The Truth of Christianity Being an Examination of the More Important Arguments For and Against Believing in that Religion
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The Truth of Christianity Being an Examination of the More Important Arguments For and Against Believing in that Religion

By William Harry Turton
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Table of Contents
  • THE TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY
  • PREFACE TO NINTH EDITION.
  • CONTENTS
  • PART I. NATURAL RELIGION.
  • CHAPTER I. THAT THE UNIVERSE HAD A CREATOR
    • (A.) The Origin of the Universe.
      • (1.) The Philosophical Argument.
      • (2.) The Scientific Argument.
    • (1.) The Philosophical Argument.
    • (2.) The Scientific Argument.
    • (B.) The Creator of the Universe.
  • CHAPTER II. THAT THE CREATOR DESIGNED THE UNIVERSE.
    • (A.) Evidence of Design.
      • (1.) The example of a watch.
      • (2.) The example of an eye.
      • (3.) The evidence cumulative.
    • (1.) The example of a watch.
    • (2.) The example of an eye.
    • (3.) The evidence cumulative.
    • (B.) The Evolution Objection.
      • (1.) The meaning of Evolution.
      • (2.) The effect of Evolution.
    • (1.) The meaning of Evolution.
    • (2.) The effect of Evolution.
    • (C.) The Free Will Objection.
      • (1.) Its great improbability.
      • (2.) Free Will and Foreknowledge not inconsistent.
    • (1.) Its great improbability.
    • (2.) Free Will and Foreknowledge not inconsistent.
  • CHAPTER III. THAT THE EXISTENCE OF GOD IS EXTREMELY PROBABLE.
    • (A.) Meaning of the term God.
    • (B.) Two of God's Attributes.
    • (C.) The Objection that God is Unknowable.
    • (D.) Summary of Argument.
  • CHAPTER IV. THAT MAN IS A FREE AND RESPONSIBLE BEING.
    • (A.) Man's Mental Attributes.
    • (B.) Man's Moral Attributes.
      • (1.) Man possesses a will.
      • (2.) Man's acts are partly determined by his will.
      • (3.) Man's will is free.
      • (4.) Man knows that his will is free.
      • (5.) Man's responsibility for his acts.
      • (6.) Man's moral sense of right and wrong.
      • (7.) Man's conscience.
    • (1.) Man possesses a will.
    • (2.) Man's acts are partly determined by his will.
    • (3.) Man's will is free.
    • (4.) Man knows that his will is free.
    • (5.) Man's responsibility for his acts.
    • (6.) Man's moral sense of right and wrong.
    • (7.) Man's conscience.
    • (C.) Difference Between Animals and Men.
    • (D.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER V. THAT GOD TAKES AN INTEREST IN MAN'S WELFARE.
    • (A.) The Evidence in its Favour.
    • (B.) The Insignificance of Man.
      • (1.) Some Counter-arguments.
      • (2.) Man's real importance.
      • (3.) The supposed inhabitants of other planets.
    • (1.) Some Counter-arguments.
    • (2.) Man's real importance.
    • (3.) The supposed inhabitants of other planets.
    • (C.) The Existence of Evil.
      • (1.) Physical evil in animals.
      • (2.) Physical evil in man.
      • (3.) Moral evil in man.
    • (1.) Physical evil in animals.
    • (2.) Physical evil in man.
    • (3.) Moral evil in man.
    • (D.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER VI. THAT GOD MIGHT MAKE SOME REVELATION TO MAN.
    • (A.) The Immortality of Man.
      • (1.) From his unique position.
      • (2.) From his unjust treatment.
      • (3.) From his vast capabilities.
      • (4.) From his inherent belief.
      • (5.) Counter-arguments.
    • (1.) From his unique position.
    • (2.) From his unjust treatment.
    • (3.) From his vast capabilities.
    • (4.) From his inherent belief.
    • (5.) Counter-arguments.
    • (B.) The Probability of a Revelation.
      • (1.) From God's character.
      • (2.) From man's character.
      • (3.) Two difficulties.
    • (1.) From God's character.
    • (2.) From man's character.
    • (3.) Two difficulties.
  • CHAPTER VII. THAT A MIRACULOUS REVELATION IS CREDIBLE.
    • (A.) Superhuman Signs.
    • (B.) Supernatural Signs.
