The Foundations of the Origin of Species Two Essays written in 1842 and 1844
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The Foundations of the Origin of Species Two Essays written in 1842 and 1844

By Charles Darwin
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Table of Contents
  • THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES
  • THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES TWO ESSAYS WRITTEN IN 1842 AND 1844 by CHARLES DARWIN
    • CONTENTS
    • INTRODUCTION
    • PART I.
      • § I. «On Variation under Domestication, and on the Principles of Selection.»
      • § II. «On Variation in a State of Nature and on the Natural Means of Selection.»
      • § III. «On Variation in instincts and other mental attributes.»
    • § I. «On Variation under Domestication, and on the Principles of Selection.»
    • § II. «On Variation in a State of Nature and on the Natural Means of Selection.»
    • § III. «On Variation in instincts and other mental attributes.»
    • PART II{104}.
      • §§ IV. & V. «On the evidence from Geology.»
      • «Geographical Distribution.»
      • § VI. Let us consider the absolute state of distribution of organisms of earth's face.
      • § VII. «Affinities and Classification.»
      • § VIII. Unity [or similarity] of type in the great classes.
      • § IX. «Abortive organs.»
      • § X. Recapitulation and conclusion.
      • Conclusion.
    • §§ IV. & V. «On the evidence from Geology.»
    • «Geographical Distribution.»
    • § VI. Let us consider the absolute state of distribution of organisms of earth's face.
    • § VII. «Affinities and Classification.»
    • § VIII. Unity [or similarity] of type in the great classes.
    • § IX. «Abortive organs.»
    • § X. Recapitulation and conclusion.
    • Conclusion.
  • THE ESSAY OF 1844
    • PART I
    • CHAPTER I ON THE VARIATION OF ORGANIC BEINGS UNDER DOMESTICATION; AND ON THE PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION
      • On the hereditary tendency.
      • Causes of Variation.
      • On Selection.
      • Crossing Breeds.
      • Whether our domestic races have descended from one or more wild stocks.
      • Limits to Variation in degree and kind.
      • In what consists Domestication.
      • Summary of first Chapter.
    • On the hereditary tendency.
    • Causes of Variation.
    • On Selection.
    • Crossing Breeds.
    • Whether our domestic races have descended from one or more wild stocks.
    • Limits to Variation in degree and kind.
    • In what consists Domestication.
    • Summary of first Chapter.
    • CHAPTER II ON THE VARIATION OF ORGANIC BEINGS IN A WILD STATE; ON THE NATURAL MEANS OF SELECTION; AND ON THE COMPARISON OF DOMESTIC RACES AND TRUE SPECIES
      • Natural means of Selection{227}.
      • Differences between “Races” and “Species”:—first, in their trueness or variability.
      • Difference between “Races” and “Species” in fertility when crossed.
      • Causes of Sterility in Hybrids.
      • Infertility from causes distinct from hybridisation.
      • Points of Resemblance between “Races” and “Species{259}.”
      • External characters of Hybrids and Mongrels.
      • Summary of second chapter{265}.
      • Limits of Variation.
    • Natural means of Selection{227}.
    • Differences between “Races” and “Species”:—first, in their trueness or variability.
    • Difference between “Races” and “Species” in fertility when crossed.
    • Causes of Sterility in Hybrids.
    • Infertility from causes distinct from hybridisation.
    • Points of Resemblance between “Races” and “Species{259}.”
    • External characters of Hybrids and Mongrels.
    • Summary of second chapter{265}.
    • Limits of Variation.
    • CHAPTER III ON THE VARIATION OF INSTINCTS AND OTHER MENTAL ATTRIBUTES UNDER DOMESTICATION AND IN STATE OF NATURE; ON THE DIFFICULTIES IN THIS SUBJECT; AND ON ANALOGOUS DIFFICULTIES WITH RESPECT TO CORPOREAL STRUCTURES
      • Variation of mental attributes under domestication.
      • Hereditary habits compared with instincts.
      • Variation in the mental attributes of wild animals.
      • Principles of Selection applicable to instincts.
      • Difficulties in the acquirement of complex instincts by Selection.
      • Difficulties in the acquirement by Selection of complex corporeal structures.
    • Variation of mental attributes under domestication.
