Common Science
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Common Science
By Carleton Washburne
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Table of Contents
  • Transcriber's Note:
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    • COMMON SCIENCE
      • NEW-WORLD SCIENCE SERIES
        • Edited by John W. Ritchie
      • Edited by John W. Ritchie
      • NEW-WORLD SCIENCE SERIES
        • Edited by John W. Ritchie
      • Edited by John W. Ritchie
    • NEW-WORLD SCIENCE SERIES
      • Edited by John W. Ritchie
    • Edited by John W. Ritchie
    • NEW-WORLD SCIENCE SERIES
      • Edited by John W. Ritchie
    • Edited by John W. Ritchie
  • COMMON SCIENCE
    • by
      • Carleton W. Washburne
        • ILLUSTRATED
        • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
      • ILLUSTRATED
      • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
        • 1921
      • 1921
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
        • THE HOUSE OF APPLIED KNOWLEDGE
        • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
        • 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago
      • THE HOUSE OF APPLIED KNOWLEDGE
      • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
      • 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago
    • Carleton W. Washburne
      • ILLUSTRATED
      • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
    • ILLUSTRATED
    • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
      • 1921
    • 1921
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
      • THE HOUSE OF APPLIED KNOWLEDGE
      • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
      • 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago
    • THE HOUSE OF APPLIED KNOWLEDGE
    • Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York
    • 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago
    • PREFACE
    • TO THE TEACHER
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • CONTENTS
  • COMMON SCIENCE
    • CHAPTER ONE
      • GRAVITATION
      • Fig. 1. The water in the tube rises to the level of the water in the funnel.
      • Fig. 2. Where is the best location for the tank?
      • Fig. 3. When the tank is full, will the oil overflow the top of the tube?
      • Fig. 4. When the point is knocked off the electric lamp, the water is forced into the vacuum.
      • Fig. 5. The water is held in the tube by air pressure.
      • Fig. 6. An air pump.
      • Fig. 7. The experiment with the Magdeburg hemispheres.
      • Fig. 8. A siphon. The air pushes the water over the side of the pan.
      • Fig. 9. A glass model suction pump.
      • Fig. 10.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 11. The battleship is made of steel, yet it does not sink.
      • Fig. 12. The upper tube is filled with water and the lower with oil. What will happen when she pulls the cardboard out?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 13. The Leaning Tower of Pisa.
      • Fig. 14.
      • Fig. 15. In this cylinder the center of weight is so high that it is not over the bottom if the cylinder is tipped to any extent. So the cylinder falls over easily and lies quietly on its side.
      • Fig. 16. But in this one the center of weight is so low that it is over the base, no matter what position the cylinder is in.
      • Fig. 17. So even if the cylinder is laid on its side it immediately comes to an upright position again.
      • Fig. 18. Which vase would be the hardest to upset?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • GRAVITATION
    • Fig. 1. The water in the tube rises to the level of the water in the funnel.
    • Fig. 2. Where is the best location for the tank?
    • Fig. 3. When the tank is full, will the oil overflow the top of the tube?
    • Fig. 4. When the point is knocked off the electric lamp, the water is forced into the vacuum.
    • Fig. 5. The water is held in the tube by air pressure.
    • Fig. 6. An air pump.
    • Fig. 7. The experiment with the Magdeburg hemispheres.
    • Fig. 8. A siphon. The air pushes the water over the side of the pan.
    • Fig. 9. A glass model suction pump.
    • Fig. 10.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 11. The battleship is made of steel, yet it does not sink.
    • Fig. 12. The upper tube is filled with water and the lower with oil. What will happen when she pulls the cardboard out?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 13. The Leaning Tower of Pisa.
    • Fig. 14.
    • Fig. 15. In this cylinder the center of weight is so high that it is not over the bottom if the cylinder is tipped to any extent. So the cylinder falls over easily and lies quietly on its side.
    • Fig. 16. But in this one the center of weight is so low that it is over the base, no matter what position the cylinder is in.
    • Fig. 17. So even if the cylinder is laid on its side it immediately comes to an upright position again.
    • Fig. 18. Which vase would be the hardest to upset?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER TWO
      • MOLECULAR ATTRACTION
      • Fig. 19. Will the water be drawn up higher in the fine glass tube or in a tube with a larger opening?
