The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India Volume 3 of 4
Free

The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India Volume 3 of 4

By R. V. (Robert Vane) Russell
Free
Book Description
Table of Contents
  • Contents of Volume III
  • Articles on Castes and Tribes of the Central Provinces in Alphabetical Order
  • Illustrations in Volume III
  • Pronunciation
  • Part III
  • Articles on Castes and Tribes
  • Garardia—Koshti
  • Gadaria
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage customs.
    • 4. Religion and funeral rites.
    • 5. Social customs.
    • 6. Goats and sheep.
    • 7. Blanket-weaving.
    • 8. Sanctity of wool.
  • Gadba
    • 1. Description and structure of the tribe.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religious beliefs and festivals.
    • 4. Disposal of the dead.
    • 5. Occupation and mode of living.
  • Gānda
    • 1. Distribution and origin.
    • 2. Caste subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Religion.
    • 5. Occupation and social status.
  • Gandhmāli
  • Gārpagāri
    • 1. Origin of the caste.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religion.
    • 4. Occupation.
    • 5. Social status.
  • Gauria
  • GHASIA
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Description of the caste.
    • 2. Subcastes.
    • 3. Exogamous sections.
    • 4. Marriage.
    • 5. Religion and superstitions.
    • 6. Occupation.
    • 7. Social customs.
    • 8. Ghasias and Kāyasths.
  • Ghosi
  • Golar
  • GOND
    • List of Paragraphs
    • (a) Origin and History
      • 1. Numbers and distribution.
      • 2. Gondwāna.
      • 3. Derivation of name and origin of the Gonds.
      • 4. History of the Gonds.
      • 5. Mythica traditions. Story of Lingo.
      • 6. Legend of the creation.
      • 7. Creation of the Gonds and their imprisonment by Mahādeo.
      • 8. The birth and history of Lingo.
      • 9. Death and resurrection of Lingo.
      • 10. He releases the Gonds shut up in the cave and constitutes the tribe.
    • 1. Numbers and distribution.
    • 2. Gondwāna.
    • 3. Derivation of name and origin of the Gonds.
    • 4. History of the Gonds.
    • 5. Mythica traditions. Story of Lingo.
    • 6. Legend of the creation.
    • 7. Creation of the Gonds and their imprisonment by Mahādeo.
    • 8. The birth and history of Lingo.
    • 9. Death and resurrection of Lingo.
    • 10. He releases the Gonds shut up in the cave and constitutes the tribe.
    • (b) Tribal Subdivisions
      • 11. Subcastes.
      • 12. Exogamy.
      • 13. Totemism.
      • 14. Connection of totemism with the gods.
    • 11. Subcastes.
    • 12. Exogamy.
    • 13. Totemism.
    • 14. Connection of totemism with the gods.
    • (c) Marriage Customs
      • 15. Prohibitions on intermarriage, and unions of relations.
      • 16. Irregular marriages.
      • 17. Marriage. Arrangement of matches.
      • 18. The marriage ceremony.
      • 19. Wedding expenditure.
      • 20. Special customs.
      • 21. Taking omens.
      • 22. Marriage by capture. Weeping and hiding.
      • 23. Serving for a wife.
      • 24. Widow remarriage.
      • 25. Divorce.
      • 26. Polygamy.
    • 15. Prohibitions on intermarriage, and unions of relations.
    • 16. Irregular marriages.
    • 17. Marriage. Arrangement of matches.
    • 18. The marriage ceremony.
    • 19. Wedding expenditure.
    • 20. Special customs.
    • 21. Taking omens.
    • 22. Marriage by capture. Weeping and hiding.
    • 23. Serving for a wife.
    • 24. Widow remarriage.
    • 25. Divorce.
    • 26. Polygamy.
    • (d) Birth and Pregnancy
      • 27. Menstruation.
      • 28. Superstitions about pregnancy and childbirth.
      • 29. Procedure at a birth.
      • 30. Names.
      • 31. Superstitions about children.
    • 27. Menstruation.
    • 28. Superstitions about pregnancy and childbirth.
    • 29. Procedure at a birth.
    • 30. Names.
    • 31. Superstitions about children.
    • (e) Funeral Rites
      • 32. Disposal of the dead.
      • 33. Funeral ceremony.
      • 34. Mourning and offerings to the dead.
      • 35. Memorial stones to the dead.
      • 36. House abandoned after a death.
