Castle—Sidney's Official Account of Ireland—Miserable State of the Protestant Church—The Catholic Church and its Persecuted Rulers—The Viceroy's Administration—A Packed Parliament and its Enactments—Claim of Sir P. Carew—An Attempt to plant in Ulster—Smith's Settlement in the Ards—His Description of the Native Irish—He tries to induce Englishmen to join him—Smith is killed, and the attempt to plant fails—Essex next tries to colonize Ulster—He dies in Dublin—Sidney returns to Ireland—His Interview with Granuaile—Massacre at Mullamast—Spenser's Account of the State of Ireland.
        • CARRIG-A-HOOLY—GRACE O'MALLEY'S CASTLE.
        • THE HOUSE WHERE SIR WALTER RALEIGH LIVED.
        • SALTEE ISLANDS, WEXFORD.
      • CARRIG-A-HOOLY—GRACE O'MALLEY'S CASTLE.
      • THE HOUSE WHERE SIR WALTER RALEIGH LIVED.
      • SALTEE ISLANDS, WEXFORD.
    • Spenser's Castle—Sidney's Official Account of Ireland—Miserable State of the Protestant Church—The Catholic Church and its Persecuted Rulers—The Viceroy's Administration—A Packed Parliament and its Enactments—Claim of Sir P. Carew—An Attempt to plant in Ulster—Smith's Settlement in the Ards—His Description of the Native Irish—He tries to induce Englishmen to join him—Smith is killed, and the attempt to plant fails—Essex next tries to colonize Ulster—He dies in Dublin—Sidney returns to Ireland—His Interview with Granuaile—Massacre at Mullamast—Spenser's Account of the State of Ireland.
      • CARRIG-A-HOOLY—GRACE O'MALLEY'S CASTLE.
      • THE HOUSE WHERE SIR WALTER RALEIGH LIVED.
      • SALTEE ISLANDS, WEXFORD.
    • CARRIG-A-HOOLY—GRACE O'MALLEY'S CASTLE.
    • THE HOUSE WHERE SIR WALTER RALEIGH LIVED.
    • SALTEE ISLANDS, WEXFORD.
    • CHAPTER XXVII.
      • FitzMaurice obtains Help from Spain and from Rome—The Martyrs of Kilmallock—Death of FitzMaurice—Drury's Cruelties and Death—Arrival of San José—His Treachery—Massacre at the Fort del Ore—O'Neill shows Symptoms of Disaffection—Treacherous Capture of O'Donnell—Injustice to Tenants—O'Donnell attempts to Escape—O'Neill's Marriage with Mabel Bagnal—O'Donnell Escapes from Dublin Castle—Causes of Discontent—Cruel Massacre of Three Priests—Tortures and Death inflicted in Dublin on Bishop O'Hurley—O'Neill's Insurrection—His Interview with Essex—He marches to the South—His Fatal Reverse at Kinsale—The Siege of Dunboy—O'Neill's Submission—Foundation of Trinity College, Dublin, on the Site and with the Funds of a Catholic Abbey.
        • Interview between Essex and O'Neill
        • RUIN—BLACKWATER.
        • TULLY CASTLE, COUNTY FERMANAGH.
      • Interview between Essex and O'Neill
      • RUIN—BLACKWATER.
      • TULLY CASTLE, COUNTY FERMANAGH.
    • FitzMaurice obtains Help from Spain and from Rome—The Martyrs of Kilmallock—Death of FitzMaurice—Drury's Cruelties and Death—Arrival of San José—His Treachery—Massacre at the Fort del Ore—O'Neill shows Symptoms of Disaffection—Treacherous Capture of O'Donnell—Injustice to Tenants—O'Donnell attempts to Escape—O'Neill's Marriage with Mabel Bagnal—O'Donnell Escapes from Dublin Castle—Causes of Discontent—Cruel Massacre of Three Priests—Tortures and Death inflicted in Dublin on Bishop O'Hurley—O'Neill's Insurrection—His Interview with Essex—He marches to the South—His Fatal Reverse at Kinsale—The Siege of Dunboy—O'Neill's Submission—Foundation of Trinity College, Dublin, on the Site and with the Funds of a Catholic Abbey.
      • Interview between Essex and O'Neill
      • RUIN—BLACKWATER.
      • TULLY CASTLE, COUNTY FERMANAGH.
