The World's Greatest Books — Volume 13 — Religion and Philosophy
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The World's Greatest Books — Volume 13 — Religion and Philosophy

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Table of Contents
  • THE WORLD'S GREATEST BOOKS
    • JOINT EDITORS
      • ARTHUR MEE J.A. HAMMERTON
    • ARTHUR MEE J.A. HAMMERTON
    • VOL. XIII
      • RELIGION
      • PHILOSOPHY
    • RELIGION
    • PHILOSOPHY
  • Table of Contents
  • Religion
    • THE APOCRYPHA
      • First Esdras
      • Second Esdras
      • Tobit
      • Judith
      • The Book of Esther
      • The Wisdom of Solomon
      • The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach; or Ecclesiasticus.
      • Baruch
      • Song of the Three Holy Children
      • The History of Susanna
      • The History of the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon
      • The Prayer of Manasses
      • The First Book of the Maccabees
      • The Second Book of the Maccabees
    • First Esdras
    • Second Esdras
    • Tobit
    • Judith
    • The Book of Esther
    • The Wisdom of Solomon
    • The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach; or Ecclesiasticus.
    • Baruch
    • Song of the Three Holy Children
    • The History of Susanna
    • The History of the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon
    • The Prayer of Manasses
    • The First Book of the Maccabees
    • The Second Book of the Maccabees
  • ST. AUGUSTINE
    • The City of God
      • I.--The Origin of the Two Cities
      • II.--The Growth of the Cities
      • III.--The Destiny of the Just
    • I.--The Origin of the Two Cities
    • II.--The Growth of the Cities
    • III.--The Destiny of the Just
  • RICHARD BAXTER
    • The Saints' Everlasting Rest
      • I.--The Nature of Rest
      • II.--How the Saints will be Employed
      • III.--How the Eternal Rest is Reached
      • IV.--Excellences of the Eternal Rest
    • I.--The Nature of Rest
    • II.--How the Saints will be Employed
    • III.--How the Eternal Rest is Reached
    • IV.--Excellences of the Eternal Rest
    • BOOK OF THE DEAD
      • Introductory
      • I.--The Scribe Ani Pleads with Osiris through Thoth for Admission to the Underworld and for a Safe Evit (Resurrection)
      • II.--The Prayer of Ani the Scribe
      • III.--Nu Praises Ra (the Sun-God) for his Ability to go Down into the Grave and Return to Earth through the Magic Use of the Sacred Texts
      • IV.--The Spirit of the Scribe Mesemneter Prays that Some Offended God may be Conciliated
      • V.--Litany to Osiris
      • VI.--Hymn of Praise to the Setting Sun
      • VII.--About the Resurrection, or the Coming Backto Life (Day), of Departed Shades.
      • VIII.--A Litany Addressed to Thoth
      • IX.--A Magical Chapter
    • Introductory
    • I.--The Scribe Ani Pleads with Osiris through Thoth for Admission to the Underworld and for a Safe Evit (Resurrection)
    • II.--The Prayer of Ani the Scribe
    • III.--Nu Praises Ra (the Sun-God) for his Ability to go Down into the Grave and Return to Earth through the Magic Use of the Sacred Texts
    • IV.--The Spirit of the Scribe Mesemneter Prays that Some Offended God may be Conciliated
    • V.--Litany to Osiris
    • VI.--Hymn of Praise to the Setting Sun
    • VII.--About the Resurrection, or the Coming Backto Life (Day), of Departed Shades.
