The Governments of Europe
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The Governments of Europe

By Frederic Austin Ogg
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Table of Contents
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Governments of Europe, by Frederic Austin Ogg
    • E-text prepared by Dave Kline, Christine P. Travers, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net)
  • THE GOVERNMENTS OF EUROPE
    • THE GOVERNMENTS OF EUROPE
      • BY
        • PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN AUTHOR OF "SOCIAL PROGRESS IN CONTEMPORARY EUROPE"
      • PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN AUTHOR OF "SOCIAL PROGRESS IN CONTEMPORARY EUROPE"
      • To My Father
    • BY
      • PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN AUTHOR OF "SOCIAL PROGRESS IN CONTEMPORARY EUROPE"
    • PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN AUTHOR OF "SOCIAL PROGRESS IN CONTEMPORARY EUROPE"
    • To My Father
    • PREFACE
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
    • GOVERNMENTS OF EUROPE
    • PART I.—GREAT BRITAIN
      • CHAPTER I
        • I. The Importance of Historical Background
        • II. Anglo-Saxon Beginnings
        • III. The Norman-Plantagenet Period
        • IV. The Rise of Parliament
        • V. Administrative and Judicial Development
        • VI. The Tudor Monarchy
        • VII. Parliament under the Tudors
        • VIII. The Stuarts: Crown and Parliament
        • IX. The Later Stuarts: the Revolution of 1688-1689
      • I. The Importance of Historical Background
      • II. Anglo-Saxon Beginnings
      • III. The Norman-Plantagenet Period
      • IV. The Rise of Parliament
      • V. Administrative and Judicial Development
      • VI. The Tudor Monarchy
      • VII. Parliament under the Tudors
      • VIII. The Stuarts: Crown and Parliament
      • IX. The Later Stuarts: the Revolution of 1688-1689
      • CHAPTER II
        • I. Crown and Parliament after 1789
        • II. Rise of the Cabinet and of Political Parties
        • III. The Scottish and Irish Unions
        • IV. The Nature and Sources of the Constitution
        • V. The Flexibility of the Constitution
      • I. Crown and Parliament after 1789
      • II. Rise of the Cabinet and of Political Parties
      • III. The Scottish and Irish Unions
      • IV. The Nature and Sources of the Constitution
      • V. The Flexibility of the Constitution
      • CHAPTER III
        • I. The Crown: Legal Status and Privileges
        • II. The Powers of the Crown
        • III. The Importance and Strength of the Monarch
        • IV. Privy Council, Ministry, and Cabinet
        • V. The Executive Departments
        • VI. The Cabinet: Composition and Character
        • VII. The Cabinet in Action
      • I. The Crown: Legal Status and Privileges
      • II. The Powers of the Crown
      • III. The Importance and Strength of the Monarch
      • IV. Privy Council, Ministry, and Cabinet
      • V. The Executive Departments
      • VI. The Cabinet: Composition and Character
      • VII. The Cabinet in Action
      • CHAPTER IV
        • I. The House of Commons Prior to 1832
        • II. Parliamentary Reform, 1832-1885
        • III. The Franchise and the Electoral Questions of To-day
        • IV. Electoral Procedure and Regulations
      • I. The House of Commons Prior to 1832
      • II. Parliamentary Reform, 1832-1885
      • III. The Franchise and the Electoral Questions of To-day
      • IV. Electoral Procedure and Regulations
      • CHAPTER V
        • I. Composition
        • II. The Reform of the Lords: the Question prior to 1909
        • III. The Question of the Lords, 1909-1911
        • IV. The Parliament Act of 1911 and After
      • I. Composition
      • II. The Reform of the Lords: the Question prior to 1909
      • III. The Question of the Lords, 1909-1911
      • IV. The Parliament Act of 1911 and After
      • CHAPTER VI
        • I. The Assembling of the Chambers
        • II. Organization of the House of Commons
        • III. Organization of the House of Lords
        • IV. Privileges of the Houses and of Members
        • V. The Functions of Parliament
        • VI. General Aspects of Parliamentary Procedure
        • VII. The Conduct of Business in the Two Houses
      • I. The Assembling of the Chambers
      • II. Organization of the House of Commons
      • III. Organization of the House of Lords
      • IV. Privileges of the Houses and of Members
      • V. The Functions of Parliament
      • VI. General Aspects of Parliamentary Procedure
      • VII. The Conduct of Business in the Two Houses
      • CHAPTER VII
        • I. Parliamentarism and the Party System
        • II. Parties in the Later Eighteenth and Earlier Nineteenth Centuries.