      • 37. Bringing back the soul.
      • 38. The dead absorbed in Bura Deo.
      • 39. Belief in a future life.
    • 32. Disposal of the dead.
    • 33. Funeral ceremony.
    • 34. Mourning and offerings to the dead.
    • 35. Memorial stones to the dead.
    • 36. House abandoned after a death.
    • 37. Bringing back the soul.
    • 38. The dead absorbed in Bura Deo.
    • 39. Belief in a future life.
    • (f) Religion
      • 40. Nature of the Gond religion. The gods.
      • 41. Tribal gods, and their place of residence.
      • 42. Household gods.
      • 43. Nāg Deo.
      • 44. Nārāyan Deo.
      • 45. Bura Deo.
      • 46. Charms and magic.
      • 47. Omens.
      • 48. Agricultural superstitions.
      • 49. Magical or religious observances in fishing and hunting.
      • 50. Witchcraft.
      • 51. Human sacrifice.40
      • 52. Cannibalism.
      • 53. Festivals. The new crops.
      • 54. The Holi festival.
      • 55. The Meghnāth swinging rite.
      • 56. The Karma and other rites.
    • 40. Nature of the Gond religion. The gods.
    • 41. Tribal gods, and their place of residence.
    • 42. Household gods.
    • 43. Nāg Deo.
    • 44. Nārāyan Deo.
    • 45. Bura Deo.
    • 46. Charms and magic.
    • 47. Omens.
    • 48. Agricultural superstitions.
    • 49. Magical or religious observances in fishing and hunting.
    • 50. Witchcraft.
    • 51. Human sacrifice.40
    • 52. Cannibalism.
    • 53. Festivals. The new crops.
    • 54. The Holi festival.
    • 55. The Meghnāth swinging rite.
    • 56. The Karma and other rites.
    • (g) Appearance and Character, and Social Rules and Customs
      • 57. Physical type.
      • 58. Character.
      • 59. Shyness and ignorance.
      • 60. Villages and houses.
      • 61. Clothes and ornaments.
      • 62. Ear-piercing.
      • 63. Hair.
      • 64. Bathing and washing clothes.
      • 65. Tattooing.
      • 66. Special system of tattooing.
      • 67. Branding.
      • 68. Food.
      • 69. Liquor.
      • 70. Admission of outsiders and sexual morality.
      • 71. Common sleeping-houses.
      • 72. Methods of greeting and observances between relatives.
      • 73. The caste panchāyat and social offences.
      • 74. Caste penalty feasts.
      • 75. Special purification ceremony.
      • 76. Dancing.
      • 77. Songs.
      • f. Man speaks:
      • Woman:
      • 78. Language.
    • 57. Physical type.
    • 58. Character.
    • 59. Shyness and ignorance.
    • 60. Villages and houses.
    • 61. Clothes and ornaments.
    • 62. Ear-piercing.
    • 63. Hair.
    • 64. Bathing and washing clothes.
    • 65. Tattooing.
    • 66. Special system of tattooing.
    • 67. Branding.
    • 68. Food.
    • 69. Liquor.
    • 70. Admission of outsiders and sexual morality.
    • 71. Common sleeping-houses.
    • 72. Methods of greeting and observances between relatives.
    • 73. The caste panchāyat and social offences.
    • 74. Caste penalty feasts.
    • 75. Special purification ceremony.
    • 76. Dancing.
    • 77. Songs.
    • f. Man speaks:
    • Woman:
    • 78. Language.
    • (h) Occupation
      • 79. Cultivation.
      • 80. Patch cultivation.
      • 81. Hunting: traps for animals.
    • 79. Cultivation.
    • 80. Patch cultivation.
    • 81. Hunting: traps for animals.
  • Gond-Gowāri
  • Gondhali
  • Gopāl
  • GOSAIN
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Names for the Gosains.
    • 2. The ten orders.
    • 3. Initiation.
    • 4. Dress.
    • 5. Methods of begging and greetings.
    • 6. The Dandis.
    • 7. The Rāwanvansis.
    • 8. Monasteries.
    • 9. The fighting Gosains.
    • 10. Burial.
    • 11. Sexual indulgence.
    • 12. Missionary work.
    • 13. The Gosain caste.
  • Gowāri
    • 1. Origin of the caste.
    • 2. Subcastes.
    • 3. Totemism and exogamy.
    • 4. Marriage customs.
    • 5. Funeral rites.
