Plotinos: Complete Works, v. 3 In Chronological Order, Grouped in Four Periods
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Plotinos: Complete Works, v. 3 In Chronological Order, Grouped in Four Periods

By Plotinos (Plotinus)
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Table of Contents
  • PLOTINOS Complete Works
  • SIXTH ENNEAD, BOOK SIX. Of Numbers.
    • MANIFOLDNESS IS DISTANCE FROM UNITY, AND EVIL.
    • HOW MANIFOLDNESS IS AN EVIL.
    • WHAT IS THE NUMBER OF THE INFINITE.
    • HOW THE INFINITE REACHED EXISTENCE.
    • HOW INFINITY CAN SUBSIST IN THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD.
    • INFINITE IS CONCEIVED BY THE THOUGHT'S MAKING ABSTRACTION OF THE FORM.
    • HOW OTHER NUMBERS FORM PART OF THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD.
    • PYTHAGOREAN INTELLIGIBLE NUMBERS DISCUSSED.
    • THE INTELLIGIBLE UNITY AND DECAD EXIST BEFORE ALL NUMBERS ONE OR TEN.
    • WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THESE INTELLIGIBLE NUMBERS?
    • JUSTICE, LIKE AN INTELLECTUAL STATUE, WAS BORN OF ITSELF.
    • INTELLIGENCE THINKS THINGS NOT BECAUSE THEY EXIST, BUT BECAUSE IT POSSESSES THEM.
    • WHAT AND HOW IS EVERY INTELLIGIBLE ENTITY.
    • NUMBER MUST EXIST IN THE PRIMARY ESSENCE.
    • NUMBER FOLLOWS AND PROCEEDS FROM ESSENCE.
    • NUMBER SPLIT THE UNITY INTO PLURALITY; PYTHAGOREAN IDENTIFICATION OF IDEAS AND NUMBERS.
    • TWO KINDS OF NUMBER: ESSENTIAL AND UNITARY.
    • ESSENCE IS A LOCATION FOR THE THINGS YET TO BE PRODUCED.
    • AN OBJECT'S EXISTENCE IMPLIES A PREVIOUS MODEL IN ITSELF.
    • UNITY AND NUMBER PRECEDE THE ONE AND THE MANY BEINGS.
    • UNITY MUST EXIST IN THE INTELLIGIBLE BEFORE BEING APPLIED TO MULTIPLE BEINGS.
    • THE SUPREME UNITY ADJUSTS ALL LOWER GROUP UNITIES.
    • ONE AND UNITY ARE WITHIN US; INDEPENDENTLY OF THE ONE OUTSIDE.
    • THERE IS INDEED A UNITARY MODE OF EXISTENCE IN OUTSIDE OBJECTS.
    • THE NOTION OF THE SUBJECT ONE DOES NOT COME FROM THE SUBJECT ITSELF.
    • UNITY, THOUGH BY PARTICIPATION EXISTING IN SENSE-OBJECTS, IS INTELLIGIBLE.
    • UNITY ONLY AN ACCIDENT IN SENSE-THINGS, BUT SOMETHING IN ITSELF IN THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • TWO IS NOT AN ADDITION TO ONE, BUT A CHANGE (REFUTATION OF ARISTOTLE).
    • OBJECTS PARTICIPATE IN NUMBERS JUST AS THEY PARTICIPATE IN ALL INTELLIGIBLE ENTITIES.
    • THE VERITABLE NUMBERS ARE INTELLIGIBLE ENTITIES.
    • NUMBER EXISTS BEFORE EVERY ANIMAL, AND THE UNIVERSAL ANIMAL.
    • THE INTELLIGIBLE AS POTENTIAL AND ACTUALIZED IN THE SOUL.
    • NUMBER AS THE UNIVERSAL BOND OF THE UNIVERSE.
    • THE GENERATION OF EVERYTHING REGULATED BY NUMBER.
    • DIFFICULTIES CONNECTED WITH THESE INTELLIGIBLE NUMBERS.
    • UNITY CONTAINED IN SENSE-OBJECTS IS NOT UNITY IN ITSELF.
    • NUMERALS PREDICATED OF THE MAN IN HIMSELF ARE ESSENTIAL.
    • COLLECTIVE NOUNS USED AS PROOF OF INDEPENDENT EXISTENCE.
    • THE NUMBER WITHIN IS THE NUMBER CONSTITUTIVE OF OUR BEING.
