The Churches and Modern Thought An inquiry into the grounds of unbelief and an appeal for candour
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The Churches and Modern Thought An inquiry into the grounds of unbelief and an appeal for candour

By Philip Vivian
Free
Book Description

Table of Contents
  • CONTENTS
  • PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
  • PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
  • PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION
  • THE SITUATION
  • Chapter I.
  • THE GRAVITY OF THE PRESENT SITUATION
    • § 1. The Truth of the Matter.
    • § 2. The Attitude of the Laity.
    • § 3. Christianity and Science not Reconciled.
    • § 4. The Genesis and Character of the New Outburst.
    • § 5. Apologetics “Found Wanting.”
    • § 6. More Things which Confuse the Issue.
  • MIRACLES
  • Chapter II.
  • THE EXTRAORDINARY STATE OF APOLOGETICS WITH REGARD TO MIRACLES
    • § 1. Preliminary Remarks.
      • THE VIEW OF SCIENCE.
      • WHY HAVE MIRACLES CEASED?
      • BELIEF IN MIRACLES ESSENTIAL.
    • THE VIEW OF SCIENCE.
    • WHY HAVE MIRACLES CEASED?
    • BELIEF IN MIRACLES ESSENTIAL.
    • § 2. Miracle Apologetics.
    • § 3. The Fundamental Miracles.
      • THE RESURRECTION.
      • THE ASCENSION.
      • THE INCARNATION.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS.
    • THE RESURRECTION.
    • THE ASCENSION.
    • THE INCARNATION.
    • CONCLUDING REMARKS.
  • BIBLE CRITICISM
  • Chapter III.
  • THE DESTRUCTIVE CHARACTER OF MODERN BIBLE CRITICISM
    • § 1. Clashing Views on Bible Criticism.
    • § 2. A Summary of the Results of Bible Criticism.
    • § 3. By Whom the “Higher Criticism” is Accepted.
    • § 4. Admissions by Orthodox Apologists.
    • § 5. Some Remaining Difficulties.
      • WE MUST ACCEPT THE WHOLE OR REJECT THE WHOLE.
      • SILENCE OF HISTORIANS.
      • THOUGHTS ON “TRADITION” AS GOD’S METHOD FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF TRUTH TO POSTERITY.
      • THE ALLEGED SINLESSNESS OF JESUS CHRIST.
      • THE IGNORANCE OF JESUS CHRIST.
    • WE MUST ACCEPT THE WHOLE OR REJECT THE WHOLE.
    • SILENCE OF HISTORIANS.
    • THOUGHTS ON “TRADITION” AS GOD’S METHOD FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF TRUTH TO POSTERITY.
    • THE ALLEGED SINLESSNESS OF JESUS CHRIST.
    • THE IGNORANCE OF JESUS CHRIST.
  • COMPARATIVE MYTHOLOGY
  • Chapter IV.
  • THE GRAVE SUSPICIONS AROUSED BY THE STUDY OF ANCIENT BELIEFS
    • § 1. The New Theological Theory of a Progressive Revelation.
    • § 2. Parallels in Ancient Religions, and Some Remarks Upon Them.
      • KRISHNA AND BUDDHA.
      • PARALLELS OTHER THAN KRISHNA AND BUDDHA.
      • ARE THE KRISHNA AND BUDDHA LEGENDS BORROWED FROM CHRISTIANITY?
    • KRISHNA AND BUDDHA.
    • PARALLELS OTHER THAN KRISHNA AND BUDDHA.
    • ARE THE KRISHNA AND BUDDHA LEGENDS BORROWED FROM CHRISTIANITY?
    • § 3. Parallels in the Beliefs of Primitive Man, and some Remarks Upon Them.
      • THE RELIGIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA.
      • VEGETATION GODS.
      • WHY MEN EAT THEIR GOD.
    • THE RELIGIONS OF ANCIENT AMERICA.
    • VEGETATION GODS.
    • WHY MEN EAT THEIR GOD.
    • § 4. The Solar Myth.
      • JONAH AND THE WHALE.
      • ANTICIPATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY IN SOLAR MYTHS.
      • THE CHRISTIAN THEORY IGNORED BY SCIENCE.
      • THE SUN AS A SYMBOL.
    • JONAH AND THE WHALE.
    • ANTICIPATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY IN SOLAR MYTHS.
    • THE CHRISTIAN THEORY IGNORED BY SCIENCE.
    • THE SUN AS A SYMBOL.
    • § 5. Concluding Remarks on Christian and Anti-Christian Theories.
      • ARGUMENT FROM ESSENISM.
      • ARGUMENT FROM MITHRAISM.
    • ARGUMENT FROM ESSENISM.