      • (1.) Miracles as marvels.
      • (2.) Miracles as special works of God.
      • (3.) Miracles as signs.
    • (1.) Miracles as marvels.
    • (2.) Miracles as special works of God.
    • (3.) Miracles as signs.
  • PART II. THE JEWISH RELIGION.
  • CHAPTER VIII. THAT THE ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION WAS DIVINELY REVEALED.
    • (A.) Its General Principles.
      • (1.) Its pure Monotheism.
      • (2.) Its seven days.
      • (3.) Its gradual development.
    • (1.) Its pure Monotheism.
    • (2.) Its seven days.
    • (3.) Its gradual development.
    • (B.) Its Detailed Order.
      • (1.) The earliest state of the earth.
      • (2.) Light.
      • (3.) The firmament.
      • (4.) Dry land.
      • (5.) Vegetation.
      • (6.) The sun and moon.
      • (7.) Fishes and birds.
      • (8.) Land animals.
      • (9.) Man.
    • (1.) The earliest state of the earth.
    • (2.) Light.
    • (3.) The firmament.
    • (4.) Dry land.
    • (5.) Vegetation.
    • (6.) The sun and moon.
    • (7.) Fishes and birds.
    • (8.) Land animals.
    • (9.) Man.
    • (C.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER IX. THAT ITS ORIGIN WAS CONFIRMED BY MIRACLES.
    • (A.) Its Egyptian References.
      • (1.) In the history of Joseph.
      • (2.) In the history of Moses.
      • (3.) In the laws and addresses.
    • (1.) In the history of Joseph.
    • (2.) In the history of Moses.
    • (3.) In the laws and addresses.
    • (B.) Its Laws.
      • (1.) The subjects dealt with.
      • (2.) Their connection with the history.
      • (3.) Their wording.
    • (1.) The subjects dealt with.
    • (2.) Their connection with the history.
    • (3.) Their wording.
    • (C.) The Theory of a Late Date.
      • (1.) The language of the Pentateuch.
      • (2.) Its composite character.
      • (3.) Its laws being unknown in later times.
      • (4.) The finding of Deuteronomy.
    • (1.) The language of the Pentateuch.
    • (2.) Its composite character.
    • (3.) Its laws being unknown in later times.
    • (4.) The finding of Deuteronomy.
    • (D.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER X. THAT ITS HISTORY WAS CONFIRMED BY MIRACLES.
    • (A.) The Later Old Testament Books.
      • (1.) Undesigned agreements.
      • (2.) Alleged mistakes.
      • (3.) Modern discoveries.
    • (1.) Undesigned agreements.
    • (2.) Alleged mistakes.
    • (3.) Modern discoveries.
    • (B.) The Old Testament Miracles.
      • (1.) Their credibility.
      • (2.) Their truthfulness.
    • (1.) Their credibility.
    • (2.) Their truthfulness.
  • CHAPTER XI. THAT ITS HISTORY WAS CONFIRMED BY PROPHECIES.
    • (A.) General Prophecies.
      • (1.) The desolation of Assyria and Babylonia.
      • (2.) The degradation of Egypt.
      • (3.) The dispersion of the Jews.
    • (1.) The desolation of Assyria and Babylonia.
    • (2.) The degradation of Egypt.
    • (3.) The dispersion of the Jews.
    • (B.) Special Prophecies.
    • (C.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER XII. THAT THE JEWISH RELIGION IS PROBABLY TRUE.
    • (A.) The Existence of Angels.
    • (B.) The Character of God.
      • (1.) Its partiality.
      • (2.) Its human element.
      • (3.) Its moral defects.
      • (4.) Its general excellence.
    • (1.) Its partiality.
    • (2.) Its human element.
    • (3.) Its moral defects.
    • (4.) Its general excellence.
    • (C.) Conclusion.
  • PART III. THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
  • CHAPTER XIII. THAT THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION IS CREDIBLE.
    • (A.) The Trinity.
      • (1.) Its meaning.
      • (2.) Its credibility.
      • (3.) Its probability.
    • (1.) Its meaning.
    • (2.) Its credibility.
    • (3.) Its probability.
    • (B.) The Incarnation.
      • (1.) Its difficulties.
      • (2.) Its motive.
      • (3.) Its historical position.