      • Fig. 20. The water rises through the lamp wick by capillary attraction.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 21. As the finger is raised the water is drawn up after it.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 22. El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, California. If the force of cohesion were suspended, a mountain like this would immediately become the finest dust.
      • Fig. 23. The mercury does not wet the finger, and as the finger is lifted the mercury does not follow it.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 24. Hockey is a fast game because there is little friction between the skates and the ice.
      • Fig. 25. The friction of the stone heats the nail and wears it away.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • MOLECULAR ATTRACTION
    • Fig. 19. Will the water be drawn up higher in the fine glass tube or in a tube with a larger opening?
    • Fig. 20. The water rises through the lamp wick by capillary attraction.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 21. As the finger is raised the water is drawn up after it.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 22. El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, California. If the force of cohesion were suspended, a mountain like this would immediately become the finest dust.
    • Fig. 23. The mercury does not wet the finger, and as the finger is lifted the mercury does not follow it.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 24. Hockey is a fast game because there is little friction between the skates and the ice.
    • Fig. 25. The friction of the stone heats the nail and wears it away.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER THREE
      • CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
      • Fig. 26. The little girl raises the big boy, but in doing it she moves twice as far as he does.
      • Fig. 27. The yardstick is a lever by which he lifts the pail.
      • Fig. 28. A lever with the weight between the fulcrum and the force.
      • Fig. 29. You cannot pinch hard enough this way to hurt.
      • Fig. 30. But this is quite different.
      • Fig. 31. When the handle is turned the blades of the egg beater move much more rapidly than the hand. Will they pinch hard enough to hurt?
      • Fig. 32. His hand goes down as far as the pail goes up.
      • Fig. 33. With this arrangement the pail travels more slowly than the hand. Will it seem heavier or lighter than with the arrangement shown in Figure 32?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 34. When the paper is jerked out, the glass of water does not move.
        • Try these experiments:
      • Try these experiments:
      • Fig. 35. When a boy is moving rapidly, it takes force to change the direction of his motion.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 36. Why doesn't the water spill out?
      • Fig. 37. An automobile race. Notice how the track is banked to keep the cars from overturning on the curves.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 38. The horse goes forward by pushing backward on the earth with his feet.
      • Fig. 39. As he starts to toss the ball up, will he weigh more or less?
      • Fig. 40. Action and reaction are equal; when he pushes forward on the ropes, he pushes backward with equal force on the seat.
        • Inference Exercise
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
    • Fig. 26. The little girl raises the big boy, but in doing it she moves twice as far as he does.
    • Fig. 27. The yardstick is a lever by which he lifts the pail.
    • Fig. 28. A lever with the weight between the fulcrum and the force.
    • Fig. 29. You cannot pinch hard enough this way to hurt.
    • Fig. 30. But this is quite different.
    • Fig. 31. When the handle is turned the blades of the egg beater move much more rapidly than the hand. Will they pinch hard enough to hurt?
    • Fig. 32. His hand goes down as far as the pail goes up.
    • Fig. 33. With this arrangement the pail travels more slowly than the hand. Will it seem heavier or lighter than with the arrangement shown in Figure 32?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 34. When the paper is jerked out, the glass of water does not move.
      • Try these experiments:
    • Try these experiments:
    • Fig. 35. When a boy is moving rapidly, it takes force to change the direction of his motion.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 36. Why doesn't the water spill out?
    • Fig. 37. An automobile race. Notice how the track is banked to keep the cars from overturning on the curves.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 38. The horse goes forward by pushing backward on the earth with his feet.
    • Fig. 39. As he starts to toss the ball up, will he weigh more or less?
    • Fig. 40. Action and reaction are equal; when he pushes forward on the ropes, he pushes backward with equal force on the seat.
      • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER FOUR
      • HEAT
      • Fig. 41. A thermometer.
      • Fig. 42. A thermometer made of a flask of water. It does not show the exact degree of heat of the water, but it does show whether the water is hot or cold.
      • Fig. 43. Will the hot ball go through the ring?
      • Fig. 44. When the wire is cold, it is fairly tight.
      • Fig. 45. But notice how it sags when it is hot.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 46. The expansion of the compressed gas freezes the moisture on the tube.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 47. Why did the bottle break when the water in it turned to ice?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 48. An evaporating dish.
