Man and Nature; Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action
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Man and Nature; Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action

By George P. (George Perkins) Marsh
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Table of Contents
  • MAN AND NATURE;
  • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
    • AS MODIFIED BY HUMAN ACTION.
      • NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER & CO., No. 654 BROADWAY. 1867.
    • NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER & CO., No. 654 BROADWAY. 1867.
  • P R E F A C E.
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LIST
    • OF WORKS CONSULTED IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS VOLUME.
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS.
  • CHAPTER I.
    • INTRODUCTORY.
      • Natural Advantages of the Territory of the Roman Empire.
      • Physical Decay of the Territory of the Roman Empire, and of other parts of the Old World.
      • Causes of this Decay.
      • New School of Geographers.
      • Reaction of Man on Nature.
      • Observation of Nature.
      • Cosmical and Geological Influences.
      • Geographical Influence of Man.
      • Uncertainty of our Meteorological Knowledge.
      • Mechanical Effects produced by Man on the Surface of the Earth more easily ascertainable.
      • Importance and Possibility of Physical Restoration.
      • Stability of Nature.
      • Restoration of Disturbed Harmonies.
      • Destructiveness of Man.
      • Human and Brute Action Compared.
      • Physical Improvement.
      • Arrest of Physical Decay of New Countries.
      • Forms and Formations most liable to Physical Degradation.
      • Physical Decay of New Countries.
    • Natural Advantages of the Territory of the Roman Empire.
    • Physical Decay of the Territory of the Roman Empire, and of other parts of the Old World.
    • Causes of this Decay.
    • New School of Geographers.
    • Reaction of Man on Nature.
    • Observation of Nature.
    • Cosmical and Geological Influences.
    • Geographical Influence of Man.
    • Uncertainty of our Meteorological Knowledge.
    • Mechanical Effects produced by Man on the Surface of the Earth more easily ascertainable.
    • Importance and Possibility of Physical Restoration.
    • Stability of Nature.
    • Restoration of Disturbed Harmonies.
    • Destructiveness of Man.
    • Human and Brute Action Compared.
    • Physical Improvement.
    • Arrest of Physical Decay of New Countries.
    • Forms and Formations most liable to Physical Degradation.
    • Physical Decay of New Countries.
  • CHAPTER II.
    • TRANSFER, MODIFICATION, AND EXTIRPATION OF VEGETABLE AND OF ANIMAL SPECIES.
      • Modern Geography embraces Organic Life.
      • Transfer of Vegetable Life.
      • Foreign Plants grown in the United States.
      • American Plants grown in Europe.
      • Modes of Introduction of Foreign Plants.
      • Vegetables, how affected by Transfer to Foreign Soils.
      • Extirpation of Vegetables.
      • Origin of Domestic Plants.
      • Organic Life as a Geological and Geographical Agency.
      • Number of Quadrupeds in the United States.
      • Origin and Transfer of Domestic Quadrupeds.
      • Extirpation of Quadrupeds.
      • Number of Birds in the United States.
      • Birds as Sowers and Consumers of Seeds, and as Destroyers of Insects.
      • Diminution and Extirpation of Birds.
      • Introduction of Birds.
      • Introduction of Insects.
      • Destruction of Insects.
      • Reptiles.
      • Destruction of Fish.
      • Introduction and Breeding of Fish.
      • Extirpation of Aquatic Animals.
      • Minute Organisms.
    • Modern Geography embraces Organic Life.
    • Transfer of Vegetable Life.
    • Foreign Plants grown in the United States.
    • American Plants grown in Europe.
    • Modes of Introduction of Foreign Plants.
    • Vegetables, how affected by Transfer to Foreign Soils.
    • Extirpation of Vegetables.
    • Origin of Domestic Plants.
    • Organic Life as a Geological and Geographical Agency.
    • Number of Quadrupeds in the United States.
    • Origin and Transfer of Domestic Quadrupeds.
    • Extirpation of Quadrupeds.
    • Number of Birds in the United States.
    • Birds as Sowers and Consumers of Seeds, and as Destroyers of Insects.
    • Diminution and Extirpation of Birds.