    • ARGUMENT FROM MITHRAISM.
  • EVOLUTION
  • Chapter V.
  • IRRECONCILABLE DIFFICULTIES CONNECTED WITH EVOLUTION
    • § 1. Preliminary Remarks.
      • THE DOCTRINE OF EVOLUTION.
      • DARWINISM.
      • THE AVERAGE PERSON’S IDEAS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAN.
      • THE ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH.
    • THE DOCTRINE OF EVOLUTION.
    • DARWINISM.
    • THE AVERAGE PERSON’S IDEAS ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAN.
    • THE ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH.
    • § 2. “Nature Red in Tooth and Claw.”
    • § 3. The Bible Account of Creation Irreconcilable with Science in Each and Every Respect.
    • § 4. Proofs of Our Animal Origin.
      • THE EXTRAORDINARY AFFINITY OF BODILY STRUCTURE.
      • THE REVELATIONS OF EMBRYOLOGY.
      • THE TALE TOLD BY THE USELESS RUDIMENTARY ORGANS.
    • THE EXTRAORDINARY AFFINITY OF BODILY STRUCTURE.
    • THE REVELATIONS OF EMBRYOLOGY.
    • THE TALE TOLD BY THE USELESS RUDIMENTARY ORGANS.
    • § 5. The Overthrow of the Doctrines of the Fall and Original Sin.
      • THE IMPORTANCE OF THE QUESTION.
      • AN INSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM.
      • THE BISHOP OF WORCESTER’S THEORY.
      • THE ARCHDEACON OF MANCHESTER’S THEORY.
      • THE RATIONALIST’S THEORY.
      • CONCLUSIONS.
    • THE IMPORTANCE OF THE QUESTION.
    • AN INSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM.
    • THE BISHOP OF WORCESTER’S THEORY.
    • THE ARCHDEACON OF MANCHESTER’S THEORY.
    • THE RATIONALIST’S THEORY.
    • CONCLUSIONS.
  • THEISM
  • Chapter VI.
  • THE FAILURE OF THEISTIC ARGUMENTS
    • § 1. Preliminary Remarks.
      • THEISM, AND WHO ARE THEISTS.
    • THEISM, AND WHO ARE THEISTS.
    • § 2. The Existence of a First Cause—An Uncaused Cause.5
    • § 3. The First Cause an Intelligence.
      • DESIGN AND DIRECTIVITY.
      • DIRECTIVITY.
      • DESIGN.
      • DIFFERENCES OF OPINION AMONG THEISTIC APOLOGISTS.
    • DESIGN AND DIRECTIVITY.
    • DIRECTIVITY.
    • DESIGN.
    • DIFFERENCES OF OPINION AMONG THEISTIC APOLOGISTS.
    • § 4. The First Cause a Beneficent Intelligence.
      • A PERSONAL GOD.
      • DIVINE IMMANENCE IN NATURE.
      • A FACT IN HISTORY.
      • THE PAST AND PRESENT POSITION OF THE ETHICAL ARGUMENT.
      • EVIL FOR WHICH MAN IS NOT HELD RESPONSIBLE.
      • EVIL FOR WHICH MAN IS HELD RESPONSIBLE.
      • CONSCIENCE.
      • FREEWILL.
    • A PERSONAL GOD.
    • DIVINE IMMANENCE IN NATURE.
    • A FACT IN HISTORY.
    • THE PAST AND PRESENT POSITION OF THE ETHICAL ARGUMENT.
    • EVIL FOR WHICH MAN IS NOT HELD RESPONSIBLE.
    • EVIL FOR WHICH MAN IS HELD RESPONSIBLE.
    • CONSCIENCE.
    • FREEWILL.
    • § 5. Religious Experience.
      • MYSTICISM AND CONVERSION.
      • THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PRAYER.
      • THE RELIGIOUS (?) EXPERIENCES OF INTOXICATION.
      • MUSIC AND THE EMOTIONS.49
      • SEXUAL LOVE.
      • REVIVALISM.
    • MYSTICISM AND CONVERSION.
    • THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PRAYER.
    • THE RELIGIOUS (?) EXPERIENCES OF INTOXICATION.
    • MUSIC AND THE EMOTIONS.49
    • SEXUAL LOVE.
    • REVIVALISM.
    • § 6. The Inevitable Conclusion.
      • NOTE ON RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY.
    • NOTE ON RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY.
  • POPULAR ARGUMENTS
  • Chapter VII.
  • FALLACIES IN POPULAR ARGUMENTS
    • § 1. Preliminary Remarks. The Power of Christianity for Good.
    • § 2. Christianity Woman’s Best Friend.1
    • § 3. The Overthrow of Christianity would Endanger Society and the Nation.