    • VIII.--A Litany Addressed to Thoth
    • IX.--A Magical Chapter
    • BOOKS OF BRAHMANISM
      • Introductory
      • Mahabharata
    • Introductory
    • Mahabharata
    • Outline of the Epic
      • The Bhagavad-Gita, or Holy Song of Brahmanism
      • Outline of the Bhagavad-Gita
      • Other Parts of the Mahabharata
    • The Bhagavad-Gita, or Holy Song of Brahmanism
    • Outline of the Bhagavad-Gita
    • Other Parts of the Mahabharata
  • SIR THOMAS BROWNE
    • Religio Medici
      • I.--The Broad-Minded Christian
      • II.--The Divine Wisdom
      • III.--The Hope of Immortality
    • I.--The Broad-Minded Christian
    • II.--The Divine Wisdom
    • III.--The Hope of Immortality
  • JOHN CALVIN
    • Institution of the Christian Religion
      • I.--The Knowledge of God the Creator
      • II.--The Grace of Christ the Redeemer
      • III.--The Merit of Christ as Our Saviour
      • IV.--Of Repentance
      • V.--Of Justification by Faith
      • VI.--On the Doctrine of Election
    • I.--The Knowledge of God the Creator
    • II.--The Grace of Christ the Redeemer
    • III.--The Merit of Christ as Our Saviour
    • IV.--Of Repentance
    • V.--Of Justification by Faith
    • VI.--On the Doctrine of Election
  • SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE
    • Aids to Reflection
      • I.--Introductory Aphorisms
      • II.--Reflections Respecting Morality
      • III.--Prudential Aphorisms
      • IV.--Aphorisms on Spiritual Religion
    • I.--Introductory Aphorisms
    • II.--Reflections Respecting Morality
    • III.--Prudential Aphorisms
    • IV.--Aphorisms on Spiritual Religion
  • CONFUCIANISM
    • The Lun Yu, or Sayings of Confucius
      • Introductory
      • General Maxims
      • On Poetry, History, and Propriety
      • Confucius at Home and at Court
      • On Learning and Virtue
    • Introductory
    • General Maxims
    • On Poetry, History, and Propriety
    • Confucius at Home and at Court
    • On Learning and Virtue
    • Ta-Hsio, or Teaching for Adults
      • Introductory
      • How the Empire is to be Improved
    • Introductory
    • How the Empire is to be Improved
    • Chung Yung, or Doctrine of the Mean
      • Introductory
      • The Good Man's Path
    • Introductory
    • The Good Man's Path
    • The Works of Mencius
      • Introductory
      • Virtue, not Profit, to be the Chief Quest
      • A Prosperous Ruler the Friend and Father of his People
      • Mencius uses Stratagem to Bring Home to the Emperor His Guilt
      • It May be Right to Kill a Sovereign
      • The Gifts that May and Those that May Not be Accepted
      • Wrong Conduct Should be Ended at Once
      • The Inherent Goodness of Human Nature
      • People First, Kings Last
      • Every Man Should Accept His Lot
      • What the Good King Delights in Most
      • The Influence of Example
      • Counsellors Should Love Righteousness Rather Than Riches
    • Introductory
    • Virtue, not Profit, to be the Chief Quest
    • A Prosperous Ruler the Friend and Father of his People
    • Mencius uses Stratagem to Bring Home to the Emperor His Guilt
    • It May be Right to Kill a Sovereign
    • The Gifts that May and Those that May Not be Accepted
    • Wrong Conduct Should be Ended at Once
    • The Inherent Goodness of Human Nature
    • People First, Kings Last
    • Every Man Should Accept His Lot
    • What the Good King Delights in Most
    • The Influence of Example
    • Counsellors Should Love Righteousness Rather Than Riches
  • FÉNELON
    • The Existence of God
      • I.--The Hand that Makes Everything
      • II.--Earth, the Mother of All Living
      • III.--God in the Mind of Man
      • IV.--A Prayer to God
    • I.--The Hand that Makes Everything
    • II.--Earth, the Mother of All Living
    • III.--God in the Mind of Man
    • IV.--A Prayer to God
  • GALILEO
    • The Authority of Scripture
      • I.--The Defenders of Fallacy
      • II.--Scriptural and Experimental Truth
      • III.--Fact and Faith
    • I.--The Defenders of Fallacy
    • II.--Scriptural and Experimental Truth
    • III.--Fact and Faith
  • GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL
    • The Philosophy of Religion
      • I. The Relation of Philosophy to Religion
      • II.--God the Universal
      • III.--God Exists for Thought
      • IV.--What is Evil?