    • 6. Religion.
    • 7. Caste rules and the panchāyat.
    • 8. Social customs.
  • GŪJAR
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Historical notice of the caste.
    • 2. The Gūjars and the Khazars.
    • 3. Predatory character of the Gūjars in northern India.
    • 4. Subdivisions.
    • 5. Marriage.
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
    • 7. Religion.
    • 8. Character.
  • GURAO
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the caste.
    • 2. Internal structure.
    • 3. Marriage and ceremonies of adolescence.
    • 4. Birth customs.
    • 5. The sacred thread.
    • 6. Funeral customs.
    • 7. Social position.
    • 8. The Jain Guraos.
  • HALBA
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Traditions of the caste.
    • 2. Halba landowners in Bastar and Bhandāra.
    • 3. Internal structure: subcastes.
    • 4. Exogamous sections.
    • 5. Theory of the origin of the caste.
    • 6. Marriage.
    • 7. Importance of the sister’s son.
    • 8. The wedding ceremony.
    • 9. Going-away ceremony.
    • 10. Widow-marriage and divorce.
    • 11. Religion.
    • 12. Disposal of the dead.
    • 13. Propitiating the spirits of those who have died a violent death.
    • 14. Impurity of women.
    • 15. Childbirth.
    • 16. Names.
    • 17. Social status.
    • 18. Caste panchāyat.
    • 19. Dress.
    • 20. Tattooing.
    • 21. Occupation.
  • Halwai
  • Hatkar
    • 1. Derivation and historical notice.
    • 2. The Gauli Hatkar’s reverence for cattle.
    • 3. Funeral rites.
    • 4. Exogamous groups.
  • Hijra
  • Holia
  • Injhwār
    • 1. Origin of the caste.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage and other customs.
    • 4. Occupation and social status.
  • Jādam
  • Jādua
  • Jangam
  • JĀT
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Theories of the origin of the caste.
    • 2. Sir D. Ibbetson’s description of the caste.
    • 3. Are the Jāts and Rājpūts distinct?
    • 4. The position of the Jāt in the Punjab.
    • 5. Social status of the Jāts.
    • 6. Brāhmanical legend of origin.
    • 7. The Jāts in the Central Provinces.
    • 8. Marriage customs.
    • 9. Funeral rites.
    • 10. The Paida ceremony.
    • 11. Customs at birth.
    • 12. Religion.
    • 13. Social customs.
    • 14. Occupation.
  • JHĀDI TELENGA
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Exogamous divisions.
    • 3. Admission of outsiders.
    • 4. Marriage.
    • 5. Religion.
    • 6. Names.
    • 7. Magical devices
    • 8. Occupation.
  • JOGI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The Yoga philosophy.
    • 2. Abstraction of the senses or autohypnotism.
    • 3. Breathing through either nostril.
    • 4. Self-torture of the Jogis.
    • 5. Resort to them for oracles.
    • 6. Divisions of the order.
    • 7. Hair and clothes.
    • 8. Burial.
    • 9. Festivals.
    • 10. Caste subdivisions.
    • 11. Begging.
    • 12. Other occupations.
    • 13. Swindling practices.
    • 14. Proverbs about Jogis.
  • JOSHI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The village priest and astrologer.
    • 2. The apparent path of the sun. The ecliptic or zodiac.
    • 3. Inclination of the ecliptic to the equator.
    • 4. The orbits of the moon and planets.
    • 5. The signs of the zodiac.
    • 6. The Sankrānts.
    • 7. The nakshatras or constellations of the moon’s path.
    • 8. The revolution of the moon.
    • 9. The days of the week.
    • 10. The lunar year.
    • 11. Intercalary months.
    • 12. Superstitions about numbers.
    • 13. The Hindu months.
    • 14. The solar nakshatras.
    • 15. Lunar fortnights and days.
    • 16. Divisions of the day.
    • 17. The Joshi’s calculations.
    • 18. Personal names.
    • 19. Terminations of names.
    • 20. Women’s names.
    • 21. Special names and bad names.
  • Julāha
  • Kachera
    • 1. Origin of the caste.
    • 2. Exogamous groups.
    • 3. Social customs.
    • 4. Occupation.
  • KĀCHHI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage customs.
    • 4. Childbirth.
    • 5. Ear-piercing
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
  • Kadera
    • 1. Historical notice.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Social customs.
    • 4. Religion and occupation.
  • Kahār
    • 1. Origin and statistics.
