Orthodoxy: Its Truths And Errors
By James Freeman Clarke
Table of Contents
- Chapter I. Introduction.
- § 1. Object and Character of this Book.
- § 2. Progress requires that we should look back as well as forward.
- § 3. Orthodoxy as Right Belief.
- § 4. Orthodoxy as the Doctrine of the Majority. Objections.
- § 5. Orthodoxy as the Oldest Doctrine. Objections.
- § 6. Orthodoxy as the Doctrine held by all.
- § 7. Orthodoxy, as a Formula, not to be found.
- § 8. Orthodoxy as Convictions underlying Opinions.
- § 9. Substantial Truth and Formal Error in all great Doctrinal Systems.
- § 10. Importance of this Distinction.
- § 11. The Orthodox and Liberal Parties in New England.
- Chapter II. The Principle And Idea Of Orthodoxy Stated And Examined.
- § 1. The Principle of Orthodoxy defined.
- § 2. Logical Genesis of the Principle of Orthodoxy.
- § 3. Orthodoxy assumed to be the Belief of the Majority.
- § 4. Heterodoxy thus becomes sinful.
- § 5. The Doctrine of Essentials and Non-essentials leads to Rome.
- § 6. Fallacy in this Orthodox Argument.
- § 7. The three Tendencies in the Church.
- § 8. The Party of Works.
- § 9. The Party of Emotion in Christianity.
- § 10. The Faith Party in Religion.
- § 11. Truth in the Orthodox Idea.
- § 12. Error in the Orthodox Principle.
- § 13. Faith, Knowledge, Belief, Opinion.
- Chapter III. The Orthodox Idea Of Natural And Revealed Religion; Or, Naturalism And Supernaturalism.
- § 1. Meaning of Natural and Supernatural.
- § 2. The Creation Supernatural.
- § 3. The Question stated.
- § 4. Argument of the Supernaturalist from successive Geologic Creations.
- § 5. Supernatural Argument from Human Freedom.
- § 6. Supernatural Events not necessarily Violations of Law.
- § 7. Life and History contain Supernatural Events.
- § 8. The Error of Orthodox Supernaturalism.
- § 9. No Conflict between Naturalism and Supernaturalism.
- § 10. Further Errors of Orthodox Supernaturalism—Gulf between Christianity and all other Religions.
- § 11. Christianity considered unnatural, as well as supernatural by being made hostile to the Nature of Man.
- Chapter IV. Truths And Errors As Regards Miracles.
- § 1. The Subject stated. Four Questions concerning Miracles.
- § 2. The Definition of a Miracle.
- § 3. The different Explanations of the Miracles of the Bible.
- § 4. Criticism on these Different Views of Miracles.
- § 5. Miracles no Proof of Christianity.
- § 6. But Orthodoxy is right in maintaining their Reality as Historic Facts.
- § 7. Analogy with other Similar Events recorded in History.
- § 8. Miracle of the Resurrection. Sceptical Objections.
- § 9. Final Result of this Examination.
- Chapter V. Orthodox Idea Of The Inspiration And Authority Of The Bible.
- § 1. Subject of this Chapter. Three Views concerning the Bible.
- § 2. The Difficulty. Antiquity of the World, and Age of Mankind.
- § 3. Basis of the Orthodox Theory of Inspiration.
- § 4. Inspiration in general, or Natural Inspiration.
- § 5. Christian or Supernatural Inspiration.
- § 6. Inspiration of the Scriptures, especially of the New Testament Scriptures.
- § 7. Authority of the Scriptures.
- § 8. The Christian Prepossession.
- § 9. Conclusion.
- Chapter VI. Orthodox Idea Of Sin, As Depravity And As Guilt.
- § 1. The Question stated.
- § 2. The four Moments or Characters of Evil. The Fall, Natural Depravity, Total Depravity, Inability.
- § 3. Orthodox and Liberal View of Man, as morally diseased or otherwise.