    • HOW A NUMBER MAY BE CALLED INFINITE.42
    • INTELLIGIBLE LINE POSTERIOR TO NUMBER, AND EXISTS IN THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • THE INTELLIGIBLE SPHERICAL FIGURE THE PRIMITIVE ONE.
    • FIGURES PRE-EXIST IN THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • INFINITY IN NUMBER ARISES FROM POSSIBILITY OF INCREASING GREATEST IMAGINABLE PHYSICAL NUMBER.
    • AS UNMEASURED THE INTELLIGIBLE NUMBER MIGHT BE CALLED INFINITE.
    • ESSENCE ALONE POSSESSES SELF-EXISTENCE.
    • THE POWER AND BEAUTY OF ESSENCE IS TO ATTRACT ALL THINGS.
  • SECOND ENNEAD, BOOK EIGHT. Of Sight; or of Why Distant Objects Seem Small.49 (OF PERSPECTIVE.)
    • VARIOUS THEORIES OF PERSPECTIVE.
    • QUALITY IS MORE ESSENTIAL THAN QUANTITY.
    • DIFFERENCES OF COLOR AID IN THE PERCEPTION OF MAGNITUDE.
    • DISAPPEARANCE OF THE FORM IMPLIES THAT OF THE SIZE.
    • REFUTATION OF ARISTOTLE'S "VISUAL ANGLE" THEORY.
  • FIRST ENNEAD, BOOK FIVE. Does Happiness Increase With Time?53
    • HAPPINESS HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH DURATION OF TIME.
    • HAPPINESS IS NOT THE SATISFACTION OF THE DESIRE TO LIVE.
    • INCREASED HAPPINESS WOULD RESULT ONLY FROM MORE PERFECT GRASP.
    • PLEASURE IS UNCONNECTED WITH HAPPINESS.
    • LENGTH OF HAPPINESS DOES NOT AFFECT ITS QUALITY.
    • IF UNHAPPINESS INCREASE WITH TIME, WHY SHOULD NOT HAPPINESS DO SO?
    • AS ADDITION IS POSSIBLE WITH TIME, WHY CANNOT HAPPINESS INCREASE?
    • NOT EVEN MEMORIES OF THE PAST INCREASE HAPPINESS.
    • NOT EVEN THE MEMORY OF VIRTUE INCREASES HAPPINESS.
    • LENGTH OF TIME IS OF NO IMPORTANCE, NOT EVEN AS OPPORTUNITY OF VIRTUE.
  • SECOND ENNEAD, BOOK SEVEN. About Mixture to the Point of Total Penetration.
    • REFUTATION OF ANAXAGORAS AND DEMOCRITUS.
    • REFUTATION OF ARISTOTLE AND ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS.
    • REFUTATION OF THE STOICS.
    • EXPLANATION OF MIXTURE THAT OCCUPIES MORE SPACE THAN ITS ELEMENTS.
    • CASE OF MIXTURE OF UNEQUAL QUANTITIES.
    • EVAPORATION MAY LEAD TO A THIRD THEORY OF MIXTURE.
    • REFUTATION OF STOIC EXPLANATION OF EVAPORATION.
    • REFUTATION OF PERIPATETIC EXPLANATION OF EVAPORATION.
    • THE BODY IS RATIONALIZED MATTER.
  • SIXTH ENNEAD, BOOK SEVEN. How Ideas Multiplied, and the Good.65
    • A. HOW IDEAS MULTIPLY.
    • THE EYES WERE IMPLANTED IN MAN BY DIVINE FORESIGHT.
    • SENSES NOT GIVEN TO MAN BECAUSE OF EXPERIENCE OF MISFORTUNES.
    • NOR BECAUSE OF GOD'S FORESIGHT OF THESE MISFORTUNES.
    • FORESIGHT OF CREATION IS NOT THE RESULT OF REASONING.
    • BOTH REASONING AND FORESIGHT ARE ONLY FIGURATIVE EXPRESSIONS.
    • IN GOD ALL THINGS WERE SIMULTANEOUS, THOUGH WHEN REALIZED THEY DEVELOPED.
    • IN THE INTELLIGIBLE, EVERYTHING POSSESSES ITS REASON AS WELL AS ITS FORM.
    • INTELLIGENCE CONTAINS THE CAUSE OF ALL ITS FORMS.
    • IN THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD EACH BEING IS ACCOMPANIED BY ITS WHYNESS.
    • INTELLIGENCE DID NOT DELIBERATE BEFORE MAKING SENSE-MAN.
    • BEING CONTAINS ITS CAUSE.
    • SUCH QUESTIONS DEMAND SCRUTINY OF THE INTELLIGIBLE MAN.
    • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MAN KNOWN BY THE SENSES AND THE INTELLIGIBLE MAN.
    • MAN DEFINED AS A REASONABLE SOUL.
    • MAN AS A SOUL SUBSISTING IN A SPECIAL REASON.
    • THESE REASONS ARE THE ACTUALIZATIONS OF THE SOUL WHICH BEGETS THE ANIMAL.
    • NATURE OF THE COMBINATION BEGOTTEN BY THE SOUL.
    • THE THREE MEN IN EACH OF US.
    • FATE OF THESE THREE MEN, IN BRUTALIZATION AND IN DIVINIZATION.
    • ANIMAL SEMINAL REASONS MAY BE CONTRARY TO SOUL'S NATURE; THOUGH NOT TO THE SOUL HERSELF.
    • THE SENSE-WORLD AND THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD ARE CONNECTED BY THE MANIFOLD TRIPLE NATURE OF MAN.
    • INTELLIGIBLE ANIMALS DO NOT INCLINE TOWARDS THE SENSE-WORLD FOR THEY ARE PRE-EXISTING, AND ARE DISTINCT FROM THEIR CREATING IMAGE.
    • IRRATIONAL ANIMALS MUST EXIST WITHIN INTELLIGENCE, UNLESS MAN ALONE WAS TO EXIST.
    • MANY ANIMALS ARE NOT SO IRRATIONAL AS DIFFERENT.
    • APPARENT IMPERFECTIONS ARE ONLY LOWER FORMS OF PERFECTION.
    • CO-EXISTENCE OF UNITY AND MULTIPLICITY DEMANDS ORGANIZATION IN SYSTEM.
    • BUT HOW COULD THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD CONTAIN VEGETABLES OR METALS?
    • HOW THE EARTH EXISTS IN THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • THE FIRE AS IT IS IN THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD.
    • WATER AND AIR AS INTELLIGIBLE ENTITIES.
    • THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD IS A COMPLETE MODEL OF THIS OUR UNIVERSE.
    • ALL THINGS UNITED BY A COMMON SOURCE.
    • SIMPLICITY OF THE INTELLIGIBLE DOES NOT DENY COMPOSITENESS, BUT INFERS HEIGHT OF SOURCE.
    • INTELLIGENCE EVOLVES OVER THE FIELD OF TRUTH.
    • INTELLIGENCE CONTAINS THE INFINITE AS SIMULTANEOUSNESS OF ONE AND MANY AND AS FRIENDSHIP.
    • B. A STUDY OF THE GOOD.
    • ALL SOULS ARE UNITED BY THEIR HIGHEST, WITH INTELLIGENCE SHINING DOWN FROM THE PEAK THEY FORM.
    • INTELLIGENCE CONTAINS ALL THINGS THAT ARE CONFORMED TO THE GOOD.
    • THE GOOD IS NOT ONLY THE CAUSE OF BEING, BUT ITS INTUITION AS WELL.
    • ALL IS INTELLIGENCE; BUT THIS IS DIFFERENTIATED INTO UNIVERSAL AND INDIVIDUAL.
    • MULTIPLICITY OF INTELLIGENCES IMPLIES THEIR MUTUAL DIFFERENCES.
    • LIFE, INTELLIGENCE, AND IDEA BEAR THE FORM OF THE GOOD.
    • THIS FORM OF THE GOOD MAY, HOWEVER, EXIST AT VARYING DEGREES.
    • INTELLIGENCE AND LIFE ARE ONLY DIFFERENT DEGREES OF THE SAME REALITY.
    • IS THE WORD GOOD A COMMON LABEL OR A COMMON QUALITY?
    • GOOD CANNOT BE A DESIRE OF THE SOUL.
    • NO NEED TO SEEK THE CAUSE OF GOOD AS IN THE INTELLIGIBLE THE CAUSE COINCIDES WITH THE NATURE.
    • PYTHAGOREAN OPPOSITIONS ARE ALSO WORTHLESS AS EXPLANATIONS OF GOOD.
    • GOOD NOT DEFINED BY INTELLIGENCE, AS THE SOUL HAS OTHER ASPIRATIONS.
    • THE GOOD IS INTELLIGENCE AND PRIMARY LIFE.
    • GOOD CONSISTS IN ILLUMINATION BY THE EXTREME.
    • THE SUPREME IS THE GOOD BECAUSE OF HIS SUPREMACY.
    • THE GOOD AS CREATOR AND PRESERVER.