    • Introduction of Birds.
    • Introduction of Insects.
    • Destruction of Insects.
    • Reptiles.
    • Destruction of Fish.
    • Introduction and Breeding of Fish.
    • Extirpation of Aquatic Animals.
    • Minute Organisms.
  • CHAPTER III.
    • THE WOODS.
      • The Habitable Earth Originally Wooded.
      • The Forest does not Furnish Food for Man.
      • First Removal of the Forest.
      • Effects of Fire on Forest Soil.
      • Effects of Destruction of the Forest.
      • Electrical Influence of Trees.
      • Chemical Influence of the Forest.
      • Influence of the Forest, considered as Inorganic Matter, on Temperature.
      • a. Absorbing and Emitting Surface.
      • b. Trees as Conductors of Heat.
      • c. Trees in Summer and Winter.
      • d. Dead Products of Trees.
      • e. Trees as a Shelter to Ground to the Leeward.
      • f. Trees as a Protection against Malaria.
      • The Forest, as Inorganic Matter, tends to mitigate Extremes.
      • TREES AS ORGANISMS.
      • Specific Heat.
      • Total Influence of the Forest on Temperature.
      • INFLUENCE OF FORESTS ON THE HUMIDITY OF THE AIR AND THE EARTH.
      • a. As Inorganic Matter.
      • b. The Forest as Organic.
      • Wood Mosses and Fungi.
      • Flow of Sap.
      • Absorption and Exhalation of Moisture.
      • Balance of Conflicting Influences.
      • Influence of the Forest on Temperature and Precipitation.
      • Influence of the Forest on the Humidity of the Soil.
      • Influence of the Forest on the Flow of Springs.
      • The Forest in Winter.
      • General Consequences of the Destruction of the Forest.
      • Condition of the Forest, and its Literature in different Countries.
      • The Influence of the Forest on Inundations.
      • Destructive Action of Torrents.
      • Transporting Power of Rivers.
      • The Po and its Deposits.
      • Mountain Slides.
      • Protection against fall of Rocks and Avalanches by Trees.
      • Principal Causes of the Destruction of the Forest.
      • American Forest Trees.
      • Special Causes of the Destruction of European Woods.
      • Royal Forests and Game Laws.
      • Small Forest Plants, and Vitality of Seed.
      • Utility of the Forest.
      • The Forests of Europe.
      • Forests of the United States and Canada.
      • The Economy of the Forest.
      • European and American Trees compared.
      • Sylviculture.
      • Instability of American Life.
    • The Habitable Earth Originally Wooded.
    • The Forest does not Furnish Food for Man.
    • First Removal of the Forest.
    • Effects of Fire on Forest Soil.
    • Effects of Destruction of the Forest.
    • Electrical Influence of Trees.
    • Chemical Influence of the Forest.
    • Influence of the Forest, considered as Inorganic Matter, on Temperature.
    • a. Absorbing and Emitting Surface.
    • b. Trees as Conductors of Heat.
    • c. Trees in Summer and Winter.
    • d. Dead Products of Trees.
    • e. Trees as a Shelter to Ground to the Leeward.
    • f. Trees as a Protection against Malaria.
    • The Forest, as Inorganic Matter, tends to mitigate Extremes.
    • TREES AS ORGANISMS.
    • Specific Heat.
    • Total Influence of the Forest on Temperature.
    • INFLUENCE OF FORESTS ON THE HUMIDITY OF THE AIR AND THE EARTH.
    • a. As Inorganic Matter.
    • b. The Forest as Organic.
    • Wood Mosses and Fungi.
    • Flow of Sap.
    • Absorption and Exhalation of Moisture.
    • Balance of Conflicting Influences.
    • Influence of the Forest on Temperature and Precipitation.
    • Influence of the Forest on the Humidity of the Soil.
    • Influence of the Forest on the Flow of Springs.
    • The Forest in Winter.
    • General Consequences of the Destruction of the Forest.
    • Condition of the Forest, and its Literature in different Countries.
    • The Influence of the Forest on Inundations.
    • Destructive Action of Torrents.
    • Transporting Power of Rivers.