- § 4. Sin as Disease.
- § 5. Doctrine of the Fall in Adam, and Natural Depravity. Their Truth and Error.
- § 6. Examination of Romans, 5:12-21.
- § 7. Orthodox View of Total Depravity and Inability.
- § 8. Proof Texts.
- § 9. Truth in the Doctrine of Total Depravity.
- § 10. Ability and Inability.
- § 11. Orthodox Doctrine of Inability.
- § 12. Some further Features of Orthodox Theology concerning Human Sinfulness.
- Chapter VII. Conversion And Regeneration.
- § 1. Orthodoxy recognizes only two Conditions in which Man can be found.
- § 2. Crisis and Development.
- § 3. Nature of the Change.
- § 4. Its Reality and Importance.
- § 5. Is it the Work of God, or of the Man himself? Orthodox Difficulty.
- § 6. Solved by the Distinction between Conversion and Regeneration.
- § 7. Men may be divided, religiously, into three Classes, not two.
- § 8. Difference between Conversion and Regeneration.
- § 9. Unsatisfactory Attitude of the Orthodox Church.
- § 10. The Essential Thing for Man is to repent and be converted; that is, to make it his Purpose to obey God in all Things.
- § 11. Regeneration is God's Work in the Soul. Examination of the Classical Passage, or conversation of Jesus with Nicodemus.
- § 12. Evidences of Regeneration.
- Chapter VIII. The Orthodox Idea Of The Son Of God.
- § 1. Orthodox Doctrine stated.
- § 2. This Doctrine gradually developed.
- § 3. Unitarian Objections.
- § 4. Substantial Truth in this Doctrine.
- § 5. Formal Error of the Orthodox Statement.
- § 6. Errors of Arianism and Naturalism.
- Chapter IX. Justification By Faith.
- § 1. This Doctrine of Paul not obsolete.
- § 2. Its Meaning and Importance.
- § 3. Need of Justification for the Conscience.
- § 4. Reaction of Sin on the Soul.
- § 5. Different Methods of obtaining Forgiveness.
- § 6. Method in Christianity.
- § 7. Result.
- § 8. Its History in the Church.
- § 9. Orthodox Errors, at the present Time, in Regard to Justification by Faith.
- § 10. Errors of Liberal Christians.
- Chapter X. Orthodox Idea Of The Atonement.
- § 1. Confusion in the Orthodox Statement.
- § 2. Great Importance attributed to this Doctrine.
- § 3. Stress laid on the Death of Jesus in the Scripture.
- § 4. Difficulty in interpreting these Scripture Passages.
- § 5. Theological Theories based on the Figurative Language of the New Testament.
- § 6. The three principal Views of the Atonement—warlike, legal, and governmental.
- § 7. Impression made by Christ's Death on the Minds of his Disciples. First Theory on the Subject in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
- § 8. Value of Suffering as a Means of Education.
- § 9. The Human Conscience suggests the Need of some Satisfaction in order to our Forgiveness.
- § 10. How the Death of Jesus brings Men to God.
- § 11. This Law of Vicarious Suffering universal.
- § 12. This Law illustrated from History—in the Death of Socrates, Joan of Arc, Savonarola, and Abraham Lincoln.
- § 13. Dr. Bushnell's View of the Atonement.
- § 14. Results of this Discussion.
- Chapter XI. Calling, Election, And Reprobation.
- § 1. Orthodox Doctrine.
- § 2. Scripture Basis for this Doctrine.
- § 3. Relation of the Divine Decree to Human Freedom.
- § 4. History of the Doctrine of Election and Predestination.
- § 5. Election is to Work and Opportunity here, not to Heaven hereafter. How Jacob was elected, and how the Jews were a Chosen People.
- § 6. How other Nations were elected and called.
- § 7. How different Denominations are elected.
- § 8. How Individuals are elected.
- § 9. How Jesus was elected to be the Christ.