    • Hereditary habits compared with instincts.
    • Variation in the mental attributes of wild animals.
    • Principles of Selection applicable to instincts.
    • Difficulties in the acquirement of complex instincts by Selection.
    • Difficulties in the acquirement by Selection of complex corporeal structures.
    • PART II{305} ON THE EVIDENCE FAVOURABLE AND OPPOSED TO THE VIEW THAT SPECIES ARE NATURALLY FORMED RACES, DESCENDED FROM COMMON STOCKS
    • CHAPTER IV ON THE NUMBER OF INTERMEDIATE FORMS REQUIRED ON THE THEORY OF COMMON DESCENT; AND ON THEIR ABSENCE IN A FOSSIL STATE
    • CHAPTER V GRADUAL APPEARANCE AND DISAPPEARANCE OF SPECIES{326}
      • Extinction of species.
    • Extinction of species.
    • CHAPTER VI ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC BEINGS IN PAST AND PRESENT TIMES
      • Section First.
      • Distribution of the inhabitants in the different continents.
      • Relation of range in genera and species.
      • Distribution of the inhabitants in the same continent.
      • Insular Faunas.
      • Alpine Floras.
      • Cause of the similarity in the floras of some distant mountains.
      • Whether the same species has been created more than once.
      • On the number of species, and of the classes to which they belong in different regions.
      • Section Second.
      • Geographical distribution of extinct organisms.
      • Changes in geographical distribution.
      • Summary on the distribution of living and extinct organic beings.
      • Section Third.
      • An attempt to explain the foregoing laws of geographical distribution, on the theory of allied species having a common descent.
      • Improbability of finding fossil forms intermediate between existing species.
    • Section First.
    • Distribution of the inhabitants in the different continents.
    • Relation of range in genera and species.
    • Distribution of the inhabitants in the same continent.
    • Insular Faunas.
    • Alpine Floras.
    • Cause of the similarity in the floras of some distant mountains.
    • Whether the same species has been created more than once.
    • On the number of species, and of the classes to which they belong in different regions.
    • Section Second.
    • Geographical distribution of extinct organisms.
    • Changes in geographical distribution.
    • Summary on the distribution of living and extinct organic beings.
    • Section Third.
    • An attempt to explain the foregoing laws of geographical distribution, on the theory of allied species having a common descent.
    • Improbability of finding fossil forms intermediate between existing species.
    • CHAPTER VII ON THE NATURE OF THE AFFINITIES AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC BEINGS{425}
      • Gradual appearance and disappearance of groups.
      • What is the Natural System?
      • On the kind of relation between distinct groups.
      • Classification of Races or Varieties.
      • Classification of "races" and species similar.
      • Origin of genera and families.
    • Gradual appearance and disappearance of groups.
    • What is the Natural System?
    • On the kind of relation between distinct groups.
    • Classification of Races or Varieties.
    • Classification of "races" and species similar.
    • Origin of genera and families.
    • CHAPTER VIII UNITY OF TYPE IN THE GREAT CLASSES; AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
      • Unity of Type{454}.
      • Morphology.
      • Embryology.
      • Attempt to explain the facts of embryology.
      • On the graduated complexity in each great class.
      • Modification by selection of the forms of immature animals.
      • Importance of embryology in classification.
      • Order in time in which the great classes have first appeared.
    • Unity of Type{454}.
    • Morphology.
    • Embryology.
    • Attempt to explain the facts of embryology.
    • On the graduated complexity in each great class.
    • Modification by selection of the forms of immature animals.
    • Importance of embryology in classification.
    • Order in time in which the great classes have first appeared.
    • CHAPTER IX ABORTIVE OR RUDIMENTARY ORGANS
      • The abortive organs of naturalists.
      • The abortive organs of physiologists.
      • Abortion from gradual disuse.
    • The abortive organs of naturalists.
    • The abortive organs of physiologists.
    • Abortion from gradual disuse.
    • CHAPTER X RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION
      • Recapitulation.
      • Why do we wish to reject the theory of common descent?
      • Conclusion.
    • Recapitulation.
    • Why do we wish to reject the theory of common descent?
    • Conclusion.
    • INDEX
    • Footnotes
      • Transcriber’s Notes & Errata
    • Transcriber’s Notes & Errata
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