      • Fig. 49. Diagram illustrating how in the evaporation of water some of the molecules shoot off into the air.
      • Fig. 50. A view of the Dead Sea.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 51. In a minute the cork will fly out.
      • Fig. 52. A toy balloon has been slipped over the mouth of a flask that is filled with steam.
      • Fig. 53. As the steam condenses and leaves a vacuum, the air pressure forces the balloon into the flask.
      • Fig. 54. Will boiling water get hotter if you make it boil harder?
      • Fig. 55. By distillation clear alcohol can be separated from the water and red ink with which it was mixed.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 56. The metal balls are fastened to the iron and glass rods with drops of wax.
      • Fig. 57. Does the heat travel faster through the iron or through the glass?
      • Fig. 58. Convection currents carrying the heat of the stove about the room.
      • Fig. 59. Diagram of a hot-water heater. What makes the water circulate?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • HEAT
    • Fig. 41. A thermometer.
    • Fig. 42. A thermometer made of a flask of water. It does not show the exact degree of heat of the water, but it does show whether the water is hot or cold.
    • Fig. 43. Will the hot ball go through the ring?
    • Fig. 44. When the wire is cold, it is fairly tight.
    • Fig. 45. But notice how it sags when it is hot.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 46. The expansion of the compressed gas freezes the moisture on the tube.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 47. Why did the bottle break when the water in it turned to ice?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 48. An evaporating dish.
    • Fig. 49. Diagram illustrating how in the evaporation of water some of the molecules shoot off into the air.
    • Fig. 50. A view of the Dead Sea.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 51. In a minute the cork will fly out.
    • Fig. 52. A toy balloon has been slipped over the mouth of a flask that is filled with steam.
    • Fig. 53. As the steam condenses and leaves a vacuum, the air pressure forces the balloon into the flask.
    • Fig. 54. Will boiling water get hotter if you make it boil harder?
    • Fig. 55. By distillation clear alcohol can be separated from the water and red ink with which it was mixed.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 56. The metal balls are fastened to the iron and glass rods with drops of wax.
    • Fig. 57. Does the heat travel faster through the iron or through the glass?
    • Fig. 58. Convection currents carrying the heat of the stove about the room.
    • Fig. 59. Diagram of a hot-water heater. What makes the water circulate?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER FIVE
      • RADIANT HEAT AND LIGHT
      • Fig. 60. It is by radiation that we get all our heat and light from the sun.
      • Fig. 61. How a thermos bottle is made. Notice the double layer of glass in the broken one.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 62. The ball bounces from one boy to the other, but it does not return to the one who threw it.
      • Fig. 63. In the same way, the light bounces (reflects) from one boy to the other. It does not return to the point from which it started and neither boy can see himself.
      • Fig. 64. How should the mirror be placed?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 65. In passing through the prism the light is bent so that an object at b appears to be at c.
      • Fig. 66. The pencil is not bent, but the light that comes from it is.
      • Fig. 67. The bending of the light by the water in the glass causes the pencil to look broken.
      • Fig. 68. The light is bent when it enters a window pane and is bent again in the opposite direction when it leaves it.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 69. When the light from one point goes through the lens, it is bent and comes together at another point called the focus.
      • Fig. 70. The light from each point of the candle flame goes out in all directions.
      • Fig. 71. The reading glass is a lens which focuses the light from the candle flame and forms an image.
      • Fig. 72. The light from the tip of the candle flame is focused at one point.
      • Fig. 73. And the light from the base of the flame is focused at another point.
      • Fig. 74. The light from the tip and base (and from every other point) of the flame is, of course, focused at the same time. In this way an image of the flame is formed.
      • Fig. 75. The light spreads out again beyond the focus.
      • Fig. 76. So if the light comes to a focus before it reaches the paper, the image will be blurred.
      • Fig. 77. Or if the light reaches the paper before it comes to a focus, the image will be blurred.
      • Fig. 78. Lenses of different kinds.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 79. A section of the eye.
      • Fig. 80. How an image is formed on the retina of the eye.
      • Fig. 81. A simpler diagram showing how an image is formed in the eye.
      • Fig. 82. A diagram showing how a reading glass causes things to look larger by making the image on the retina larger.