        • III. The Second Era of Whig [Liberal] Ascendancy, 1830-1874
        • IV. The Second Era of Conservative Ascendancy, 1874-1905
        • V. The Liberal Revival
        • VI. The Rule of the Liberals, 1906-1912
        • VII. The Parties of To-day
      • I. Parliamentarism and the Party System
      • II. Parties in the Later Eighteenth and Earlier Nineteenth Centuries.
      • III. The Second Era of Whig [Liberal] Ascendancy, 1830-1874
      • IV. The Second Era of Conservative Ascendancy, 1874-1905
      • V. The Liberal Revival
      • VI. The Rule of the Liberals, 1906-1912
      • VII. The Parties of To-day
      • CHAPTER VIII
        • I. English Law
        • II. The Inferior Courts
        • III. The Higher Courts
        • IV. Local Government to the Municipal Corporations Act, 1835
        • V. Local Government Reform, 1835-1912
        • VI. Local and Central Government
        • VII. Local Government To-day: Rural
        • VIII. Local Government To-day: Urban
      • I. English Law
      • II. The Inferior Courts
      • III. The Higher Courts
      • IV. Local Government to the Municipal Corporations Act, 1835
      • V. Local Government Reform, 1835-1912
      • VI. Local and Central Government
      • VII. Local Government To-day: Rural
      • VIII. Local Government To-day: Urban
    • CHAPTER I
      • I. The Importance of Historical Background
      • II. Anglo-Saxon Beginnings
      • III. The Norman-Plantagenet Period
      • IV. The Rise of Parliament
      • V. Administrative and Judicial Development
      • VI. The Tudor Monarchy
      • VII. Parliament under the Tudors
      • VIII. The Stuarts: Crown and Parliament
      • IX. The Later Stuarts: the Revolution of 1688-1689
    • I. The Importance of Historical Background
    • II. Anglo-Saxon Beginnings
    • III. The Norman-Plantagenet Period
    • IV. The Rise of Parliament
    • V. Administrative and Judicial Development
    • VI. The Tudor Monarchy
    • VII. Parliament under the Tudors
    • VIII. The Stuarts: Crown and Parliament
    • IX. The Later Stuarts: the Revolution of 1688-1689
    • CHAPTER II
      • I. Crown and Parliament after 1789
      • II. Rise of the Cabinet and of Political Parties
      • III. The Scottish and Irish Unions
      • IV. The Nature and Sources of the Constitution
      • V. The Flexibility of the Constitution
    • I. Crown and Parliament after 1789
    • II. Rise of the Cabinet and of Political Parties
    • III. The Scottish and Irish Unions
    • IV. The Nature and Sources of the Constitution
    • V. The Flexibility of the Constitution
    • CHAPTER III
      • I. The Crown: Legal Status and Privileges
      • II. The Powers of the Crown
      • III. The Importance and Strength of the Monarch
      • IV. Privy Council, Ministry, and Cabinet
      • V. The Executive Departments
      • VI. The Cabinet: Composition and Character
      • VII. The Cabinet in Action
    • I. The Crown: Legal Status and Privileges
    • II. The Powers of the Crown
    • III. The Importance and Strength of the Monarch
    • IV. Privy Council, Ministry, and Cabinet
    • V. The Executive Departments
    • VI. The Cabinet: Composition and Character
    • VII. The Cabinet in Action
    • CHAPTER IV
      • I. The House of Commons Prior to 1832
      • II. Parliamentary Reform, 1832-1885
      • III. The Franchise and the Electoral Questions of To-day
      • IV. Electoral Procedure and Regulations
    • I. The House of Commons Prior to 1832
    • II. Parliamentary Reform, 1832-1885
    • III. The Franchise and the Electoral Questions of To-day
    • IV. Electoral Procedure and Regulations
    • CHAPTER V
      • I. Composition
      • II. The Reform of the Lords: the Question prior to 1909
      • III. The Question of the Lords, 1909-1911
      • IV. The Parliament Act of 1911 and After
    • I. Composition
    • II. The Reform of the Lords: the Question prior to 1909
    • III. The Question of the Lords, 1909-1911
    • IV. The Parliament Act of 1911 and After
    • CHAPTER VI
      • I. The Assembling of the Chambers
      • II. Organization of the House of Commons
      • III. Organization of the House of Lords
      • IV. Privileges of the Houses and of Members
      • V. The Functions of Parliament
      • VI. General Aspects of Parliamentary Procedure
      • VII. The Conduct of Business in the Two Houses
    • I. The Assembling of the Chambers
    • II. Organization of the House of Commons
    • III. Organization of the House of Lords
    • IV. Privileges of the Houses and of Members
    • V. The Functions of Parliament
    • VI. General Aspects of Parliamentary Procedure
    • VII. The Conduct of Business in the Two Houses
    • CHAPTER VII
      • I. Parliamentarism and the Party System
      • II. Parties in the Later Eighteenth and Earlier Nineteenth Centuries.