    • Interview between Essex and O'Neill
    • RUIN—BLACKWATER.
    • TULLY CASTLE, COUNTY FERMANAGH.
    • CHAPTER XXVIII.
      • Accession of King James—Joy of the Irish Catholics—Their Disappointment—Bishops, Priests, and Laity imprisoned for the Faith—Paul V. encourages the Catholics to Constancy—Plot to entrap O'Neill and O'Donnell—Flight of the Earls—Ulster is left to the Mercy of the English Nation—The Plantation commences—Chichester's Parliament, and how he obtained Members—Death of James I., and Accession of Charles—The Hopes of the Catholics are raised again—They offer a large sum of Money to obtain "Graces"—It is accepted, and the "Graces" are treacherously refused—The Plantation of Connaught—How Obedience was enforced and Resistance punished—Conspiracy to seize Dublin—Sir Phelim O'Neill-Massacre of Island Magee.
        • CASTLE MONEA, CO. FERMANAGH.
        • ANCIENT DRINKING VESSEL OR METHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
        • TABLE AND CHAIR USED AT THE CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.
      • CASTLE MONEA, CO. FERMANAGH.
      • ANCIENT DRINKING VESSEL OR METHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • TABLE AND CHAIR USED AT THE CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.
    • Accession of King James—Joy of the Irish Catholics—Their Disappointment—Bishops, Priests, and Laity imprisoned for the Faith—Paul V. encourages the Catholics to Constancy—Plot to entrap O'Neill and O'Donnell—Flight of the Earls—Ulster is left to the Mercy of the English Nation—The Plantation commences—Chichester's Parliament, and how he obtained Members—Death of James I., and Accession of Charles—The Hopes of the Catholics are raised again—They offer a large sum of Money to obtain "Graces"—It is accepted, and the "Graces" are treacherously refused—The Plantation of Connaught—How Obedience was enforced and Resistance punished—Conspiracy to seize Dublin—Sir Phelim O'Neill-Massacre of Island Magee.
      • CASTLE MONEA, CO. FERMANAGH.
      • ANCIENT DRINKING VESSEL OR METHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • TABLE AND CHAIR USED AT THE CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.
    • CASTLE MONEA, CO. FERMANAGH.
    • ANCIENT DRINKING VESSEL OR METHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
    • TABLE AND CHAIR USED AT THE CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.
    • CHAPTER XXIX.
      • English Adventurers speculate on Irish Disaffection—Coote's Cruelties—Meeting of Irish Noblemen and Gentlemen—Discontent of the People—The Catholic Priests try to save Protestants from their fury—A National Synod to deliberate on the State of Irish Affairs—The General Assembly is convened at Kilkenny—A Mint is established—A Printing-Press set up—Relations are entered into with Foreign States, and a Method of Government is organized—Differences of Opinion between the Old Irish and Anglo-Irish—A Year's Treaty is made—Arrival of Rinuccini—He lands at Kenmare—His Account of the Irish People—His Reception at Kilkenny—His Opinion of the State of Affairs—Divisions of the Confederates—Ormonde's Intrigues—The Battle of Benburb—Divisions and Discord in Camp and Senate—A Treaty signed and published by the Representatives of the English King—Rinuccini returns to Italy.
        • PARLIAMENT HOUSE, KILKENNY.
        • THOMAS FLEMYNG'S TOMB, COLLEGIATE CHURCH, YOUGHAL.
        • ST. LAWRENCE GATE, DROGHEDA.
      • PARLIAMENT HOUSE, KILKENNY.
      • THOMAS FLEMYNG'S TOMB, COLLEGIATE CHURCH, YOUGHAL.
      • ST. LAWRENCE GATE, DROGHEDA.
    • English Adventurers speculate on Irish Disaffection—Coote's Cruelties—Meeting of Irish Noblemen and Gentlemen—Discontent of the People—The Catholic Priests try to save Protestants from their fury—A National Synod to deliberate on the State of Irish Affairs—The General Assembly is convened at Kilkenny—A Mint is established—A Printing-Press set up—Relations are entered into with Foreign States, and a Method of Government is organized—Differences of Opinion between the Old Irish and Anglo-Irish—A Year's Treaty is made—Arrival of Rinuccini—He lands at Kenmare—His Account of the Irish People—His Reception at Kilkenny—His Opinion of the State of Affairs—Divisions of the Confederates—Ormonde's Intrigues—The Battle of Benburb—Divisions and Discord in Camp and Senate—A Treaty signed and published by the Representatives of the English King—Rinuccini returns to Italy.