    • The Po and its Deposits.
    • Mountain Slides.
    • Protection against fall of Rocks and Avalanches by Trees.
    • Principal Causes of the Destruction of the Forest.
    • American Forest Trees.
    • Special Causes of the Destruction of European Woods.
    • Royal Forests and Game Laws.
    • Small Forest Plants, and Vitality of Seed.
    • Utility of the Forest.
    • The Forests of Europe.
    • Forests of the United States and Canada.
    • The Economy of the Forest.
    • European and American Trees compared.
    • Sylviculture.
    • Instability of American Life.
  • CHAPTER IV.
    • THE WATERS.
      • Land artificially won from the Waters.
      • a. Exclusion of the Sea by Diking.
      • b. Draining of Lakes and Marshes.
      • c. Geographical Influence of such Operations.
      • Lowering of Lakes.
      • Mountain Lakes.
      • Climatic Effects of Draining Lakes and Marshes.
      • Geographical and Climatic Effects of Aqueducts, Reservoirs, and Canals.
      • Climatic and Geographical Effects of Surface and Underground Draining.
      • Surface and Under-draining and their Effects.
      • Climatic and Geographical Effects of Surface Draining.
      • Irrigation and its Climatic and Geographical Effects.
      • INUNDATIONS AND TORRENTS.
      • a. River Embankments.
      • b. Floods of the Ardèche.
      • c. Crushing Force of Torrents.
      • d. Inundations of 1856 in France.
      • e. Remedies against Inundations.
      • Consequences if the Nile had been Diked.
      • Deposits of the Tuscan Rivers.
      • Improvements in the Val di Chiana.
      • Improvements in the Tuscan Maremme.
      • Obstruction of River Mouths.
      • Subterranean Waters.
      • Artesian Wells.
      • Artificial Springs.
      • Economizing Precipitation.
    • Land artificially won from the Waters.
    • a. Exclusion of the Sea by Diking.
    • b. Draining of Lakes and Marshes.
    • c. Geographical Influence of such Operations.
    • Lowering of Lakes.
    • Mountain Lakes.
    • Climatic Effects of Draining Lakes and Marshes.
    • Geographical and Climatic Effects of Aqueducts, Reservoirs, and Canals.
    • Climatic and Geographical Effects of Surface and Underground Draining.
    • Surface and Under-draining and their Effects.
    • Climatic and Geographical Effects of Surface Draining.
    • Irrigation and its Climatic and Geographical Effects.
    • INUNDATIONS AND TORRENTS.
    • a. River Embankments.
    • b. Floods of the Ardèche.
    • c. Crushing Force of Torrents.
    • d. Inundations of 1856 in France.
    • e. Remedies against Inundations.
    • Consequences if the Nile had been Diked.
    • Deposits of the Tuscan Rivers.
    • Improvements in the Val di Chiana.
    • Improvements in the Tuscan Maremme.
    • Obstruction of River Mouths.
    • Subterranean Waters.
    • Artesian Wells.
    • Artificial Springs.
    • Economizing Precipitation.
  • CHAPTER V
    • THE SANDS.
      • Origin of Sand.
      • Sand now carried to the Sea.
      • Sands of Egypt.
      • The Suez Canal.
      • Sands of Egypt.
      • Sand Dunes and Sand Plains.
      • Coast Dunes.
      • Sand Banks.
      • Dunes on the Coast of America.
      • Dunes of Western Europe.
      • Formation of Dunes.
      • Character of Dune Sand.
      • Interior Structure of Dunes.
      • Form of Dunes.
      • Geological Importance of Dunes.
      • Inland Dunes.
      • Age, Character, and Permanence of Dunes.
      • Use of Dunes as a Barrier against the Sea.
      • Encroachments of the Sea.
      • The Liimfjord.
      • Coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Holland, and France.
      • Drifting of Dune Sands.
      • Dunes of Gascony.
      • The Dunes of Denmark and Prussia.
      • Control of Dunes by Man.
      • Artificial Formation of Dunes.
      • Protection of Dunes.
      • Trees suited to Dune Plantations.