    • MANY FURTHER QUESTIONS ABOUT THE GOOD; FOR THE INDIVIDUAL IT IS ILLUMINATION.
    • ATTRIBUTING GOOD TO LIFE IS ONLY THE RESULT OF FEAR OF DEATH.
    • PLATO'S ANSWER TO PHILEBUS: THERE ARE TWO GOODS, THE HUMAN AND THE UNIVERSAL.
    • THE ARISTOTELIAN SUPREME GOOD.120
    • THE TRUE GOOD IMPLIES A COUNTERFEIT GOOD.
    • THE GOOD CANNOT BE PLEASURE WHICH IS CHANGEABLE AND RESTLESS.
    • A THING'S GOOD IS ITS FORM; OR, ITS INTIMACY WITH ITSELF.
    • PLEASURE MAY ACCOMPANY THE GOOD, BUT THE GOOD IS INDEPENDENT THEREOF.
    • MATTER IS IMPROVED BY FORM, THE DREAM OF THE GOOD.
    • MATTER IS NOT WICKEDNESS, BUT NEUTRAL EVIL.
    • THE GOOD IS A NATURE WHICH POSSESSES NO KIND OF FORM ITSELF.
    • THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE GOOD FROM PLEASURE PROVED BY THE TEMPERATE MAN.
    • EVEN SCORN OF LIFE IMPLIES THE EXISTENCE OF THE GOOD.
    • TWO INTERPRETATIONS OF PLATO'S OPINION ABOUT THE GOOD.
    • PLEASURE IS INDEED AN ACCESSORY TO ALL GOODS OF THE SOUL.
    • THE SOUL SCORNING ALL THINGS BELOW RISES TO THE GOOD.
    • THE AUTHOR OF THIS PERFECTION MUST BE ABOVE IT.
    • THE SUPREME IS LIMITLESS.
    • ABSOLUTE BEAUTY IS A FORMLESS SHAPE.
    • THE SUPREME IS ESSENTIAL BEAUTY; THE SHAPELESS SHAPER; TRANSCENDENT.
    • THUS LOVE BEGINS PHYSICALLY BUT BECOMES SPIRITUAL.
    • THE FORMLESSNESS OF THE SUPREME IS PROVED BY THE FACT THAT THE SOUL WHEN APPROACHING HIM SPONTANEOUSLY RIDS HERSELF OF FORMS.
    • THE SOUL SCORNS EVEN THOUGHT: SHE IS INTELLECTUALIZED AND ENNOBLED.
    • INTELLIGENCE HAS THE TWO POWERS OF INTELLIGENCE AND LOVE.
    • THE SOUL DOES NOT THINK GOD, FOR IN THAT CONDITION SHE DOES NOT THINK.
    • THE TOUCH WITH THE GOOD IS THE GREATEST OF SCIENCES.
    • GOD BEING ABOVE THOUGHT IGNORES EVERYTHING.
    • THE FIRST PRINCIPLE HAS NO FUNCTION.
    • OF THE FIRST PRINCIPLE WE MAY NOT EVEN SAY THAT IT IS.
    • THE SELF-SUFFICIENT GOOD DOES NOT NEED SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS THEREOF.
    • THE GOOD IS A SIMPLE PERCEPTION OF ITSELF; A TOUCH.
    • THE FIRST PRINCIPLE HAS NO THOUGHT AS THE FIRST ACTUALIZATION OF A HYPOSTASIS.
    • EVEN IF THE GOOD THOUGHT, THERE WOULD BE NEED OF SOMETHING SUPERIOR.
    • THOUGHT IS A HELP FOR SUB-DIVINE NATURES.
    • THE GOOD IS NOT GOOD FOR ITSELF, BUT ONLY FOR THE NATURES BELOW IT.
    • THE BEAUTIFUL THE SUPREME OF THREE RANKS OF EXISTENCE.
  • SIXTH ENNEAD, BOOK EIGHT. Of the Will of the One.
    • A. OF HUMAN FREE WILL.
    • DOES FREE WILL BELONG TO GOD ONLY, OR TO OTHERS ONLY?
    • FREE WILL MUST BE FOR MEN, IF IT IS TO BE FOR THE DIVINITIES.
    • RESPONSIBILITY DEPENDS ON VOLUNTARINESS.
    • ON WHICH PSYCHOLOGICAL FACULTY IS THE FREEDOM OF WILL BASED?
    • PRELIMINARY KNOWLEDGE DOES NOT SETTLE THE LIBERTARIAN PROBLEM.
    • LIBERTY REFERRED TO THE ACTION OF INTELLIGENCE.