      • PARLIAMENT HOUSE, KILKENNY.
      • THOMAS FLEMYNG'S TOMB, COLLEGIATE CHURCH, YOUGHAL.
      • ST. LAWRENCE GATE, DROGHEDA.
    • PARLIAMENT HOUSE, KILKENNY.
    • THOMAS FLEMYNG'S TOMB, COLLEGIATE CHURCH, YOUGHAL.
    • ST. LAWRENCE GATE, DROGHEDA.
    • CHAPTER XXX.
      • Cromwell arrives in Ireland—He marches to Drogheda—Cruel Massacre of the Inhabitants after promise of Quarter—Account of an Eyewitness—Brutality of the Cromwellian Soldiers—Ladies are not spared—Cromwell's Letters—He boasts of his Cruelties—Massacre and Treachery at Drogheda—Brave Resistance at Clonmel—Charles II. arrives in Scotland—The Duplicity of his Conduct towards the Irish—Siege of Limerick—Ireton's Cruelties and Miserable Death—The Banishment to Connaught—The Irish are sold as Slaves to Barbadoes—General Desolation and Misery of the People.
        • Massacre at Drogheda
        • CROMWELL'S FORT, DROGHEDA
        • Ireton condemning the Bishop of Limerick.
        • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
      • Massacre at Drogheda
      • CROMWELL'S FORT, DROGHEDA
      • Ireton condemning the Bishop of Limerick.
      • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • Cromwell arrives in Ireland—He marches to Drogheda—Cruel Massacre of the Inhabitants after promise of Quarter—Account of an Eyewitness—Brutality of the Cromwellian Soldiers—Ladies are not spared—Cromwell's Letters—He boasts of his Cruelties—Massacre and Treachery at Drogheda—Brave Resistance at Clonmel—Charles II. arrives in Scotland—The Duplicity of his Conduct towards the Irish—Siege of Limerick—Ireton's Cruelties and Miserable Death—The Banishment to Connaught—The Irish are sold as Slaves to Barbadoes—General Desolation and Misery of the People.
      • Massacre at Drogheda
      • CROMWELL'S FORT, DROGHEDA
      • Ireton condemning the Bishop of Limerick.
      • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • Massacre at Drogheda
    • CROMWELL'S FORT, DROGHEDA
    • Ireton condemning the Bishop of Limerick.
    • SCULPTURES AT DEVENISH.
    • CHAPTER XXXI.
      • The Irish transported as Slaves to Barbadoes—The Three Beasts who were to be hunted: the Wolf, the Priest, and the Tory—Origin and Causes of Agrarian Outrages—Cases of Individual Wrongs—Lord Roche—Mr. Luttrel Accession of Charles II.—His Base Conduct towards the Irish Loyalists—Gross Injustice towards the Irish Catholic Landowners—The Remonstrance opposed by the Clergy—A Quarrel in the House of Lords The Popish Plot—Ormonde's Difficulties—Seizure and Imprisonment of the Archbishop of Dublin—Imprisonment and Execution of the Most Rev. Dr. Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh.
        • ANCIENT PITCHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND IN A CRANNOGE, AT LOUGH TAUGHAN, LECALE, CO. DOWN.
        • OLDERFLEET CASTLE, LARNE.
      • ANCIENT PITCHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND IN A CRANNOGE, AT LOUGH TAUGHAN, LECALE, CO. DOWN.
      • OLDERFLEET CASTLE, LARNE.
    • The Irish transported as Slaves to Barbadoes—The Three Beasts who were to be hunted: the Wolf, the Priest, and the Tory—Origin and Causes of Agrarian Outrages—Cases of Individual Wrongs—Lord Roche—Mr. Luttrel Accession of Charles II.—His Base Conduct towards the Irish Loyalists—Gross Injustice towards the Irish Catholic Landowners—The Remonstrance opposed by the Clergy—A Quarrel in the House of Lords The Popish Plot—Ormonde's Difficulties—Seizure and Imprisonment of the Archbishop of Dublin—Imprisonment and Execution of the Most Rev. Dr. Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh.