      • Fig. 83. Diagram showing how a reading glass enlarges the image on the retina. More lines are drawn in than in Figure 82.
      • Fig. 84. Diagram of a microscope.
      • Fig. 85. This is the way a concave mirror forms a magnified image.
      • Fig. 86. The concave mirror forms an image of the burning candle.
      • Fig. 87. The great telescope of the Yerkes Observatory at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 88. The sunlight is scattered (diffused) by the clouds. The photograph shows in the foreground the Parliament Buildings, London, England.
      • Fig. 89. How the droplets in a cloud scatter the rays of light.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 90. Making a rainbow on the wall.
      • Fig. 91. The prism separates the white light into the rainbow colors.
      • Fig. 92. When the wheel is rapidly whirled the colors blend to make white.
      • Fig. 93. Which color is warmest in the sunlight?
      • Fig. 94. A mercury-vapor lamp.
      • Fig. 95. Explain why the breakers are white and the sea green or blue.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • RADIANT HEAT AND LIGHT
    • Fig. 60. It is by radiation that we get all our heat and light from the sun.
    • Fig. 61. How a thermos bottle is made. Notice the double layer of glass in the broken one.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 62. The ball bounces from one boy to the other, but it does not return to the one who threw it.
    • Fig. 63. In the same way, the light bounces (reflects) from one boy to the other. It does not return to the point from which it started and neither boy can see himself.
    • Fig. 64. How should the mirror be placed?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 65. In passing through the prism the light is bent so that an object at b appears to be at c.
    • Fig. 66. The pencil is not bent, but the light that comes from it is.
    • Fig. 67. The bending of the light by the water in the glass causes the pencil to look broken.
    • Fig. 68. The light is bent when it enters a window pane and is bent again in the opposite direction when it leaves it.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 69. When the light from one point goes through the lens, it is bent and comes together at another point called the focus.
    • Fig. 70. The light from each point of the candle flame goes out in all directions.
    • Fig. 71. The reading glass is a lens which focuses the light from the candle flame and forms an image.
    • Fig. 72. The light from the tip of the candle flame is focused at one point.
    • Fig. 73. And the light from the base of the flame is focused at another point.
    • Fig. 74. The light from the tip and base (and from every other point) of the flame is, of course, focused at the same time. In this way an image of the flame is formed.
    • Fig. 75. The light spreads out again beyond the focus.
    • Fig. 76. So if the light comes to a focus before it reaches the paper, the image will be blurred.
    • Fig. 77. Or if the light reaches the paper before it comes to a focus, the image will be blurred.
    • Fig. 78. Lenses of different kinds.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 79. A section of the eye.
    • Fig. 80. How an image is formed on the retina of the eye.
    • Fig. 81. A simpler diagram showing how an image is formed in the eye.
    • Fig. 82. A diagram showing how a reading glass causes things to look larger by making the image on the retina larger.
    • Fig. 83. Diagram showing how a reading glass enlarges the image on the retina. More lines are drawn in than in Figure 82.
    • Fig. 84. Diagram of a microscope.
    • Fig. 85. This is the way a concave mirror forms a magnified image.
    • Fig. 86. The concave mirror forms an image of the burning candle.
    • Fig. 87. The great telescope of the Yerkes Observatory at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 88. The sunlight is scattered (diffused) by the clouds. The photograph shows in the foreground the Parliament Buildings, London, England.
    • Fig. 89. How the droplets in a cloud scatter the rays of light.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 90. Making a rainbow on the wall.
    • Fig. 91. The prism separates the white light into the rainbow colors.
    • Fig. 92. When the wheel is rapidly whirled the colors blend to make white.
    • Fig. 93. Which color is warmest in the sunlight?
    • Fig. 94. A mercury-vapor lamp.
    • Fig. 95. Explain why the breakers are white and the sea green or blue.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER SIX
      • SOUND
      • Fig. 96. An interesting experiment in sound.
      • Fig. 97. When the air is pumped out of the jar, you cannot hear the bell ring.
      • Fig. 98. Making a phonograph record on an old-fashioned phonograph.
      • Fig. 99. A modern dictaphone.
      • Fig. 100. How the apparatus is set up.