    • INTELLIGENCE HAS CONVERSION TO GOOD AND "BEING IN ITSELF."
    • FREEDOM OF WILL AND VIRTUE ARE INDEPENDENT OF THE ACTIONS.
    • VIRTUE AS INTELLECTUALIZING HABIT LIBERATES THE SOUL.
    • LIBERTY REFERS TO THE INTERIOR LIFE, RATHER THAN TO THE EXTERIOR.
    • LIBERTY DEPENDS ON THE HIGHEST INTELLIGENCE.
    • THE SOUL IS FREE BY INTELLIGENCE, WHICH IS FREE BY ITSELF.
    • B. OF THE FREE WILL OF THE SUPREME.
    • THE GOOD IS THE DESIRABLE IN ITSELF.
    • THE GOOD IS FREE, BUT NOT MERELY BY CHANCE.
    • BEING AND ACTUALIZATION CONSTITUTE ONE SELF-EXISTENT PRINCIPLE.
    • PHYSICAL QUALITIES USED OF THE SUPREME ONLY BY ANALOGY.
    • "CONTINGENCE" MIGHT BE APPLIED TO THE SUPREME, IF THE WORD BE RE-DEFINED.
    • NOT EVEN ESSENCE IS CONTINGENT, LET ALONE SUPER-ESSENCE.
    • THE SUPREME IS THE POWER REALLY MASTER OF HIMSELF.
    • THE SUPREME BANISHES ALL CHANCE BY ASSIGNING LIMIT AND SHAPE TO EACH FORM.
    • THE SUPREME AS MASTER OF HIS OWN BEING.
    • IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO TRANSCEND THE FIRST.
    • THE ORIGIN OF GOD PUZZLES US ONLY BECAUSE WE HABITUALLY START FROM SOME PRE-EXISTENT CHAOS.
    • THE SUPREME, BEING WHAT HE IS, IS NOT PRODUCED BY CHANCE.
    • EVEN WE MAY BE SAID TO BE MASTERS OF OURSELVES; HOW MUCH MORE THE SUPREME!
    • HOW THE SUPREME IS EVEN BEYOND HIS OWN MASTER.
    • ALL SUCH LANGUAGE ABOUT THE DIVINITY IS METAPHORICAL.
    • THE SUPREME IS MASTER OF HIMSELF BECAUSE HIS VERY ESSENCE DEPENDS ON HIMSELF.
    • THE SUPREME IS A UNITY OF WILL, BEING AND ACTUALIZATION.
    • THE SUPREME WOULD WISH TO BE WHAT HE IS.
    • EVERY TERM, WHEN APPLIED TO THE DIVINITY, SHOULD BE PRECEDED BY A PARTICLE REMINDING IT IS ONLY USED METAPHORICALLY.
    • THE SUPREME IS CHOICE, BEING, WILL, SELF-DIRECTION, AND SELF-EXISTENCE.
    • IN ANALYSIS CONTINGENCY IS ELIMINATED.
    • THE SUPREME IS BOTH BEING AND CAUSE.
    • THE SUPREME CO-EXISTS WITH HIMSELF, AND IS SUCH AS HE WISHES TO BE.
    • MEN ESCAPE CHANCE BY INFERIOR ISOLATION; THEREFORE THE SUPREME MUST BE FREE.
    • THE ASCENT OF LIFE WITNESS TO THE DISAPPEARANCE OF CONTINGENCY.
    • THE SUPREME AS EVERYWHERE AND NOWHERE; AS INCLINATION AND IMMANENCE.
    • PROVIDENCE, THE PLAN OF THE UNIVERSE, IS FROM ETERNITY.
    • THE SUPREME, ASSISTED BY INTELLIGENCE, WOULD HAVE NO ROOM FOR CHANCE.
    • CHANCE COULD NOT CAUSE THE ONE THAT IS THE CENTRE OF THE CIRCULAR INTELLIGENCE.
    • AS CAUSE, SUITABILITY, AND OPPORTUNITY, THE SUPREME IS BEYOND CHANCE.
    • NO PERSON WHO HAS SEEN THE SUPREME COULD POSSIBLY CALL HIM CHANCE.
    • THE SUPREME IS ABOVE BEING BECAUSE NOT DEPENDENT THEREON.
    • HAVING MADE HIMSELF DOES NOT IMPLY ANY PRIORITY IN THE DIVINITY.
    • HOW THE SUPREME MAY BE SAID TO COMMAND HIMSELF.
    • FURTHER OBJECTIONS TO THE SELF-AUTOCRACY OF THE DIVINITY.