      • V.--The Determination of Unity
    • I. The Relation of Philosophy to Religion
    • II.--God the Universal
    • III.--God Exists for Thought
    • IV.--What is Evil?
    • V.--The Determination of Unity
  • THE BOOKS OF HINDUISM
    • The Vedanta Sutras
      • Introductory
      • Book I.--Brahman, the Sum and Substance of Everything
      • Book II.--Objections to Vedantic Doctrines Stated and Refuted
      • Book III.--Of the Soul and its Summum Bonum
    • Introductory
    • Book I.--Brahman, the Sum and Substance of Everything
    • Book II.--Objections to Vedantic Doctrines Stated and Refuted
    • Book III.--Of the Soul and its Summum Bonum
  • THOMAS À KEMPIS
    • The Imitation of Christ
      • I.--Admonitions Useful to the Spiritual Life
      • II.--Admonitions Leading to Inward Life
      • III.--Of Inward Consolation
      • IV.--Devout Exhortation to Holy Communion
    • I.--Admonitions Useful to the Spiritual Life
    • II.--Admonitions Leading to Inward Life
    • III.--Of Inward Consolation
    • IV.--Devout Exhortation to Holy Communion
    • THE KORAN
      • Introductory
      • MEKKAN SURAS
        • I.--FIRST PERIOD (A.D. 613-617)
        • Muhammad's First Call to Read the Koran
        • Denunciation of Abu Lahab[16]
        • Muhammad Commanded to Offer Sacrifices
        • Believers and Unbelievers
        • The Duty of Exercising Charity
        • Muhammad Commanded to Arise and Preach
        • The Koran Given to Muhammad
        • Muhammad not Mad nor an Impostor
        • God's Promise to Help Muhammad to Recite the Koran
        • The Koran Inspired
        • The Treatment of Women Believers
        • God's Unity[21]
        • Formulæ of Exorcism
        • The Heaven of the Muslims
      • I.--FIRST PERIOD (A.D. 613-617)
      • Muhammad's First Call to Read the Koran
      • Denunciation of Abu Lahab[16]
      • Muhammad Commanded to Offer Sacrifices
      • Believers and Unbelievers
      • The Duty of Exercising Charity
      • Muhammad Commanded to Arise and Preach
      • The Koran Given to Muhammad
      • Muhammad not Mad nor an Impostor
      • God's Promise to Help Muhammad to Recite the Koran
      • The Koran Inspired
      • The Treatment of Women Believers
      • God's Unity[21]
      • Formulæ of Exorcism
      • The Heaven of the Muslims
      • II.--SECOND PERIOD (A.D. 617-619)
        • Winds and Demons Subject to Solomon
        • The Miraculous Birth of Jesus
        • The Virgin Mary
        • Devils Sent by God to Make Men Sin
        • Solomon's Army of Men, Birds, and Jinns (Demons)
        • The Queen of Sheba's Visit to Solomon
      • Winds and Demons Subject to Solomon
      • The Miraculous Birth of Jesus
      • The Virgin Mary
      • Devils Sent by God to Make Men Sin
      • Solomon's Army of Men, Birds, and Jinns (Demons)
      • The Queen of Sheba's Visit to Solomon
      • III.--THIRD PERIOD (A.D. 619-622)
        • Punishment for Violating the Sabbath
        • Mount Sinai Shaken Above the Israelites
      • Punishment for Violating the Sabbath
      • Mount Sinai Shaken Above the Israelites
      • MEDINAH SURAS
        • Salvation for Others than Muslims
        • Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes of Israel all Muslims
        • The Qiblah Changed from Jerusalem to Mekka
        • Against Jews and Christians, Who Capriciously Choose and Reject What Divine Revelations They Please
        • The Mekka Temple Founded by Abraham
        • Jesus Predicts the Coming of Muhammad
        • Muhammad the Last and Greatest of God's Messengers
        • The Koran Consistent Throughout
        • Muhammad Contradicts the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