- § 10. Other Illustrations of Individual Calling and Election.
- Chapter XII. Immortality And The Resurrection.
- § 1. Orthodox Doctrine.
- § 2. The Doctrine of Immortality as taught by Reason, the Instinctive Consciousness, and Scripture.
- § 3. The Three Principal Views of Death—the Pagan, Jewish, and Christian.
- § 4. Eternal Life, as taught in the New Testament, not endless Future Existence, but present Spiritual Life.
- § 5. Resurrection, and its real Meaning, as a Rising up, and not a Rising again.
- § 6. Resurrection of the Body, as taught in the New Testament, not a Rising again of the same Body, but the Ascent into a higher Body.
- Chapter XIII. Christ's Coming, Usually Called The “Second Coming,”And Christ The Judge Of The World.
- § 1. The Coming of Christ is not wholly future, not wholly outward, not local, nor material.
- § 2. No Second Coming of Christ is mentioned in Scripture.
- § 3. Were the Apostles mistaken in expecting a speedy Coming of Christ?
- § 4. Examination of the Account of Christ's Coming given by Jesus in Matthew (chapters 24-26).
- § 5. Coming of Christ in Human History at different Times.
- § 6. Relation of the Parable of the Virgins, and of the Talents, to Christ's Coming.
- § 7. Relation of the Account of the Judgment by the Messiah, in Matt. ch. 25, to his Coming.
- § 8. How Christ is, and how he is not, to judge the World.
- § 9. When Christ's Judgment takes Place.
- § 10. Paul's View of the Judgment by Christ.
- § 11. Final Result.
- Chapter XIV. Eternal Punishment, Annihilation, Universal Restoration.
- § 1. Different Views concerning the Condition of the Impenitent hereafter.
- § 2. The Doctrine of Everlasting Punishment, as held by the Orthodox at the Present Time.
- § 3. Apparent Contradictions, both in Scripture and Reason, in Regard to this Doctrine.
- § 4. Everlasting Punishment limits the Sovereignty of God.
- § 5. Everlasting Punishment contradicts the Fatherly Love of God.
- § 6. Attempts to modify and soften the Doctrine of Everlasting Punishment.
- § 7. The meaning of Eternal Punishment in Scripture.
- § 8. How Judgment by Christ is connected with Punishment.
- § 9. The Doctrine of Annihilation.
- § 10. The Doctrine of Universal Restoration.
- Chapter XV. The Christian Church.
- § 1. The Question stated.
- § 2. Orthodox Doctrine of the Church—Roman Catholic and High Church.
- § 3. The Protestant Orthodox Idea of the Church.
- § 4. Christ's Idea of a Church, or the Kingdom of Heaven.
- § 5. Church of the Leaven, or the Invisible Church.
- § 6. The Church of the Mustard-seed.
- § 7. Primitive and Apostolic Church, or Church as it was.
- § 8. The Actual Church, or the Church as it is.
- § 9. The Church Ideal, or Church as it ought to be.
- § 10. The Church Possible, or Church as it can be.
- Chapter XVI. The Trinity.
- § 1. Definition of the Church Doctrine.
- § 2. History of the Doctrine.
- § 3. Errors in the Church Doctrine of the Trinity.
- § 4. The Trinity of Manifestations founded in the Truth of Things.
- § 5. It is in Harmony with Scripture.
- § 6. Practical value of the Trinity, when rightly understood.
- Appendix. Critical Notices.
- § 1. On the Defence of Nescience in Theology, by Herbert Spencer and Henry L. Mansel.
- § 2. On the Defence of Verbal Inspiration by Gaussen.
- § 3. Defence of the Doctrine that Sin is a Nature, by Professor Shedd.
- § 4. Defence of Everlasting Punishment, by Dr. Nehemiah Adams and Dr. J. P. Thompson.
- § 5. Defence of the Trinity, by Frederick D. Huntington, D. D.
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