    • THE OBSTACLE TO THE DIVINITY IS FAILURE TO ABSTRACT ENOUGH FROM HIM.
  • SECOND ENNEAD, BOOK ONE. Of the Heaven.200
    • HEAVEN, THOUGH IN FLUX, PERPETUATES ITSELF BY FORM.
    • THERE MUST INEVITABLY BE CHANGE IN HEAVEN.
    • REJECTION OF THE OPINION OF HERACLITUS.
    • ARISTOTLE HAS TO DEPEND ON QUINTESSENCE.
    • PLOTINOS'S VIEWS SUPPORTED BY THE HEAVEN'S POSSESSION OF THE SOUL AND BODY.
    • FLUCTUATION NEED NOT INTERFERE WITH CONTINUANCE.
    • FIRE, THOUGH AN APPARENT EXCEPTION, STILL CONFORMS TO THIS PROCEDURE.
    • THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HEAVEN IS DUE TO RESIDENCE THERE OF THE UNIVERSAL SOUL.
    • THE HEAVEN'S IMMORTALITY ALSO DUE TO THE UNIVERSAL SOUL'S SPONTANEOUS MOTION.
    • THE IMMORTALITY OF THE HEAVEN PROVED BY ITS NEVER HAVING HAD TO BEGIN.
    • WHY CELESTIAL THINGS LAST LONGER THAN TERRESTRIAL ONES.
    • IMMORTALITY DOES NOT EXTEND TO THE SUB-LUNAR SPHERE.
    • THE STARS CONTAIN NOT ONLY FIRE, BUT TANGIBLE EARTH.
    • EARTH CONTAINS ALL THE OTHER ELEMENTS.
    • ELEMENTS ARE NEVERTHELESS INDIVIDUAL.
    • TERRESTRIAL ELEMENTS, HOWEVER, DO NOT DEGRADE THE HEAVEN.
    • PLATO POSTULATED THE EXISTENCE OF EARTH AS BASIS OF LIFE.
    • ELEMENTS ARE KINDRED THROUGH THEIR COMMON GROUND, THE UNIVERSE-BODY.
    • NATURE OF THE CELESTIAL FIRE AND LIGHT.
    • CELESTIAL LIGHT IS NOT EXPOSED TO ANY WASTAGE.
    • THE HEAVEN DOES NOT NEED THE ACTION OF EITHER AIR OR FIRE.
    • THE STARS ARE INEXHAUSTIBLE. AND NEED NO REFRESHMENT.
  • FOURTH ENNEAD, BOOK SIX. Of Sensation and Memory.
    • STOIC DOCTRINES OF SENSATIONS AND MEMORIES HANG TOGETHER.
    • A. OF SENSATION.
    • THE SENSE OF SIGHT DOES NOT POSSESS THE IMAGE SEEN WITHIN ITSELF.
    • SENSATIONS ARE NOT EXPERIENCES, BUT RELATIVE ACTUALIZATIONS.
    • THIS IS TRUE NOT ONLY OF SIGHT BUT OF HEARING, TASTE AND SMELL.
    • COGNITION OF INTELLIGIBLE OBJECTS STILL LESS ADMITS OF AN IMPRESSION.
    • B. OF MEMORY.
    • MEMORY ACTS THROUGH THE SYMPATHY OF THE SOUL'S HIGHEST SELF.
    • MEMORY IS NOT AN IMAGE, BUT THE REAWAKENING OF A FACULTY.
    • MEMORY NEEDS TRAINING AND EDUCATION.
    • SOUL EVENTS OCCUR VERY DIFFERENTLY FROM WHAT IS SUPPOSED BY THE UNOBSERVANT OR UNREFLECTIVE.
  • SIXTH ENNEAD, BOOK ONE. Of the Ten Aristotelian and Four Stoic Categories.
    • HISTORICAL REVIEW OF CATEGORIES.
    • OF THE TEN ARISTOTELIAN CATEGORIES.236
    • STATEMENT OF ARISTOTLE'S POSITION.
    • ARISTOTLE'S CATEGORIES NEGLECT THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD.
    • 1. Being.240
    • INTELLIGIBLE AND SENSE-BEING COULD NOT FORM A SINGLE KIND.
    • QUESTIONS RAISED BY ARISTOTELIAN THEORIES.
    • WHAT IS "BEING" IN GENERAL?
    • 2. QUANTITY.
    • CONTINUOUS AND DEFINITE QUANTITY HAVE NOTHING IN COMMON.
    • NUMBERS ARE NOT QUANTITY IN ITSELF.