        • Muhammad Admits the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
        • One God, Not Three Gods, According to the Scripture
        • Forbidden Food
        • Divination by Arrows Condemned
        • Denial of the Divinity of Christ and the Trinity
      • Salvation for Others than Muslims
      • Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes of Israel all Muslims
      • The Qiblah Changed from Jerusalem to Mekka
      • Against Jews and Christians, Who Capriciously Choose and Reject What Divine Revelations They Please
      • The Mekka Temple Founded by Abraham
      • Jesus Predicts the Coming of Muhammad
      • Muhammad the Last and Greatest of God's Messengers
      • The Koran Consistent Throughout
      • Muhammad Contradicts the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
      • Muhammad Admits the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
      • One God, Not Three Gods, According to the Scripture
      • Forbidden Food
      • Divination by Arrows Condemned
      • Denial of the Divinity of Christ and the Trinity
    • Introductory
    • MEKKAN SURAS
      • I.--FIRST PERIOD (A.D. 613-617)
      • Muhammad's First Call to Read the Koran
      • Denunciation of Abu Lahab[16]
      • Muhammad Commanded to Offer Sacrifices
      • Believers and Unbelievers
      • The Duty of Exercising Charity
      • Muhammad Commanded to Arise and Preach
      • The Koran Given to Muhammad
      • Muhammad not Mad nor an Impostor
      • God's Promise to Help Muhammad to Recite the Koran
      • The Koran Inspired
      • The Treatment of Women Believers
      • God's Unity[21]
      • Formulæ of Exorcism
      • The Heaven of the Muslims
    • I.--FIRST PERIOD (A.D. 613-617)
    • Muhammad's First Call to Read the Koran
    • Denunciation of Abu Lahab[16]
    • Muhammad Commanded to Offer Sacrifices
    • Believers and Unbelievers
    • The Duty of Exercising Charity
    • Muhammad Commanded to Arise and Preach
    • The Koran Given to Muhammad
    • Muhammad not Mad nor an Impostor
    • God's Promise to Help Muhammad to Recite the Koran
    • The Koran Inspired
    • The Treatment of Women Believers
    • God's Unity[21]
    • Formulæ of Exorcism
    • The Heaven of the Muslims
    • II.--SECOND PERIOD (A.D. 617-619)
      • Winds and Demons Subject to Solomon
      • The Miraculous Birth of Jesus
      • The Virgin Mary
      • Devils Sent by God to Make Men Sin
      • Solomon's Army of Men, Birds, and Jinns (Demons)
      • The Queen of Sheba's Visit to Solomon
    • Winds and Demons Subject to Solomon
    • The Miraculous Birth of Jesus
    • The Virgin Mary
    • Devils Sent by God to Make Men Sin
    • Solomon's Army of Men, Birds, and Jinns (Demons)
    • The Queen of Sheba's Visit to Solomon
    • III.--THIRD PERIOD (A.D. 619-622)
      • Punishment for Violating the Sabbath
      • Mount Sinai Shaken Above the Israelites
    • Punishment for Violating the Sabbath
    • Mount Sinai Shaken Above the Israelites
    • MEDINAH SURAS
      • Salvation for Others than Muslims
      • Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes of Israel all Muslims
      • The Qiblah Changed from Jerusalem to Mekka
      • Against Jews and Christians, Who Capriciously Choose and Reject What Divine Revelations They Please
      • The Mekka Temple Founded by Abraham
      • Jesus Predicts the Coming of Muhammad
      • Muhammad the Last and Greatest of God's Messengers
      • The Koran Consistent Throughout
      • Muhammad Contradicts the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
      • Muhammad Admits the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
      • One God, Not Three Gods, According to the Scripture
      • Forbidden Food