      • III. The Second Era of Whig [Liberal] Ascendancy, 1830-1874
      • IV. The Second Era of Conservative Ascendancy, 1874-1905
      • V. The Liberal Revival
      • VI. The Rule of the Liberals, 1906-1912
      • VII. The Parties of To-day
    • I. Parliamentarism and the Party System
    • II. Parties in the Later Eighteenth and Earlier Nineteenth Centuries.
    • III. The Second Era of Whig [Liberal] Ascendancy, 1830-1874
    • IV. The Second Era of Conservative Ascendancy, 1874-1905
    • V. The Liberal Revival
    • VI. The Rule of the Liberals, 1906-1912
    • VII. The Parties of To-day
    • CHAPTER VIII
      • I. English Law
      • II. The Inferior Courts
      • III. The Higher Courts
      • IV. Local Government to the Municipal Corporations Act, 1835
      • V. Local Government Reform, 1835-1912
      • VI. Local and Central Government
      • VII. Local Government To-day: Rural
      • VIII. Local Government To-day: Urban
    • I. English Law
    • II. The Inferior Courts
    • III. The Higher Courts
    • IV. Local Government to the Municipal Corporations Act, 1835
    • V. Local Government Reform, 1835-1912
    • VI. Local and Central Government
    • VII. Local Government To-day: Rural
    • VIII. Local Government To-day: Urban
    • PART II.—GERMANY
      • CHAPTER IX
        • I. Political Development Prior to 1848
        • II. The Creation of the Empire
        • III. The Constitution: Nature of the Empire
        • IV. The Empire and the States
      • I. Political Development Prior to 1848
      • II. The Creation of the Empire
      • III. The Constitution: Nature of the Empire
      • IV. The Empire and the States
      • CHAPTER X
        • I. The Emperor
        • II. The Chancellor
        • III. The Bundesrath
      • I. The Emperor
      • II. The Chancellor
      • III. The Bundesrath
      • CHAPTER XI
        • I. Composition of the Reichstag—Electoral System
        • II. Organization and Powers of the Reichstag
        • III. The Rise of Political Parties
        • IV. Party Politics after 1878
        • V. Parties since 1907
        • VI. Law and Justice
      • I. Composition of the Reichstag—Electoral System
      • II. Organization and Powers of the Reichstag
      • III. The Rise of Political Parties
      • IV. Party Politics after 1878
      • V. Parties since 1907
      • VI. Law and Justice
      • CHAPTER XII
        • I. The German States and their Governments
        • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism in Prussia
        • III. The Crown and the Ministry
      • I. The German States and their Governments
      • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism in Prussia
      • III. The Crown and the Ministry
      • CHAPTER XIII
        • I. Composition of the Landtag
        • II. The Movement for Electoral Reform
        • III. Organization and Functions of the Landtag
        • IV. Local Government: Origins and Principles[388]
        • V. Local Government: Areas and Organs
      • I. Composition of the Landtag
      • II. The Movement for Electoral Reform
      • III. Organization and Functions of the Landtag
      • IV. Local Government: Origins and Principles[388]
      • V. Local Government: Areas and Organs
      • CHAPTER XIV
        • I. The More Important Monarchies
        • II. The Lesser Monarchies and the City Republics
        • III. Alsace-Lorraine
      • I. The More Important Monarchies
      • II. The Lesser Monarchies and the City Republics
      • III. Alsace-Lorraine
    • CHAPTER IX
      • I. Political Development Prior to 1848
      • II. The Creation of the Empire
      • III. The Constitution: Nature of the Empire
      • IV. The Empire and the States
    • I. Political Development Prior to 1848
    • II. The Creation of the Empire
    • III. The Constitution: Nature of the Empire
    • IV. The Empire and the States
    • CHAPTER X
      • I. The Emperor
      • II. The Chancellor
      • III. The Bundesrath
    • I. The Emperor
    • II. The Chancellor
    • III. The Bundesrath
    • CHAPTER XI
      • I. Composition of the Reichstag—Electoral System
      • II. Organization and Powers of the Reichstag
      • III. The Rise of Political Parties
      • IV. Party Politics after 1878
      • V. Parties since 1907
      • VI. Law and Justice
    • I. Composition of the Reichstag—Electoral System
    • II. Organization and Powers of the Reichstag
    • III. The Rise of Political Parties
    • IV. Party Politics after 1878
    • V. Parties since 1907
    • VI. Law and Justice
    • CHAPTER XII
      • I. The German States and their Governments
      • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism in Prussia
      • III. The Crown and the Ministry
    • I. The German States and their Governments
    • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism in Prussia
    • III. The Crown and the Ministry
    • CHAPTER XIII
      • I. Composition of the Landtag
      • II. The Movement for Electoral Reform
      • III. Organization and Functions of the Landtag
      • IV. Local Government: Origins and Principles[388]
      • V. Local Government: Areas and Organs
    • I. Composition of the Landtag
    • II. The Movement for Electoral Reform
    • III. Organization and Functions of the Landtag
    • IV. Local Government: Origins and Principles[388]
    • V. Local Government: Areas and Organs
    • CHAPTER XIV
      • I. The More Important Monarchies
      • II. The Lesser Monarchies and the City Republics
      • III. Alsace-Lorraine
    • I. The More Important Monarchies
    • II. The Lesser Monarchies and the City Republics
    • III. Alsace-Lorraine
    • PART III.—FRANCE
      • CHAPTER XV
        • I. A Century of Political Instability
        • II. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era
        • III. From the Restoration to the Revolution of 1848
        • IV. The Second Republic and the Second Empire
        • V. The Establishment of the Third Republic
        • VI. The Constitution of To-day
      • I. A Century of Political Instability
      • II. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era
      • III. From the Restoration to the Revolution of 1848
      • IV. The Second Republic and the Second Empire
      • V. The Establishment of the Third Republic
      • VI. The Constitution of To-day
      • CHAPTER XVI
        • I. The President
        • II. The Ministry
        • III. Parliament: Senate and Chamber of Deputies
        • IV. The Problem of Electoral Reform
      • I. The President
      • II. The Ministry
      • III. Parliament: Senate and Chamber of Deputies
      • IV. The Problem of Electoral Reform
      • CHAPTER XVII
        • I. Organization and Workings of the Chambers
        • II. Political Parties since 1871
      • I. Organization and Workings of the Chambers
      • II. Political Parties since 1871
      • CHAPTER XVIII
        • I. French Law
        • II. The Courts
        • III. Local Government: Development since 1789
        • IV. Local Government To-day
      • I. French Law
      • II. The Courts
      • III. Local Government: Development since 1789
      • IV. Local Government To-day
    • CHAPTER XV
      • I. A Century of Political Instability
      • II. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era
      • III. From the Restoration to the Revolution of 1848
      • IV. The Second Republic and the Second Empire
      • V. The Establishment of the Third Republic
      • VI. The Constitution of To-day
    • I. A Century of Political Instability
    • II. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era
    • III. From the Restoration to the Revolution of 1848
    • IV. The Second Republic and the Second Empire
    • V. The Establishment of the Third Republic
    • VI. The Constitution of To-day
    • CHAPTER XVI
      • I. The President
      • II. The Ministry
      • III. Parliament: Senate and Chamber of Deputies
      • IV. The Problem of Electoral Reform
    • I. The President
    • II. The Ministry
    • III. Parliament: Senate and Chamber of Deputies
    • IV. The Problem of Electoral Reform
    • CHAPTER XVII
      • I. Organization and Workings of the Chambers
      • II. Political Parties since 1871
    • I. Organization and Workings of the Chambers
    • II. Political Parties since 1871
    • CHAPTER XVIII
      • I. French Law
      • II. The Courts
      • III. Local Government: Development since 1789
      • IV. Local Government To-day
    • I. French Law
    • II. The Courts
    • III. Local Government: Development since 1789
    • IV. Local Government To-day
    • PART IV. ITALY
      • CHAPTER XIX
        • I. The Era of Napoleon
        • II. The Restoration and the Revolution of 1848
        • III. The Achievement of Unification
        • IV. The Constitution
      • I. The Era of Napoleon
      • II. The Restoration and the Revolution of 1848
      • III. The Achievement of Unification
      • IV. The Constitution
      • CHAPTER XX
        • I. The Crown and the Ministry
        • II. Parliament: the Senate
        • III. The Chamber of Deputies—Parliamentary Procedure
        • IV. The Judiciary
        • V. Local Government
      • I. The Crown and the Ministry
      • II. Parliament: the Senate
      • III. The Chamber of Deputies—Parliamentary Procedure
      • IV. The Judiciary
      • V. Local Government
      • CHAPTER XXI
        • I. Quirinal and Vatican
        • II. Parties and Ministries, 1861-1896
        • III. The Era of Composite Ministries, 1896-1912
        • IV. Phases of Party Politics
      • I. Quirinal and Vatican