      • ANCIENT PITCHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND IN A CRANNOGE, AT LOUGH TAUGHAN, LECALE, CO. DOWN.
      • OLDERFLEET CASTLE, LARNE.
    • ANCIENT PITCHER, FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A., FOUND IN A CRANNOGE, AT LOUGH TAUGHAN, LECALE, CO. DOWN.
    • OLDERFLEET CASTLE, LARNE.
    • CHAPTER XXXII.
      • Glimpses of Social Life in the Seventeenth Century—Literature and Literary Men—Keating—the Four Masters—Colgan—Ward—Usher—Ware—Lynch—Trade—Commerce depressed by the English—Fairs—Waterford Rugs—Exportation of Cattle forbidden—State of Trade in the Principal Towns—Population—Numbers employed in different Trades—Learned Professions—Physicians—Establishment of their College in Dublin—Shopkeepers—Booksellers—Coffee-houses—Clubs—Newspapers—Fashionable Churches—Post-houses and Post-offices established—Custom-house—Exchange—Amusements—Plays at the Castle—The First Theatre set up in Werburgh-street—Domestics Manners and Dress—Food-A Country Dinner Party in Ulster.
        • TUBRID CHURCHYARD—BURIAL-PLACE OF THE HISTORIAN KEATING.
        • INSCRIPTION IN HONOUR OF KEATING.
        • "DANES' PIPES," FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
        • CASTLE CAULFIELD, COUNTY TYRONE.
        • SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE.
      • TUBRID CHURCHYARD—BURIAL-PLACE OF THE HISTORIAN KEATING.
      • INSCRIPTION IN HONOUR OF KEATING.
      • "DANES' PIPES," FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • CASTLE CAULFIELD, COUNTY TYRONE.
      • SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE.
    • Glimpses of Social Life in the Seventeenth Century—Literature and Literary Men—Keating—the Four Masters—Colgan—Ward—Usher—Ware—Lynch—Trade—Commerce depressed by the English—Fairs—Waterford Rugs—Exportation of Cattle forbidden—State of Trade in the Principal Towns—Population—Numbers employed in different Trades—Learned Professions—Physicians—Establishment of their College in Dublin—Shopkeepers—Booksellers—Coffee-houses—Clubs—Newspapers—Fashionable Churches—Post-houses and Post-offices established—Custom-house—Exchange—Amusements—Plays at the Castle—The First Theatre set up in Werburgh-street—Domestics Manners and Dress—Food-A Country Dinner Party in Ulster.
      • TUBRID CHURCHYARD—BURIAL-PLACE OF THE HISTORIAN KEATING.
      • INSCRIPTION IN HONOUR OF KEATING.
      • "DANES' PIPES," FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
      • CASTLE CAULFIELD, COUNTY TYRONE.
      • SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE.
    • TUBRID CHURCHYARD—BURIAL-PLACE OF THE HISTORIAN KEATING.
    • INSCRIPTION IN HONOUR OF KEATING.
    • "DANES' PIPES," FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE R.I.A.
    • CASTLE CAULFIELD, COUNTY TYRONE.
    • SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE.
    • CHAPTER XXXIII.
      • Accession of James II.—Position of Public Affairs—Birth of an Heir—Landing of William of Orange—Arrival of King James in Ireland—The Siege of Derry—Cruelties of the Enniskilleners—Disease in Schomberg's Camp—The Battle of the Boyne—James' Defeat and Disgraceful Plight—The Siege of Athlone—The Siege of Limerick—Marlborough appears before Cork—William raises the Siege of Limerick and returns to England—The Siege of Athlone, Heroic Valour of its Defenders—The Battle of Aughrim—Surrender of Limerick.
        • THE CASTLE OF TRIM.
        • THE TREATY STONE, LIMERICK.
        • This stone was placed on a handsome pedestal a few years since, by the then Mayor of Limerick.
        • SITE OF THE BATTLE OF AUGHRIM.
      • THE CASTLE OF TRIM.
      • THE TREATY STONE, LIMERICK.
      • This stone was placed on a handsome pedestal a few years since, by the then Mayor of Limerick.
      • SITE OF THE BATTLE OF AUGHRIM.