      • Divination by Arrows Condemned
      • Denial of the Divinity of Christ and the Trinity
    • Salvation for Others than Muslims
    • Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes of Israel all Muslims
    • The Qiblah Changed from Jerusalem to Mekka
    • Against Jews and Christians, Who Capriciously Choose and Reject What Divine Revelations They Please
    • The Mekka Temple Founded by Abraham
    • Jesus Predicts the Coming of Muhammad
    • Muhammad the Last and Greatest of God's Messengers
    • The Koran Consistent Throughout
    • Muhammad Contradicts the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
    • Muhammad Admits the Fact of the Crucifixion of Christ
    • One God, Not Three Gods, According to the Scripture
    • Forbidden Food
    • Divination by Arrows Condemned
    • Denial of the Divinity of Christ and the Trinity
  • CARDINAL NEWMAN
    • Apologia Pro Vitâ Sua
      • I.--History of My Religious Opinions to 1833
        • II.--With the Tractarians
        • III.--A Theological Death-bed
        • IV.--The Faith of a Catholic
      • II.--With the Tractarians
      • III.--A Theological Death-bed
      • IV.--The Faith of a Catholic
    • I.--History of My Religious Opinions to 1833
      • II.--With the Tractarians
      • III.--A Theological Death-bed
      • IV.--The Faith of a Catholic
    • II.--With the Tractarians
    • III.--A Theological Death-bed
    • IV.--The Faith of a Catholic
  • THOMAS PAINE
    • The Age of Reason
      • I.--Revealed Religion
      • II.--Theology and Religion
      • III.--The Bible
      • IV.--Mystery, Miracle, and Prophecy
      • V.--Deism
    • I.--Revealed Religion
    • II.--Theology and Religion
    • III.--The Bible
    • IV.--Mystery, Miracle, and Prophecy
    • V.--Deism
  • BLAISE PASCAL
    • Letters to a Provincial
      • I.--Lax Casuists
      • II.--The Doctrine of Intention
      • III.--The Charge of Raillery
      • IV.--The Sin of Simony
      • V.--Homicide
    • I.--Lax Casuists
    • II.--The Doctrine of Intention
    • III.--The Charge of Raillery
    • IV.--The Sin of Simony
    • V.--Homicide
  • WILLIAM PENN
    • Some Fruits of Solitude
      • To the Reader
      • Ignorance
      • Education
      • Frugality or Bounty
      • Industry
      • Knowledge
      • On the Government of Thoughts
      • Friendship
      • Of Charity
    • To the Reader
    • Ignorance
    • Education
    • Frugality or Bounty
    • Industry
    • Knowledge
    • On the Government of Thoughts
    • Friendship
    • Of Charity
  • ERNEST RENAN
    • Life of Jesus
      • The Hour and the Man
      • Youth and Education
      • Idyllic Surroundings
      • A Character to Love
      • A Stimulating Acquaintance
      • Early Successes
      • A Gospel for the Poor
      • The Priest in the Path
      • Time-worm Proofs
      • The New Kingdom of God
      • The Clash of Old and New
      • Approaching the Crisis
      • Victory Through Defeat
    • The Hour and the Man
    • Youth and Education
    • Idyllic Surroundings
    • A Character to Love
    • A Stimulating Acquaintance
    • Early Successes
    • A Gospel for the Poor
    • The Priest in the Path
    • Time-worm Proofs
    • The New Kingdom of God
    • The Clash of Old and New
    • Approaching the Crisis
    • Victory Through Defeat
  • EMANUEL SWEDENBORG
    • Heaven and Hell
      • I.--Of Heaven
      • II--Of the World of Spirits
      • III.--Of Hell
    • I.--Of Heaven
    • II--Of the World of Spirits
    • III.--Of Hell
  • THE TALMUD
    • Division I.--Called Seeds
      • Division II--Feasts (Mongëd)
      • III.--Women (Nashim)
      • IV.--Concerning Penalties (Nezikin)
      • V.--Sacred Things, Sacrifices, Measurements of the Temple, etc.