      • II. Parties and Ministries, 1861-1896
      • III. The Era of Composite Ministries, 1896-1912
      • IV. Phases of Party Politics
    • CHAPTER XIX
      • I. The Era of Napoleon
      • II. The Restoration and the Revolution of 1848
      • III. The Achievement of Unification
      • IV. The Constitution
    • I. The Era of Napoleon
    • II. The Restoration and the Revolution of 1848
    • III. The Achievement of Unification
    • IV. The Constitution
    • CHAPTER XX
      • I. The Crown and the Ministry
      • II. Parliament: the Senate
      • III. The Chamber of Deputies—Parliamentary Procedure
      • IV. The Judiciary
      • V. Local Government
    • I. The Crown and the Ministry
    • II. Parliament: the Senate
    • III. The Chamber of Deputies—Parliamentary Procedure
    • IV. The Judiciary
    • V. Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXI
      • I. Quirinal and Vatican
      • II. Parties and Ministries, 1861-1896
      • III. The Era of Composite Ministries, 1896-1912
      • IV. Phases of Party Politics
    • I. Quirinal and Vatican
    • II. Parties and Ministries, 1861-1896
    • III. The Era of Composite Ministries, 1896-1912
    • IV. Phases of Party Politics
    • PART V.—SWITZERLAND
      • CHAPTER XXII
        • I. The Confederation and Its Constitution
        • II. The Nation and the States
        • III. Cantonal Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
        • IV. The Cantonal Executive and Judiciary
      • I. The Confederation and Its Constitution
      • II. The Nation and the States
      • III. Cantonal Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
      • IV. The Cantonal Executive and Judiciary
      • CHAPTER XXIII
        • I. The Executive
        • II. Legislation: the Federal Assembly
        • III. Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
        • IV. Political Parties
        • V. The Judiciary
      • I. The Executive
      • II. Legislation: the Federal Assembly
      • III. Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
      • IV. Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary
    • CHAPTER XXII
      • I. The Confederation and Its Constitution
      • II. The Nation and the States
      • III. Cantonal Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
      • IV. The Cantonal Executive and Judiciary
    • I. The Confederation and Its Constitution
    • II. The Nation and the States
    • III. Cantonal Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
    • IV. The Cantonal Executive and Judiciary
    • CHAPTER XXIII
      • I. The Executive
      • II. Legislation: the Federal Assembly
      • III. Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
      • IV. Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary
    • I. The Executive
    • II. Legislation: the Federal Assembly
    • III. Legislation: the Referendum and the Initiative
    • IV. Political Parties
    • V. The Judiciary
    • PART VI—AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
      • CHAPTER XXIV
        • I. Austrian Political Development to 1815
        • II. Hungarian Political Development to 1815
        • III. The Era of Metternich
        • IV. The Revolution of 1848
        • V. The Revival of Constitutionalism: the Ausgleich
      • I. Austrian Political Development to 1815
      • II. Hungarian Political Development to 1815
      • III. The Era of Metternich
      • IV. The Revolution of 1848
      • V. The Revival of Constitutionalism: the Ausgleich
      • CHAPTER XXV
        • I. The Constitution
        • II. The Crown and the Ministry
        • III. The Reichsrath—the Electoral System
        • IV. Political Parties
        • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • I. The Constitution
      • II. The Crown and the Ministry
      • III. The Reichsrath—the Electoral System
      • IV. Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • CHAPTER XXVI
        • I. The Constitution
        • II. The Crown and the Ministry
        • III. Parliament—the Electoral System
        • IV. Political Parties
        • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • I. The Constitution
      • II. The Crown and the Ministry
      • III. Parliament—the Electoral System
      • IV. Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • CHAPTER XXVII
        • I. The Common Organs of Government
        • II. The Territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina
      • I. The Common Organs of Government
      • II. The Territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • CHAPTER XXIV
      • I. Austrian Political Development to 1815
      • II. Hungarian Political Development to 1815
      • III. The Era of Metternich
      • IV. The Revolution of 1848