      • Fig. 101. When the tuning fork vibrates, the glass needle makes a wavy line on the smoked paper on the drum.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 102. When the wave reaches the end of the sink, it is reflected back. Sound waves are reflected in the same way.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 103. When the prongs of the tuning fork are made longer or shorter, the pitch of the sound is changed.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • SOUND
    • Fig. 96. An interesting experiment in sound.
    • Fig. 97. When the air is pumped out of the jar, you cannot hear the bell ring.
    • Fig. 98. Making a phonograph record on an old-fashioned phonograph.
    • Fig. 99. A modern dictaphone.
    • Fig. 100. How the apparatus is set up.
    • Fig. 101. When the tuning fork vibrates, the glass needle makes a wavy line on the smoked paper on the drum.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 102. When the wave reaches the end of the sink, it is reflected back. Sound waves are reflected in the same way.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 103. When the prongs of the tuning fork are made longer or shorter, the pitch of the sound is changed.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER SEVEN
      • MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
      • Fig. 104. The compass needle follows the magnet.
      • Fig. 105. Magnetizing a needle.
      • Fig. 106. A compass made of a needle and a piece of cardboard.
      • Fig. 107. Diagram of molecules in unmagnetized iron. The north and south poles of the molecules are supposed to be pointing in all directions.
      • Fig. 108. Diagram of magnetized iron. The north and south poles of the molecules are all supposed to point in the same direction.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 109. When the comb is rubbed on the coat, it becomes charged with electricity.
      • Fig. 110. The charged comb picks up pieces of paper.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
    • Fig. 104. The compass needle follows the magnet.
    • Fig. 105. Magnetizing a needle.
    • Fig. 106. A compass made of a needle and a piece of cardboard.
    • Fig. 107. Diagram of molecules in unmagnetized iron. The north and south poles of the molecules are supposed to be pointing in all directions.
    • Fig. 108. Diagram of magnetized iron. The north and south poles of the molecules are all supposed to point in the same direction.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 109. When the comb is rubbed on the coat, it becomes charged with electricity.
    • Fig. 110. The charged comb picks up pieces of paper.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER EIGHT
      • ELECTRICITY
      • Fig. 111. A wet battery of three cells connected to ring a bell.
      • Fig. 112. A battery of three dry cells.
      • Fig. 113. A storage battery.
      • Fig. 114. Spinning loops of wire between the poles of a magnet causes a current of electricity to flow through the wire.
      • Fig. 115. The more loops there are, the stronger the current.
      • Fig. 116. If the electricity passes through a lamp on its way around the circuit the filament of the lamp glows.
      • Fig. 117. A dynamo in an electric light plant.
      • Fig. 118. The magneto in an automobile is a small dynamo.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 119. Electricity flows through the coin.
      • Fig. 120. Will electricity go through the glass?
      • Fig. 121. Electrical apparatus: A, plug fuse; B, cartridge fuse; C, knife switch; D, snap switch; E, socket with nail plug in it; F, fuse gap; G, flush switch; H, lamp socket; I, J, K, resistance wire.
      • Fig. 122. Which should he choose to connect the broken wires?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 123. Electricity flows around a completed circuit somewhat as water might be made to flow around this trough.
      • Fig. 124. Diagram of the complete circuit through the laboratory switches.
      • Fig. 125. Parallel circuits.
      • Fig. 126. How should he connect them?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 127. The ground can be used in place of a wire to complete the circuit.
      • Fig. 128. Grounding the circuit. The faucet and water pipe lead the electricity to the ground.
      • Fig. 129. How the lamp and wire are held to ground the circuit.
      • Fig. 130. How can the electric iron be used after one wire has been cut?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 131. Feeling one live wire does not give her a shock, but what would happen if she touched the gas pipe with her other hand?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 132. Pencils ready for making an arc light.
      • Fig. 133. The pencil points are touched together and immediately drawn apart.
      • Fig. 134. A brilliant arc light is the result.
      • Fig. 135. An arc lamp. The carbons are much larger than the carbons in the pencils, and the arc gives an intense light.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 136. A, the "fuse gap" and B, the "nail plug."
      • Fig. 137. What will happen when the pin is thrust through the cords and the electricity turned on?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 138. The magnetized bolt picks up the iron filings.