      • Extent of Dunes in Europe.
      • Dune Vineyards of Cap Breton.
      • Removal of Dunes.
      • Inland Sand Plains.
      • The Landes of Gascony.
      • The Belgian Campine.
      • Sands and Steppes of Eastern Europe.
      • Advantages of Reclaiming the Sands.
      • Government Works.
    • Origin of Sand.
    • Sand now carried to the Sea.
    • Sands of Egypt.
    • The Suez Canal.
    • Sands of Egypt.
    • Sand Dunes and Sand Plains.
    • Coast Dunes.
    • Sand Banks.
    • Dunes on the Coast of America.
    • Dunes of Western Europe.
    • Formation of Dunes.
    • Character of Dune Sand.
    • Interior Structure of Dunes.
    • Form of Dunes.
    • Geological Importance of Dunes.
    • Inland Dunes.
    • Age, Character, and Permanence of Dunes.
    • Use of Dunes as a Barrier against the Sea.
    • Encroachments of the Sea.
    • The Liimfjord.
    • Coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Holland, and France.
    • Drifting of Dune Sands.
    • Dunes of Gascony.
    • The Dunes of Denmark and Prussia.
    • Control of Dunes by Man.
    • Artificial Formation of Dunes.
    • Protection of Dunes.
    • Trees suited to Dune Plantations.
    • Extent of Dunes in Europe.
    • Dune Vineyards of Cap Breton.
    • Removal of Dunes.
    • Inland Sand Plains.
    • The Landes of Gascony.
    • The Belgian Campine.
    • Sands and Steppes of Eastern Europe.
    • Advantages of Reclaiming the Sands.
    • Government Works.
  • CHAPTER VI.
    • PROJECTED OR POSSIBLE GEOGRAPHICAL CHANGES BY MAN.
      • Cutting of Marine Isthmuses.
      • The Suez Canal.
      • Canal across the Isthmus of Darien.
      • Canals to the Dead Sea.
      • Maritime Canals in Greece.
      • Canal of Saros.
      • Cape Cod Canal.
      • Diversion of the Nile.
      • Changes in the Caspian.
      • Improvements in North American Hydrography.
      • Diversion of the Rhine.
      • Draining of the Zuiderzee.
      • Waters of the Karst.
      • Subterranean Waters of Greece.
      • Soil below Rock.
      • Covering Rock with Earth.
      • Wadies of Arabia, Petræa.
      • Incidental Effects of Human Action.
      • Resistance to Great Natural Forces.
      • Effects of Mining.
      • Espy's Theories.
      • River Sediment.
      • Nothing Small in Nature.
    • Cutting of Marine Isthmuses.
    • The Suez Canal.
    • Canal across the Isthmus of Darien.
    • Canals to the Dead Sea.
    • Maritime Canals in Greece.
    • Canal of Saros.
    • Cape Cod Canal.
    • Diversion of the Nile.
    • Changes in the Caspian.
    • Improvements in North American Hydrography.
    • Diversion of the Rhine.
    • Draining of the Zuiderzee.
    • Waters of the Karst.
    • Subterranean Waters of Greece.
    • Soil below Rock.
    • Covering Rock with Earth.
    • Wadies of Arabia, Petræa.
    • Incidental Effects of Human Action.
    • Resistance to Great Natural Forces.
    • Effects of Mining.
    • Espy's Theories.
    • River Sediment.
    • Nothing Small in Nature.
  • FOOTNOTES:
  • APPENDIX.
  • INDEX
    • FORSYTH'S "CICERO."
    • A New Life of Cicero.
      • LORD DERBY'S "HOMER."
    • LORD DERBY'S "HOMER."
    • The Iliad of Homer.
      • RENDERED INTO ENGLISH BLANK VERSE BY EDWARD, EARL OF DERBY.
      • Extracts from Notices and Reviews from the English Quarterlies, &c.
      • AMERICAN NOTICES.
    • RENDERED INTO ENGLISH BLANK VERSE BY EDWARD, EARL OF DERBY.
    • Extracts from Notices and Reviews from the English Quarterlies, &c.
    • AMERICAN NOTICES.
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