      • V. The Revival of Constitutionalism: the Ausgleich
    • I. Austrian Political Development to 1815
    • II. Hungarian Political Development to 1815
    • III. The Era of Metternich
    • IV. The Revolution of 1848
    • V. The Revival of Constitutionalism: the Ausgleich
    • CHAPTER XXV
      • I. The Constitution
      • II. The Crown and the Ministry
      • III. The Reichsrath—the Electoral System
      • IV. Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • I. The Constitution
    • II. The Crown and the Ministry
    • III. The Reichsrath—the Electoral System
    • IV. Political Parties
    • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXVI
      • I. The Constitution
      • II. The Crown and the Ministry
      • III. Parliament—the Electoral System
      • IV. Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • I. The Constitution
    • II. The Crown and the Ministry
    • III. Parliament—the Electoral System
    • IV. Political Parties
    • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXVII
      • I. The Common Organs of Government
      • II. The Territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • I. The Common Organs of Government
    • II. The Territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • PART VII.—THE LOW COUNTRIES
      • CHAPTER XXVIII
        • I. A Century of Political Development
        • II. The Crown and the Ministry
        • III. The States-General and Political Parties
        • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • I. A Century of Political Development
      • II. The Crown and the Ministry
      • III. The States-General and Political Parties
      • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • CHAPTER XXIX
        • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
        • II. The Houses of Parliament—the Electoral System
        • III. Parties and Electoral Reform Since 1894—Parliamentary Procedure
        • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
      • II. The Houses of Parliament—the Electoral System
      • III. Parties and Electoral Reform Since 1894—Parliamentary Procedure
      • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXVIII
      • I. A Century of Political Development
      • II. The Crown and the Ministry
      • III. The States-General and Political Parties
      • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • I. A Century of Political Development
    • II. The Crown and the Ministry
    • III. The States-General and Political Parties
    • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXIX
      • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
      • II. The Houses of Parliament—the Electoral System
      • III. Parties and Electoral Reform Since 1894—Parliamentary Procedure
      • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
    • II. The Houses of Parliament—the Electoral System
    • III. Parties and Electoral Reform Since 1894—Parliamentary Procedure
    • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • PART VIII.—SCANDINAVIA
      • CHAPTER XXX
        • I. Development Prior to 1814
        • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism, 1814-1866
        • III. The Crown and the Ministry
        • IV. The Rigsdag—Political Parties
        • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • I. Development Prior to 1814
      • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism, 1814-1866
      • III. The Crown and the Ministry
      • IV. The Rigsdag—Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • CHAPTER XXXI
        • I. Political Development to 1814
        • II. The Swedish-Norwegian Union, 1814-1905
        • III. The Norwegian Constitution—Crown and Ministry
        • IV. The Storthing—Political Parties
        • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • I. Political Development to 1814
      • II. The Swedish-Norwegian Union, 1814-1905
      • III. The Norwegian Constitution—Crown and Ministry
      • IV. The Storthing—Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • CHAPTER XXXII
        • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
        • III. The Riksdag in Operation—Political Parties
        • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
      • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
      • III. The Riksdag in Operation—Political Parties
      • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXX
      • I. Development Prior to 1814
      • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism, 1814-1866
      • III. The Crown and the Ministry
      • IV. The Rigsdag—Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • I. Development Prior to 1814
    • II. The Rise of Constitutionalism, 1814-1866
    • III. The Crown and the Ministry
    • IV. The Rigsdag—Political Parties
    • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXXI
      • I. Political Development to 1814
      • II. The Swedish-Norwegian Union, 1814-1905
      • III. The Norwegian Constitution—Crown and Ministry
      • IV. The Storthing—Political Parties
      • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • I. Political Development to 1814
    • II. The Swedish-Norwegian Union, 1814-1905
    • III. The Norwegian Constitution—Crown and Ministry
    • IV. The Storthing—Political Parties
    • V. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • CHAPTER XXXII
      • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
      • III. The Riksdag in Operation—Political Parties
      • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • I. The Constitution—the Crown and the Ministry
    • III. The Riksdag in Operation—Political Parties
    • IV. The Judiciary and Local Government
    • PART IX.—THE IBERIAN STATES
      • CHAPTER XXXIII
        • I. The Beginnings of Constitutionalism
        • II. Political and Constitutional Development, 1833-1876
        • III. The Present Constitution
        • IV. The Crown and the Ministry
        • V. The Cortes
        • VI. Political Parties
        • VII. The Judiciary and local Government
      • I. The Beginnings of Constitutionalism
      • II. Political and Constitutional Development, 1833-1876
      • III. The Present Constitution
      • IV. The Crown and the Ministry
      • V. The Cortes
      • VI. Political Parties
      • VII. The Judiciary and local Government
      • CHAPTER XXXIV
        • I. A Century of Political Development
        • II. The Government of the Kingdom
        • III. The Revolution of 1910
        • IV. The Constitution of 1911
      • I. A Century of Political Development
      • II. The Government of the Kingdom
      • III. The Revolution of 1910
      • IV. The Constitution of 1911
    • CHAPTER XXXIII
      • I. The Beginnings of Constitutionalism
      • II. Political and Constitutional Development, 1833-1876
      • III. The Present Constitution
      • IV. The Crown and the Ministry
      • V. The Cortes
      • VI. Political Parties
      • VII. The Judiciary and local Government
    • I. The Beginnings of Constitutionalism
    • II. Political and Constitutional Development, 1833-1876
    • III. The Present Constitution
    • IV. The Crown and the Ministry
    • V. The Cortes
    • VI. Political Parties
    • VII. The Judiciary and local Government
    • CHAPTER XXXIV
      • I. A Century of Political Development
      • II. The Government of the Kingdom
      • III. The Revolution of 1910
      • IV. The Constitution of 1911
    • I. A Century of Political Development
    • II. The Government of the Kingdom
    • III. The Revolution of 1910
    • IV. The Constitution of 1911
    • INDEX
      • Printed in the United States of America
        • Social Progress in Contemporary Europe
        • The Opening of the Mississippi
        • Readings in American Government and Politics
        • American Government and Politics
        • A History of Political Theories
        • The American Commonwealth
        • The Government of American Cities
        • The Government of European Cities
        • The Government of England
        • PUBLISHED BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York
      • Social Progress in Contemporary Europe
      • The Opening of the Mississippi
      • Readings in American Government and Politics
      • American Government and Politics
      • A History of Political Theories
      • The American Commonwealth
      • The Government of American Cities
      • The Government of European Cities
      • The Government of England
      • PUBLISHED BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York
    • Printed in the United States of America
      • Social Progress in Contemporary Europe
      • The Opening of the Mississippi
      • Readings in American Government and Politics
      • American Government and Politics
      • A History of Political Theories
      • The American Commonwealth
      • The Government of American Cities
      • The Government of European Cities
      • The Government of England
      • PUBLISHED BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York
    • Social Progress in Contemporary Europe
    • The Opening of the Mississippi
    • Readings in American Government and Politics
    • American Government and Politics
    • A History of Political Theories
    • The American Commonwealth
    • The Government of American Cities
    • The Government of European Cities
    • The Government of England
    • PUBLISHED BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY Publishers 64-66 Fifth Avenue New York
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