      • Fig. 139. Sending a message with a cigar-box telegraph.
      • Fig. 140. Connecting up a real telegraph instrument.
      • Fig. 141. Diagram showing how to connect up two telegraph instruments. The circles on the tables represent the binding posts of the instruments.
      • Fig. 142. Telegraphing across the room.
        • Letters
        • Numerals
      • Letters
      • Numerals
      • Fig. 143. The bell is rung by electromagnets.
      • Fig. 144. A toy electric motor that goes.
      • Fig. 145. An electric motor of commercial size.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • ELECTRICITY
    • Fig. 111. A wet battery of three cells connected to ring a bell.
    • Fig. 112. A battery of three dry cells.
    • Fig. 113. A storage battery.
    • Fig. 114. Spinning loops of wire between the poles of a magnet causes a current of electricity to flow through the wire.
    • Fig. 115. The more loops there are, the stronger the current.
    • Fig. 116. If the electricity passes through a lamp on its way around the circuit the filament of the lamp glows.
    • Fig. 117. A dynamo in an electric light plant.
    • Fig. 118. The magneto in an automobile is a small dynamo.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 119. Electricity flows through the coin.
    • Fig. 120. Will electricity go through the glass?
    • Fig. 121. Electrical apparatus: A, plug fuse; B, cartridge fuse; C, knife switch; D, snap switch; E, socket with nail plug in it; F, fuse gap; G, flush switch; H, lamp socket; I, J, K, resistance wire.
    • Fig. 122. Which should he choose to connect the broken wires?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 123. Electricity flows around a completed circuit somewhat as water might be made to flow around this trough.
    • Fig. 124. Diagram of the complete circuit through the laboratory switches.
    • Fig. 125. Parallel circuits.
    • Fig. 126. How should he connect them?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 127. The ground can be used in place of a wire to complete the circuit.
    • Fig. 128. Grounding the circuit. The faucet and water pipe lead the electricity to the ground.
    • Fig. 129. How the lamp and wire are held to ground the circuit.
    • Fig. 130. How can the electric iron be used after one wire has been cut?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 131. Feeling one live wire does not give her a shock, but what would happen if she touched the gas pipe with her other hand?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 132. Pencils ready for making an arc light.
    • Fig. 133. The pencil points are touched together and immediately drawn apart.
    • Fig. 134. A brilliant arc light is the result.
    • Fig. 135. An arc lamp. The carbons are much larger than the carbons in the pencils, and the arc gives an intense light.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 136. A, the "fuse gap" and B, the "nail plug."
    • Fig. 137. What will happen when the pin is thrust through the cords and the electricity turned on?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 138. The magnetized bolt picks up the iron filings.
    • Fig. 139. Sending a message with a cigar-box telegraph.
    • Fig. 140. Connecting up a real telegraph instrument.
    • Fig. 141. Diagram showing how to connect up two telegraph instruments. The circles on the tables represent the binding posts of the instruments.
    • Fig. 142. Telegraphing across the room.
      • Letters
      • Numerals
    • Letters
    • Numerals
    • Fig. 143. The bell is rung by electromagnets.
    • Fig. 144. A toy electric motor that goes.
    • Fig. 145. An electric motor of commercial size.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER NINE
      • MINGLING OF MOLECULES
      • Fig. 146. Will heating the water make more salt dissolve?
      • Fig. 147. Will the volume be doubled when the alcohol and water are poured together?
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 148. Alum crystals.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 149. Filling a test tube with gas.
      • Fig. 150. The lower test tube is full of air; the upper, of gas. What will happen when the cardboard is withdrawn?
      • Fig. 151. Pouring the syrup into the "osmosis tube."
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 152. Filling the barometer tube with mercury.
      • Fig. 153. Inverting the filled tube in the cup of mercury.
      • Fig. 154. Finding the pressure of the air by measuring the height of the mercury in the tube.
      • Fig. 155. The kind of mercury barometer that you buy.
      • Fig. 156. An aneroid barometer is more convenient than one made with mercury. The walls are forced in or spring back out according to the pressure of the air. This movement of the walls forces the hand around.
      • Fig. 157. Different forms of snowflakes. Each snowflake is a collection of small ice crystals.