    • (1.) Its difficulties.
    • (2.) Its motive.
    • (3.) Its historical position.
    • (C.) The Atonement.
      • (1.) As to the Victim.
      • (2.) As to the Judge.
      • (3.) As to the sinner.
    • (1.) As to the Victim.
    • (2.) As to the Judge.
    • (3.) As to the sinner.
    • (D.) The Resurrection.
      • (1.) Christ's Resurrection.
      • (2.) Man's Resurrection.
    • (1.) Christ's Resurrection.
    • (2.) Man's Resurrection.
    • (E.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER XIV. THAT THE FOUR GOSPELS ARE GENUINE FROM EXTERNAL TESTIMONY.
    • (A.) The Undisputed Testimony.
    • (B.) The almost Undisputed Testimony.
      • (1.) Justin Martyr.
      • (2.) Tatian.
      • (3.) Marcion.
    • (1.) Justin Martyr.
    • (2.) Tatian.
    • (3.) Marcion.
    • (C.) The Disputed Testimony.
      • (1.) Papias.
      • (2.) Aristides.
      • (3.) The Apostolic Fathers.
    • (1.) Papias.
    • (2.) Aristides.
    • (3.) The Apostolic Fathers.
  • CHAPTER XV. THAT THE GOSPELS ARE GENUINE FROM INTERNAL EVIDENCE.
    • (A.) The First Three Gospels.
      • (1.) Their general accuracy.
      • (2.) Their sources.
      • (3.) Their probable date.
    • (1.) Their general accuracy.
    • (2.) Their sources.
    • (3.) Their probable date.
    • (B.) The Fourth Gospel.
      • (1.) Its authorship.
      • (2.) Its connection with the other Gospels.
      • (3.) Its connection with the Book of Revelation.
    • (1.) Its authorship.
    • (2.) Its connection with the other Gospels.
    • (3.) Its connection with the Book of Revelation.
  • CHAPTER XVI. THAT THE GOSPELS ARE GENUINE FROM THE EVIDENCE OF THE ACTS.
    • (A.) Its Accuracy.
      • (1.) The titles of different rulers.
      • (2.) The riot at Ephesus.
      • (3.) The agreement with St. Paul's Epistles.
    • (1.) The titles of different rulers.
    • (2.) The riot at Ephesus.
    • (3.) The agreement with St. Paul's Epistles.
    • (B.) Its Authorship.
    • (C.) Its Date.
  • CHAPTER XVII. THAT THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST IS PROBABLY TRUE.
    • (A.) Its Importance.
    • (B.) The Narratives.
      • TABLE OF CHRIST'S APPEARANCES.
    • TABLE OF CHRIST'S APPEARANCES.
    • (C.) Their Difficulties.
      • (1.) Discrepancies.
      • (2.) Omissions.
    • (1.) Discrepancies.
    • (2.) Omissions.
    • (D.) Their Truthfulness.
      • (1.) Agreements.
      • (2.) Mutual explanations.
      • (3.) Signs of early date.
    • (1.) Agreements.
    • (2.) Mutual explanations.
    • (3.) Signs of early date.
  • CHAPTER XVIII THAT THE FAILURE OF OTHER EXPLANATIONS INCREASES THIS PROBABILITY.
    • (A.) The Falsehood Theory.
    • (B.) The Legend Theory.
    • (C.) The Vision Theory.
      • (1.) Arguments in its favour.
      • (2.) Arguments against it.
      • (3.) Its failure to account for the facts.
      • (4.) The Theory of real visions.
    • (1.) Arguments in its favour.
    • (2.) Arguments against it.
    • (3.) Its failure to account for the facts.
    • (4.) The Theory of real visions.
    • (D.) The Swoon Theory.
    • (E.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER XIX. THAT THE OTHER NEW TESTAMENT MIRACLES ARE PROBABLY TRUE.
    • (A.) Their Credibility.
    • (B.) Their Truthfulness.
      • (1.) General marks of truthfulness.
      • (2.) Special marks of truthfulness.
    • (1.) General marks of truthfulness.
    • (2.) Special marks of truthfulness.
    • (C.) Their Publicity.
      • (1.) They occurred in public.
      • (2.) They were publicly appealed to.
      • (3.) They were never disputed.
      • (4.) The silence of classical writers.