    • § 4. The Spread of Christianity a Proof of its Truth.
    • § 5. The Noble Army of Martyrs.
    • § 6. The Universality of the Religious Instinct.
      • THE HYPOTHESIS STATED.
      • THE RATIONALIST’S CONTENTION.
      • THE APOLOGIST’S VIEWS CONCERNING SUPERSTITION AND THE RELIGIOUS INSTINCT.
      • BELIEFS OF SAVAGE MAN.
      • MAGIC AND RELIGION.
      • RELIGION IN MODERN CHINA.
      • APOSTATES IN CHRISTENDOM.
      • RELIGION IN MODERN JAPAN.
      • CLASSICAL HISTORY.
      • NOTE ON HUMAN SENTIMENT AS TO A FUTURE LIFE.
    • THE HYPOTHESIS STATED.
    • THE RATIONALIST’S CONTENTION.
    • THE APOLOGIST’S VIEWS CONCERNING SUPERSTITION AND THE RELIGIOUS INSTINCT.
    • BELIEFS OF SAVAGE MAN.
    • MAGIC AND RELIGION.
    • RELIGION IN MODERN CHINA.
    • APOSTATES IN CHRISTENDOM.
    • RELIGION IN MODERN JAPAN.
    • CLASSICAL HISTORY.
    • NOTE ON HUMAN SENTIMENT AS TO A FUTURE LIFE.
  • Chapter VIII.
  • CONCLUSION
    • § 1. A Summary.
    • § 2. Why Lead a Moral Life?
      • PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
      • THE NECESSITY FOR MORALITY.
      • USELESSNESS OF VAGUE THREATS.
      • THE NEED FOR AN EARLY EDUCATION IN ETHICAL PRINCIPLES.
      • THE OBJECT-LESSON FURNISHED BY THE JAPANESE.
      • CRIMINALITY.
      • OUR AIDS.
      • THE IMPORTANCE OF A KNOWLEDGE OF THE ORIGIN OF MORALITY.
      • OPINIONS OF ETHICISTS.
      • NOTE ON SYSTEMATIC MORAL INSTRUCTION.
    • PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
    • THE NECESSITY FOR MORALITY.
    • USELESSNESS OF VAGUE THREATS.
    • THE NEED FOR AN EARLY EDUCATION IN ETHICAL PRINCIPLES.
    • THE OBJECT-LESSON FURNISHED BY THE JAPANESE.
    • CRIMINALITY.
    • OUR AIDS.
    • THE IMPORTANCE OF A KNOWLEDGE OF THE ORIGIN OF MORALITY.
    • OPINIONS OF ETHICISTS.
    • NOTE ON SYSTEMATIC MORAL INSTRUCTION.
    • § 3. Should the Truth be Told?
      • (a) “MAGNA EST VERITAS ET PRÆVALEBIT.”
      • (b) OBSCURANTISM HAS HAD ITS DAY.
      • (c) THE EFFECT ON MORALITY.
      • (d) THE REAL DANGER.
      • (e) THE CONSOLATIONS OF BELIEF, AND THE DISTRESS WE MAY CAUSE BY OUR CANDOUR.
      • (f) CAN WE ALTER PEOPLE’S BELIEFS?
      • (g) CAN BELIEFS BE USEFUL THOUGH FALSE?
      • (h) IS A NEW RELIGION48 REQUIRED?
      • (i) WHY BE SO IMPATIENT OF ERROR?
    • (a) “MAGNA EST VERITAS ET PRÆVALEBIT.”
    • (b) OBSCURANTISM HAS HAD ITS DAY.
    • (c) THE EFFECT ON MORALITY.
    • (d) THE REAL DANGER.
    • (e) THE CONSOLATIONS OF BELIEF, AND THE DISTRESS WE MAY CAUSE BY OUR CANDOUR.
    • (f) CAN WE ALTER PEOPLE’S BELIEFS?
    • (g) CAN BELIEFS BE USEFUL THOUGH FALSE?
    • (h) IS A NEW RELIGION48 REQUIRED?
    • (i) WHY BE SO IMPATIENT OF ERROR?
    • § 4. The Outlook.
    • § 5. Concluding Remarks.
  • APPENDIX
    • Chapter I.
    • Chapter II.
    • Chapter III.
    • Chapter IV.
    • Chapter V.
    • Chapter VI.
    • Chapter VII.
    • Chapter VIII.
      • PROCESSIONAL.
    • PROCESSIONAL.
  • INDEX
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • Z
  • SELECTIONS FROM A FEW (OF MANY) PRESS OPINIONS ON EARLIER EDITIONS.
  • Colophon
    • Availability
    • Encoding
    • Revision History
    • External References
    • Corrections
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