      • Fig. 158. If you blow gently over ice, you can see your breath.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 159. The glass does not leak; the moisture on it comes from the air.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • MINGLING OF MOLECULES
    • Fig. 146. Will heating the water make more salt dissolve?
    • Fig. 147. Will the volume be doubled when the alcohol and water are poured together?
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 148. Alum crystals.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 149. Filling a test tube with gas.
    • Fig. 150. The lower test tube is full of air; the upper, of gas. What will happen when the cardboard is withdrawn?
    • Fig. 151. Pouring the syrup into the "osmosis tube."
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 152. Filling the barometer tube with mercury.
    • Fig. 153. Inverting the filled tube in the cup of mercury.
    • Fig. 154. Finding the pressure of the air by measuring the height of the mercury in the tube.
    • Fig. 155. The kind of mercury barometer that you buy.
    • Fig. 156. An aneroid barometer is more convenient than one made with mercury. The walls are forced in or spring back out according to the pressure of the air. This movement of the walls forces the hand around.
    • Fig. 157. Different forms of snowflakes. Each snowflake is a collection of small ice crystals.
    • Fig. 158. If you blow gently over ice, you can see your breath.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 159. The glass does not leak; the moisture on it comes from the air.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER TEN
      • CHEMICAL CHANGE AND ENERGY
      • Fig. 160. The electrodes are made of loops of platinum wire sealed in glass tubes.
      • Fig. 161. Water can be separated into two gases by a current of electricity.
      • Fig. 162. Filling a balloon with hydrogen.
      • Fig. 163. Adding more acid without losing the gas.
      • Fig. 164. Trying to see if hydrogen will burn.
      • Fig. 165. Filling a bottle with oxygen.
      • Fig. 166. The iron really burns in the jar of oxygen.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 167. The water rises in the bottle after the burning candle uses up the oxygen.
      • Fig. 168. The Bunsen burner smokes when the air holes are closed.
      • Fig. 169. Regulating the air opening in a gas stove.
      • Fig. 170. The air openings in the front of a gas stove.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 171. Why doesn't the flame above the wire gauze set fire to the gas below?
      • Fig. 172. The part of the match in the middle of the flame does not burn.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 173. The silver salt on the paper remains white where it was shaded by the key.
      • Figs. 174 and 175. Where the negative is dark, the print is light.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 176. The copper and the nickel cube ready to hang in the cleansing solution.
      • Fig. 177. Cleaning the copper in acids.
      • Fig. 178. Plating the copper by electricity.
        • Inference Exercise
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 179. The explosion of 75 pounds of dynamite. A "still" from a motion-picture film.
      • Fig. 180. Diagram of the cylinder of an engine. The piston is driven forward by the explosion of the gasoline in the cylinder.
      • Fig. 181. The most powerful explosions on earth occur in connection with volcanic activity. The photograph shows Mt. Lassen, California, the only active volcano in the United States.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • CHEMICAL CHANGE AND ENERGY
    • Fig. 160. The electrodes are made of loops of platinum wire sealed in glass tubes.
    • Fig. 161. Water can be separated into two gases by a current of electricity.
    • Fig. 162. Filling a balloon with hydrogen.
    • Fig. 163. Adding more acid without losing the gas.
    • Fig. 164. Trying to see if hydrogen will burn.
    • Fig. 165. Filling a bottle with oxygen.
    • Fig. 166. The iron really burns in the jar of oxygen.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 167. The water rises in the bottle after the burning candle uses up the oxygen.
    • Fig. 168. The Bunsen burner smokes when the air holes are closed.
    • Fig. 169. Regulating the air opening in a gas stove.
    • Fig. 170. The air openings in the front of a gas stove.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 171. Why doesn't the flame above the wire gauze set fire to the gas below?
    • Fig. 172. The part of the match in the middle of the flame does not burn.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 173. The silver salt on the paper remains white where it was shaded by the key.
    • Figs. 174 and 175. Where the negative is dark, the print is light.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 176. The copper and the nickel cube ready to hang in the cleansing solution.
    • Fig. 177. Cleaning the copper in acids.
    • Fig. 178. Plating the copper by electricity.
      • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 179. The explosion of 75 pounds of dynamite. A "still" from a motion-picture film.
    • Fig. 180. Diagram of the cylinder of an engine. The piston is driven forward by the explosion of the gasoline in the cylinder.