    • 2. The doli or palanquin.
    • 3. Female bearers.
    • 4. Indoor servants.
  • Kaikāri
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religion.
    • 4. Social customs and position.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Kalanga
    • 1. Origin.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Social position.
  • KALĀR
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Strength of the caste.
    • 2. Internal structure.
    • 3. Dandsena Kalārs in Chhattīsgarh.
    • 4. Social customs.
    • 5. Liquor held divine in Vedic times.
    • 6. Subsequent prohibition of alcohol.
    • 7. Spirits habitually drunk in ancient times.
    • 8. Drunkenness and divine inspiration.
    • 9. Sanctity of liquor among the Gonds and other castes.
    • 10. Drugs also considered divine.
    • 11. Opium and gānja.
    • 12. Tobacco.
    • 13. Customs in connection with drinking.
  • KAMĀR1
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Subdivisions and marriage.
    • 3. The sister’s son.
    • 4. Menstruation.
    • 5. Birth customs.
    • 6. Death and inheritance.
    • 7. Religious beliefs.
    • 8. Veneration of iron and liquor.
    • 9. Social customs and caste penalties.
    • 10. Tattooing.
    • 11. Hair.
    • 12. Occupation and manner of life.
    • 13. Their skill with bows and arrows.
  • KANJAR
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Derivation of the Kanjars from the Doms.
    • 2. The Kanjars and the Gipsies.
    • 3. The Thugs derived from the Kanjars.
    • 4. The Doms.
    • 5. The criminal Kanjars.
    • 6. The Kūnchband Kanjars.
    • 7. Marriage and religion.
    • 8. Social customs.
    • 9. Industrial arts.
  • Kāpewār
  • Karan
  • KASAI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the caste.
    • 2. The cattle-slaughtering industry.
    • 3. Muhammadan rite of zibah or halāl.
    • 4. Animism.
    • 5. Animal-gods. The domestic animals.
    • 6. Other animals.
    • 7. Animals worshipped in India.
    • 8. The sacrificial meal.
    • 9. Primitive basis of kinship.
    • 10. The bond of food.
    • 11. The blood-feud.
    • 12. Taking food together and hospitality.
    • 13. The Roman sacra.
    • 14. The Hindu caste-feasts.
    • 15. Sacrifice of the camel.
    • 16. The joint sacrifice.
    • 17. Animal sacrifices in Greece.
    • 18. The Passover.
    • 19. Sanctity of domestic animals.
    • 20. Sacrificial slaughter for food.
    • 21. Animal fights.
    • 22. The sacrificial method of killing.
    • 23. Animal sacrifices in Indian ritual.
  • Kasār
    • 1. Distribution and origin of the caste.
    • 2. Internal structure.
    • 3. Social customs.
    • 4. Occupation.
  • KASBI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Girls dedicated to temples.
    • 3. Music and dancing.
    • 4. Education of courtesans.
    • 5. Caste customs.
    • 6. First pregnancy.
    • 7. Different classes of women.
    • 8. Dancing and singing.
  • Katia
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subcastes and exogamous groups.
    • 3. Marriage customs.
    • 4. Funeral rites.
    • 5. Social rules.
  • KAWAR1
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Tribal legend.
    • 2. Tribal subdivisions.
    • 3. Exogamous groups.
    • 4. Betrothal and marriage.
    • 5. Other customs connected with marriage.
    • 6. Childbirth.
    • 7. Disposal of the dead.
    • 8. Laying spirits.
    • 9. Religion.
    • 10. Magic and witchcraft.
    • 11. Dress.
    • 12. Occupation and social rules.
  • KĀYASTH
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice and legend of origin.
    • 2. The origin of the caste.
    • 3. The rise of the Kāyasths under foreign rulers.
    • 4. The original profession of the Kāyasths.
    • 5. The caste an offshoot from Brāhmans.
    • 6. The success of the Kāyasths and their present position.
    • 7. Subcastes.
    • 8. Exogamy.
    • 9. Marriage customs.
    • 10. Marriage songs.
    • 11. Social rules.
    • 12. Birth customs.
    • 13. Religion.
    • 14. Social customs.
    • 15. Occupation.
  • Kewat
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Exogamous divisions and marriage.
    • 3. Social customs.
  • KHAIRWĀR
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Historical notice of the tribe.
    • 2. Its origin.
    • 3. Tribal subdivisions.