    • NUMBER IS NOT IN QUANTITY; BUT QUANTITY IS IN NUMBER.
    • MAGNITUDE AND NUMBERS WOULD BE OF A DIFFERENT TYPE OF QUANTITY.
    • SPEECH AS A QUANTITY.
    • NEITHER IS TIME A QUANTITY.
    • QUANTITY AS EQUAL AND UNEQUAL DOES NOT REFER TO THE OBJECTS.
    • RELATION.258
    • WHETHER THESE RELATIONS ARE SUBJECTIVE OR OBJECTIVE.
    • RELATIONS ARE SIMULTANEOUS EXISTENCES.
    • DISTINCTION BETWEEN ACTIVE HABITUATION IMMEDIATE AND REMOTE.
    • HABITUATIONS ARE REASONS THAT PARTICIPATE IN FORMS.
    • WHILE SOME ARISTOTELIAN CATEGORIES ARE LOGICALLY POSSIBLE, THE OBJECTS SUBSUMED ARE IMPOSSIBLE.
    • 3. QUALITIES.260
    • THE LACK OF POWERS CANNOT BE SUBSUMED UNDER THE SAME CATEGORY AS THE POWERS.
    • MERE DIFFERENTIALS OF BEINGS ARE NOT GENUINE QUALITIES.
    • NOT ALL QUALITIES ARE REASONS.
    • QUALITY IS NOT A POWER BUT DISPOSITION, FORM AND CHARACTER.
    • QUALITY CONSISTS IN A NON-ESSENTIAL CHARACTER.
    • UGLY QUALITIES ARE IMPERFECT REASONS.
    • THERE IS ONLY ONE KIND OF QUALITY; OF WHICH CAPACITY AND DISPOSITION PARTAKE.
    • PHYSICAL POWERS DO NOT FORM A SECONDARY KIND OF QUALITY.
    • THE DERIVATION OF QUALITIES FROM AFFECTION IS OF NO IMPORTANCE.
    • SHAPE IS NOT A QUALITY; BUT SPECIFIC APPEARANCE, OR REASON.
    • ARISTOTLE WAS WRONG IN CALLING "ROUGH," "UNITED," "RARE," AND "DENSE" QUALITIES.
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF QUALITY.
    • RELATION BETWEEN THE THING QUALIFIED AND THE QUALITY.
    • ACTIVITY DOES NOT ALTER THE QUALITY.
    • ARE THE SENSE-WORLD AND THE INTELLIGIBLE SEPARATE, OR CLASSIFIABLE TOGETHER?
    • 4. WHEN.
    • IF TIME BE A QUANTITY; WHY SHOULD "TIME WHEN" FORM A SEPARATE CATEGORY?
    • 5. WHERE, OR, PLACE.
    • IF "WHERE" AND "PLACE" ARE DIFFERENT CATEGORIES, MANY MORE MIGHT BE ADDED.
    • 6. ACTION AND EXPERIENCING?271
    • ACTUALIZATION A FAR BETTER CATEGORY THAN DOING OR ACTING.
    • HOW CAN MOVEMENT BE IN TIME, IF CHANGE BE OUTSIDE OF TIME?
    • ACTION AND EXPERIENCING MAY BE SUBSUMED UNDER MOVEMENT, BUT CANNOT BE CONSIDERED AS SEPARATE CATEGORIES.
    • ON ARISTOTELIAN PRINCIPLES, EVEN INTELLECTION WOULD BE MOVEMENT OR ACTUALIZATION.
    • DO CERTAIN ACTIONS APPEAR IMPERFECT WHEN NOT JOINED TO TIME?
    • ACTION AND REACTION FORM BUT A SINGLE GENUS.
    • REACTIONS NEED NOT BE PASSIVE, BUT MAY BE ACTIVE.
    • DEFINITION OF REACTION OR SUFFERING.
    • TRANSMISSION, RECEPTION AND RELATION UNDERLIE ACTION AND EXPERIENCE.
    • PREDICTION AND RESPONSIVENESS TO IT DO NOT FALL UNDER DEFINITION FOR ACTION AND EXPERIENCE.
    • 7. POSSESSION.
    • HAVING IS SO INDEFINITE AND VARIOUS THAT IT CANNOT BE A CATEGORY.
    • 8. SITUATION.
    • B. CRITICISM OF THE STOIC CATEGORIES.
    • THE CATEGORY OF SOMETHING COMMON IS ABSURD.
    • 1. SUBSTANCE; ACCORDING TO THEM IT IS SPLIT UP.