    • Fig. 181. The most powerful explosions on earth occur in connection with volcanic activity. The photograph shows Mt. Lassen, California, the only active volcano in the United States.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER ELEVEN
      • SOLUTION AND CHEMICAL ACTION
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 182. Etching copper with acid.
      • Fig. 183. Strong acids will eat holes like this in cloth.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 184. The lye has changed the wool cloth to a jelly.
        • Inference Exercise
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • Fig. 185. Making a glass of soda lemonade.
        • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • SOLUTION AND CHEMICAL ACTION
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 182. Etching copper with acid.
    • Fig. 183. Strong acids will eat holes like this in cloth.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 184. The lye has changed the wool cloth to a jelly.
      • Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • Fig. 185. Making a glass of soda lemonade.
      • Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • CHAPTER TWELVE
      • ANALYSIS
      • Fig. 186. The platinum loop used in making the borax bead test.
      • Fig. 187. Making the test.
      • Fig. 188. The white powder that is forming is a silver salt.
      • Fig. 189. The limewater test shows that there is carbon dioxid in the air.
        • Inference Exercise
        • General Review Inference Exercise
      • Inference Exercise
      • General Review Inference Exercise
    • ANALYSIS
    • Fig. 186. The platinum loop used in making the borax bead test.
    • Fig. 187. Making the test.
    • Fig. 188. The white powder that is forming is a silver salt.
    • Fig. 189. The limewater test shows that there is carbon dioxid in the air.
      • Inference Exercise
      • General Review Inference Exercise
    • Inference Exercise
    • General Review Inference Exercise
    • APPENDIX
      • A. The Electrical Apparatus
      • Fig. 190. Electrical apparatus: At the right are the incoming wires. Dotted lines show outlines of fuse block. A, 2 cartridge fuses, 15 A; B, 2 plug fuses, 10 A; C, knife switch; D, fuse gap; E, snap switch; F, H, lamp sockets; G, flush switch; I, J, K, nichrome resistance wire, No. 24 (total length of loop, 6 feet), passing around porcelain posts at left.
      • B. Construction of the Cigar-box Telegraph
      • Fig. 191. The cigar-box telegraph.
    • A. The Electrical Apparatus
    • Fig. 190. Electrical apparatus: At the right are the incoming wires. Dotted lines show outlines of fuse block. A, 2 cartridge fuses, 15 A; B, 2 plug fuses, 10 A; C, knife switch; D, fuse gap; E, snap switch; F, H, lamp sockets; G, flush switch; I, J, K, nichrome resistance wire, No. 24 (total length of loop, 6 feet), passing around porcelain posts at left.
    • B. Construction of the Cigar-box Telegraph
    • Fig. 191. The cigar-box telegraph.
    • INDEX
      • CONSERVATION SERIES
    • CONSERVATION SERIES
    • Conservation Reader
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
      • INDIAN LIFE AND INDIAN LORE
        • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • INDIAN LIFE AND INDIAN LORE
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • INSECT ADVENTURES
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • TREES, STARS and BIRDS
      • A BOOK OF OUTDOOR SCIENCE
        • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • A BOOK OF OUTDOOR SCIENCE
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • SCIENCE for BEGINNERS
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • NEW-WORLD SCIENCE SERIES
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
        • INDIAN LIFE AND INDIAN LORE
      • INDIAN LIFE AND INDIAN LORE
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
      • INDIAN LIFE AND INDIAN LORE
    • INDIAN LIFE AND INDIAN LORE
    • THE HERO OF THE LONGHOUSE
      • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • WORLD BOOK COMPANY
    • CHEMCRAFT
      • THE PORTER CHEMICAL COMPANY
    • THE PORTER CHEMICAL COMPANY
    • CALUMET BAKING POWDER
    • VENUS
    • PENCILS
      • The largest selling Quality pencil in the world
        • 17 Black Degrees, 3 Copying
        • Transcriber's Notes:
      • 17 Black Degrees, 3 Copying
      • Transcriber's Notes:
    • The largest selling Quality pencil in the world
      • 17 Black Degrees, 3 Copying
      • Transcriber's Notes:
    • 17 Black Degrees, 3 Copying
    • Transcriber's Notes:
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