    • Accession of James II.—Position of Public Affairs—Birth of an Heir—Landing of William of Orange—Arrival of King James in Ireland—The Siege of Derry—Cruelties of the Enniskilleners—Disease in Schomberg's Camp—The Battle of the Boyne—James' Defeat and Disgraceful Plight—The Siege of Athlone—The Siege of Limerick—Marlborough appears before Cork—William raises the Siege of Limerick and returns to England—The Siege of Athlone, Heroic Valour of its Defenders—The Battle of Aughrim—Surrender of Limerick.
      • THE CASTLE OF TRIM.
      • THE TREATY STONE, LIMERICK.
      • This stone was placed on a handsome pedestal a few years since, by the then Mayor of Limerick.
      • SITE OF THE BATTLE OF AUGHRIM.
    • THE CASTLE OF TRIM.
    • THE TREATY STONE, LIMERICK.
    • This stone was placed on a handsome pedestal a few years since, by the then Mayor of Limerick.
    • SITE OF THE BATTLE OF AUGHRIM.
    • CHAPTER XXXIV.
      • Formation of the Irish Brigade—Violation of the Treaty of Limerick—Enactment of the Penal Laws—Restrictions on Trade—The Embargo Laws—The Sacramental Test introduced—The Palatines—The Irish forbidden to enlist in the Army—Dean Swift and the Drapier's Letters—Attempts to form a Catholic Association—Irish Emigrants defeat the English in France, Spain, and America—The Whiteboys—An Account of the Cause of these Outrages, by an English Tourist—Mr. Young's Remedy for Irish Disaffection—The Peculiar Position and Difficulties of Irish Priests—The Judicial Murder of Father Nicholas Sheehy—Grattan's Demand for Irish Independence—The Volunteers—A Glimpse of Freedom.
        • Grattan demanding Irish Independence.
        • GOLDSMITH'S WELL.
      • Grattan demanding Irish Independence.
      • GOLDSMITH'S WELL.
    • Formation of the Irish Brigade—Violation of the Treaty of Limerick—Enactment of the Penal Laws—Restrictions on Trade—The Embargo Laws—The Sacramental Test introduced—The Palatines—The Irish forbidden to enlist in the Army—Dean Swift and the Drapier's Letters—Attempts to form a Catholic Association—Irish Emigrants defeat the English in France, Spain, and America—The Whiteboys—An Account of the Cause of these Outrages, by an English Tourist—Mr. Young's Remedy for Irish Disaffection—The Peculiar Position and Difficulties of Irish Priests—The Judicial Murder of Father Nicholas Sheehy—Grattan's Demand for Irish Independence—The Volunteers—A Glimpse of Freedom.
      • Grattan demanding Irish Independence.
      • GOLDSMITH'S WELL.
    • Grattan demanding Irish Independence.
    • GOLDSMITH'S WELL.
    • CHAPTER XXXV.
      • Celebrated Irishmen of the Eighteenth Century—BURKE—- His School and College Life—Early Hatred of Oppression—Johnson's Estimate of Burke—Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful—Commencement of his Political Career—Opinions on the American Question-English Infatuation and Injustice—Irishmen Prominent Actors in the American Revolution—Its Causes and Effects—Burke on Religious Toleration—Catholic Emancipation—His Indian Policy—MOORE—His Poetry and Patriotism—CURRAN—SWIFT—LUCAS—FLOOD—GRATTAN—EARL OF CHARLEMONT—Irish Artists, Authors, and Actors—SHERIDAN—Scene in the House of Lords during the Impeachment of Warren Hastings—GOLDSMITH.
        • GOLDSMITH'S MILL AT AUBURN
        • BANTRY BAY—SCENE OF THE LANDING OF THE FRENCH.
      • GOLDSMITH'S MILL AT AUBURN
      • BANTRY BAY—SCENE OF THE LANDING OF THE FRENCH.
    • Celebrated Irishmen of the Eighteenth Century—BURKE—- His School and College Life—Early Hatred of Oppression—Johnson's Estimate of Burke—Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful—Commencement of his Political Career—Opinions on the American Question-English Infatuation and Injustice—Irishmen Prominent Actors in the American Revolution—Its Causes and Effects—Burke on Religious Toleration—Catholic Emancipation—His Indian Policy—MOORE—His Poetry and Patriotism—CURRAN—SWIFT—LUCAS—FLOOD—GRATTAN—EARL OF CHARLEMONT—Irish Artists, Authors, and Actors—SHERIDAN—Scene in the House of Lords during the Impeachment of Warren Hastings—GOLDSMITH.