    • 4. Exogamous septs.
    • 5. Marriage.
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
    • 7. Religion.
    • 8. Inheritance.
    • 9. The Khairwas of Damoh.
  • Khandait
  • KHANGĀR
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Caste subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Religion.
    • 5. Social status.
    • 6. Occupation.
  • KHARIA
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Legend of origin.
    • 3. Subcastes.
    • 4. Exogamy and totemism.
    • 5. Marriage.
    • 6. Taboos as to food.
    • 7. Widow-marriage and divorce.
    • 8. Religion.
    • 9. Funeral rites.
    • 10. Bringing back the souls of the dead.
    • 11. Social customs.
    • 12. Caste rules and organisation.
    • 13. Occupation and character.
    • 14. Language.
  • Khatīk
  • Khatri
    • 1. Rājpūt origin.
    • 2. Sir George Campbell’s account of the Khatris.
    • 3. Higher and lower groups.
    • 4. Marriage and funeral customs.
  • Khojāh
  • KHOND1
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Traditions of the tribe.
    • 2. Tribal divisions.
    • 3. Exogamous septs.
    • 4. Marriage.
    • 5. Customs at birth.
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
    • 7. Occupation.
    • 8. A Khond combat.
    • 9. Social customs.
    • 10. Festivals.
    • 11. Religion.
    • 12. Human sacrifice.
    • 13. Last human sacrifices.
    • 14. Khond rising in 1882.
    • 15. Language.
  • Kīr
    • 1. Origin and Traditions.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religion.
    • 4. Birth and death ceremonies.
    • 5. Food, dress and occupation.
  • Kirār
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religion.
    • 4. Social customs.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Kohli
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Marriage and other customs.
    • 3. The Kohlis as tank-builders.
    • 4. Agricultural customs.
    • 5. General characteristics.
  • KOL
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice. Strength of the Kols in India.
    • 2. Names of the tribe.
    • 3. Origin of the Kolarian tribes.
    • 4. The Kolarians and Dravidians.
    • 5. Date of the Dravidian immigration.
    • 6. Strength of the Kols in the Central Provinces.
    • 7. Legend of origin.
    • 8. Tribal subdivisions.
    • 9. Totemism.
    • 10. Marriage customs.
    • 11. Divorce and widow-marriage.
    • 12. Religion.
    • 13. Witchcraft.
    • 14. Funeral rites.
    • 15. Inheritance.
    • 16. Physical appearance.
    • 17. Dances.
    • 18. Social rules and offences.
    • 19. The caste panchāyat.
    • 20. Names.
    • 21. Occupation.
    • 22. Language.
  • KOLĀM
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the tribe.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Disposal of the dead.
    • 4. Religion and superstitions.
    • 5. Social position.
    • 6. Miscellaneous customs.
  • KOLHĀTI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Introductory notice.
    • 2. Internal structure.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Funeral rites.
    • 5. Other customs.
    • 6. Occupation.
  • KOLI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the caste.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Exogamous divisions.
    • 4. Widow-marriage or divorce.
    • 5. Religion.
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
    • 7. Social rules.
  • Kolta
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Exogamous groups.
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Religion.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Komti
  • Kori
    • 1. Description of the caste.
    • 2. Marriages
    • 3. Customs at birth and death.
    • 4. Religion.
    • 5. Occupation and social status.
  • KORKU
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Distribution and origin.
    • 2. Tribal legends.
    • 3. Tribal subdivisions.
    • 4. Marriage Betrothal.
    • 5. The marriage ceremony.
    • 6. Religion.
    • 7. The Bhumka.
    • 8. Magical practices.
    • 9. Funeral rites.
    • 10. Appearance and social customs.
    • 11. Character.
    • 12. Inheritance.
    • 13. Occupation.
    • 14. Language.
  • KORWA
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Physical appearance.
    • 3. Subdivisions.
    • 4. Marriage customs.
    • 5. Funeral rites.
    • 6. Religion.
    • 7. Social customs.
    • 8. Dancing.
    • 9. Occupation.
    • 10. Dacoity.
    • 11. Folk-tales.
  • KOSHTI
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Funeral customs.
    • 5. Religion.
    • 6. Superstitions.
    • 7. Clothes, etc.
    • 8. Social rules and status.
    • 9. Occupation.
  • Table of Contents
  • Colophon
    • Availability
    • Encoding
    • Revision History
    • External References
    • Corrections
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