    • (1.) They occurred in public.
    • (2.) They were publicly appealed to.
    • (3.) They were never disputed.
    • (4.) The silence of classical writers.
    • (D.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER XX. THAT THE JEWISH PROPHECIES CONFIRM THE TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY.
    • (A.) Isaiah's Prophecy of the Lord's Servant (52. 13-53. 12).
      • (1.) The Historical Agreement.
      • (2.) The Doctrinal Agreement.
      • (3.) The modern Jewish interpretation.
    • (1.) The Historical Agreement.
    • (2.) The Doctrinal Agreement.
    • (3.) The modern Jewish interpretation.
    • (B.) The Psalm of the Crucifixion (Ps. 22).[380]
      • (1.) Its close agreement.
      • (2.) Two objections.
    • (1.) Its close agreement.
    • (2.) Two objections.
    • (C.) The Divinity of the Messiah.
    • (D.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER XXI. THAT THE CHARACTER OF CHRIST CONFIRMS THE TRUTH OF CHRISTIANITY.
    • (A.) The Teaching of Christ.
      • (1.) Its admitted excellence.
      • (2.) Two objections.
      • (3.) His sinlessness.
    • (1.) Its admitted excellence.
    • (2.) Two objections.
    • (3.) His sinlessness.
    • (B.) The Claims of Christ.
      • (1.) His Claim to be Superhuman.
      • (2.) His Claim to be Divine.
      • (3.) How these Claims were understood at the time.
    • (1.) His Claim to be Superhuman.
    • (2.) His Claim to be Divine.
    • (3.) How these Claims were understood at the time.
    • (C.) The Great Alternative.
  • CHAPTER XXII. THAT THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY CONFIRMS ITS TRUTH.
    • (A.) Its Early Triumphs.
      • (1.) Its immense difficulties.
      • (2.) Its marvellous success.
      • (3.) The so-called natural causes of success.
      • (4.) Contrast with Mohammedanism.
    • (1.) Its immense difficulties.
    • (2.) Its marvellous success.
    • (3.) The so-called natural causes of success.
    • (4.) Contrast with Mohammedanism.
    • (B.) Its Later History.
      • (1.) Its vitality in the past.
      • (2.) Its effect at the present.
      • (3.) Its prospects in the future.
      • (4.) The spread of Rationalism.
    • (1.) Its vitality in the past.
    • (2.) Its effect at the present.
    • (3.) Its prospects in the future.
    • (4.) The spread of Rationalism.
    • (C.) Conclusion.
  • CHAPTER XXIII. THAT ON THE WHOLE THE OTHER EVIDENCE SUPPORTS THIS CONCLUSION.
    • (A.) Christianity and Prayer.
      • (1.) Scientific difficulty.
      • (2.) Moral difficulty.
      • (3.) Practical difficulty.
    • (1.) Scientific difficulty.
    • (2.) Moral difficulty.
    • (3.) Practical difficulty.
    • (B.) Christianity and Human Nature.
    • (C.) Christianity and other Religions.
  • CHAPTER XXIV. THAT THE THREE CREEDS ARE DEDUCIBLE FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT.
    • (A.) The Doctrine of the Trinity.
      • (1.) The Divinity of Christ.
      • (2.) The Divinity of the Holy Spirit.
      • (3.) Three Divine Persons and yet but One God.
    • (1.) The Divinity of Christ.
    • (2.) The Divinity of the Holy Spirit.
    • (3.) Three Divine Persons and yet but One God.
    • (B.) The Final State of the Wicked.
      • (1.) Their endless misery.
      • (2.) Their endless happiness.
      • (3.) Their destruction.
    • (1.) Their endless misery.
    • (2.) Their endless happiness.
    • (3.) Their destruction.
    • (C.) The Importance of a True Belief.
      • (1.) Their meaning.
      • (2.) Their truthfulness.
      • (3.) The objection as to dogmatism.
    • (1.) Their meaning.
    • (2.) Their truthfulness.
    • (3.) The objection as to dogmatism.
  • CHAPTER XXV. THAT THE TRUTH OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION IS EXTREMELY PROBABLE.
    • (A.) The Evidences of Christianity.
    • (B.) Summary and Conclusion.
  • INDEX OF TEXTS.
  • INDEX OF SUBJECTS.
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