      • GOLDSMITH'S MILL AT AUBURN
      • BANTRY BAY—SCENE OF THE LANDING OF THE FRENCH.
    • GOLDSMITH'S MILL AT AUBURN
    • BANTRY BAY—SCENE OF THE LANDING OF THE FRENCH.
    • CHAPTER XXXVI.
      • The Volunteers deserted by their Leaders—Agrarian Outrages and their Cause—Foundation of the United Irishmen—Cruelties of the Orangemen—Government Spies and Informers—Lord Moira exposes the Cruelty of the Yeomanry in Parliament—Mr. Orr's Trial and Death—Details of the Atrocities enacted by the Military from a Protestant History—Tom the Devil—Cruelties practised by Men of Rank—Licentiousness of the Army—Death of Lord Edward FitzGerald—The Rising—Martial Law in Dublin—The Insurrection in Wexford—Massacres at Scullabogue House and Wexford-bridge by the Insurgents—How the Priests were rewarded for saving Lives and Property—The Insurrection in Ulster—The State Prisoners—The Union.
        • LYNCH'S HOUSE, GALWAY.
        • SWORDS' CASTLE, COUNTY DUBLIN.
      • LYNCH'S HOUSE, GALWAY.
      • SWORDS' CASTLE, COUNTY DUBLIN.
    • The Volunteers deserted by their Leaders—Agrarian Outrages and their Cause—Foundation of the United Irishmen—Cruelties of the Orangemen—Government Spies and Informers—Lord Moira exposes the Cruelty of the Yeomanry in Parliament—Mr. Orr's Trial and Death—Details of the Atrocities enacted by the Military from a Protestant History—Tom the Devil—Cruelties practised by Men of Rank—Licentiousness of the Army—Death of Lord Edward FitzGerald—The Rising—Martial Law in Dublin—The Insurrection in Wexford—Massacres at Scullabogue House and Wexford-bridge by the Insurgents—How the Priests were rewarded for saving Lives and Property—The Insurrection in Ulster—The State Prisoners—The Union.
      • LYNCH'S HOUSE, GALWAY.
      • SWORDS' CASTLE, COUNTY DUBLIN.
    • LYNCH'S HOUSE, GALWAY.
    • SWORDS' CASTLE, COUNTY DUBLIN.
    • CHAPTER XXXVII.
      • The State of Ireland before and after the Union—Advancement of Trade before the Union—Depression after it—Lord Clare and Lord Castlereagh in the English Parliament—The Catholic Question becomes a Ministerial Difficulty—The Veto—The O'Connell Sept—Early Life of Daniel O'Connell—The Doneraile Conspiracy—O'Connell as Leader of the Catholic Party—The Clare Election—O'Connell in the English House of Parliament—Sir Robert Peel—George IV. visits Ireland—Disturbances in Ireland from the Union to the year 1834, and their Causes—Parliamentary Evidence—The "Second Reformation"—Catholic Emancipation—Emigration, its Causes and Effects—Colonial Policy of England—Statistics of American Trade and Population—Importance of the Irish and Catholic Element in America—Conclusion.
        • O'Connell refusing to take the Oath.
        • Ireland and America
      • O'Connell refusing to take the Oath.
      • Ireland and America
    • The State of Ireland before and after the Union—Advancement of Trade before the Union—Depression after it—Lord Clare and Lord Castlereagh in the English Parliament—The Catholic Question becomes a Ministerial Difficulty—The Veto—The O'Connell Sept—Early Life of Daniel O'Connell—The Doneraile Conspiracy—O'Connell as Leader of the Catholic Party—The Clare Election—O'Connell in the English House of Parliament—Sir Robert Peel—George IV. visits Ireland—Disturbances in Ireland from the Union to the year 1834, and their Causes—Parliamentary Evidence—The "Second Reformation"—Catholic Emancipation—Emigration, its Causes and Effects—Colonial Policy of England—Statistics of American Trade and Population—Importance of the Irish and Catholic Element in America—Conclusion.
      • O'Connell refusing to take the Oath.
      • Ireland and America
    • O'Connell refusing to take the Oath.
    • Ireland and America
    • APPENDIX.
    • INDEX.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • FOOTNOTES:
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