      • VI.--Legal Purifications, Laws of Clean and Unclean, Etc. (Teharot)
    • Division II--Feasts (Mongëd)
    • III.--Women (Nashim)
    • IV.--Concerning Penalties (Nezikin)
    • V.--Sacred Things, Sacrifices, Measurements of the Temple, etc.
    • VI.--Legal Purifications, Laws of Clean and Unclean, Etc. (Teharot)
  • ZOROASTRIANISM
    • Zend Avesta
      • Introductory
      • I.--Yasnas, or Sacrificial Prayers and Songs
      • The Five Gathas
      • II.--Vispereds
      • III.--Vendidads (lit. "laws against demons")
    • Introductory
    • I.--Yasnas, or Sacrificial Prayers and Songs
    • The Five Gathas
    • II.--Vispereds
    • III.--Vendidads (lit. "laws against demons")
  • Philosophy
  • ARISTOTLE
    • The Ethics of Aristotle
      • I.--The End of Life and the Meaning of Virtue
      • II.--The Moral Virtues Examined
      • III.--Justice
      • IV.--Wisdom, Prudence and Continence
      • V.--Friendship
      • VI.--Conclusion
    • I.--The End of Life and the Meaning of Virtue
    • II.--The Moral Virtues Examined
    • III.--Justice
    • IV.--Wisdom, Prudence and Continence
    • V.--Friendship
    • VI.--Conclusion
  • MARCUS AURELIUS
    • His Discourses with Himself
      • Book I
      • Book II
      • Book III
      • Book IV
      • Book V
      • Book VI
      • Book VII
      • Book VIII
      • Book IX
      • Book X
      • Book XI
      • Book XII
    • Book I
    • Book II
    • Book III
    • Book IV
    • Book V
    • Book VI
    • Book VII
    • Book VIII
    • Book IX
    • Book X
    • Book XI
    • Book XII
  • FRANCIS BACON
    • The Advancement of Learning
      • Second Book
    • Second Book
  • GEORGE BERKELEY
    • Principles of Human Knowledge
      • I.--The Analysis of Perception
      • II.--The Roots of Scepticism
      • III.--Our Knowledge of God
    • I.--The Analysis of Perception
    • II.--The Roots of Scepticism
    • III.--Our Knowledge of God
  • DESCARTES
    • Discourse on Method
      • I.--The Aim of this Discourse
      • II.--The Intellectual Crisis
      • III.--A Rule of Life
      • IV.--"I Think, Therefore I Am"
      • V.--Why I Do Not Publish "The World"
    • I.--The Aim of this Discourse
    • II.--The Intellectual Crisis
    • III.--A Rule of Life
    • IV.--"I Think, Therefore I Am"
    • V.--Why I Do Not Publish "The World"
  • RALPH WALDO EMERSON
    • Nature
      • I.--To What End is Nature?
      • II.--Her Delight
      • III.--Her Loveliness
      • IV.--Her Gift of Language
      • V.--Her Moral Discipline
      • VI.--Is Nature Real?
      • VII.--The Spirit Behind Nature
    • I.--To What End is Nature?
    • II.--Her Delight
    • III.--Her Loveliness
    • IV.--Her Gift of Language
    • V.--Her Moral Discipline
    • VI.--Is Nature Real?
    • VII.--The Spirit Behind Nature
  • EPICTETUS
    • Discourses and Encheiridion
      • I.--Of the Will, and of God
      • II.--The Citizen of the World and his High Calling
      • III.--"His Will is My Will"
      • IV.--Of Tranquillity and the Means Thereto
    • I.--Of the Will, and of God
    • II.--The Citizen of the World and his High Calling
    • III.--"His Will is My Will"
    • IV.--Of Tranquillity and the Means Thereto
  • Footnotes
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