    • MATTER CANNOT BE THE PRIMARY PRINCIPLE.
    • MATTER IS NOT A BODY "WITHOUT QUALITY, BUT WITH MAGNITUDE" (A STOIC DEFINITION).
    • ABSOLUTE EXISTENCE PRECEDES CONTINGENT EXISTENCE.
    • THE STOIC GOD IS ONLY MODIFIED MATTER.
    • IF EVERYTHING BE DERIVED FROM MATTER, MATTER CAN NO LONGER BE THEIR SUBJECT.
    • THE MONISM OF THE STOICS BREAKS DOWN, JUST LIKE DUALISM.
    • THE FAULT OF THE STOICS IS TO HAVE TAKEN SENSATION AS GUIDE.
    • 2. QUALITY.
    • QUALITIES ARE INCORPOREAL.
    • "SEMINAL REASONS," AS QUALIFIED MATTER, WOULD BE COMPOSITE; AND SECONDARY.
    • THE FOUR STOIC CATEGORIES EVAPORATE, LEAVING MATTER ALONE AS BASIS.
    • THE CULT OF MATTER IMPLIES IGNORING SOUL AND INTELLIGENCE.
    • 3. MODALITY.
    • MODALITY SHOULD NOT OCCUPY EVEN THE THIRD RANK OF EXISTENCE.
    • 4. RELATION; THE STOICS CONFUSE THE NEW WITH THE ANTERIOR.
  • SIXTH ENNEAD, BOOK TWO. The Categories of Plotinos.297
    • PLOTINOS IS FORCED TO DEMONSTRATION OF HIS DIVERGENCE FROM PLATO.
    • PLOTINOS ADDS TO ESSENCE ETERNITY, TO MAKE ESSENCE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • HIERARCHICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE UNIVERSE.
    • THE ELEMENTS OF THE UNIVERSE ARE PRINCIPLES AND GENERA SIMULTANEOUSLY.
    • BEING ACTUALIZATIONS, BOTH GENERA AND INDIVIDUALS WILL BE DISTINCT.
    • FUNDAMENTAL UNITY OF GENERA WOULD DESTROY SPECIES; MANIFOLDNESS MUST PRE-EXIST.
    • THERE IS MORE THAN ONE GENUS, FOR NOT EVERYTHING CAN BE SUBSUMED UNDER BEING AND ESSENCE.
    • THE ONE IS SO FAR ABOVE ALL THE GENERA AS NOT TO BE COUNTED.
    • WE ARE DISCUSSING HERE NOT THE ABSOLUTE ONE, BUT THE ESSENTIAL RELATED ONE.
    • THE RELATED ONE IS IN SOME GENERA, BUT NOT IN OTHERS.
    • THE PARTS OF A MANIFOLD UNITY ARE APART ONLY FOR EXAMINATION.
    • THE GENERA OF ESSENCE WILL BE DETERMINED BY AN EXAMINATION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE ONE AND MANY.
    • THE SOUL IS A PLURAL UNITY OF SEMINAL REASONS.
    • THE SOUL IS A DEFINITE ESSENCE AS PARTICULAR BEING.
    • THE ESSENCE OF THE SOUL DERIVES FROM ITS BEING; ADDING LIFE TO ESSENCE.
    • SOUL UNITY DOES NOT RESEMBLE THE UNITY OF A REASON, INCLUDING PLURALITY.
    • THE SOUL IS BOTH BEING AND LIFE.
    • THE FIRST TWO GENERA ARE BEING AND MOVEMENT.
    • ANOTHER GENUS IS STABILITY, WHICH IS ONLY ANOTHER KIND OF MOVEMENT.
    • DISTINCTION BETWEEN STABILITY AND ESSENCE.
    • ESSENCE, STABILITY AND MOVEMENT EXIST BECAUSE THOUGHT BY INTELLIGENCE.
    • THIS TRIUNE PLAY IMPLIES ALSO IDENTITY AND DIFFERENCE.
    • THESE FIVE GENERA ARE PRIMARY BECAUSE NOTHING CAN BE AFFIRMED OF THEM.
    • WHY NOT ADD OTHERS SUCH AS UNITY, QUANTITY, QUALITY, OR RELATION?
    • NEITHER ABSOLUTE NOR RELATIVE UNITY CAN BE A CATEGORY.
    • UNITY IS NOT SYNONYMOUS WITH ESSENCE.
    • ESSENCE CANNOT BECOME A GENUS SO LONG AS IT REMAINS ONE.
    • ELEMENTS OF ESSENCE CAN BE SAID TO BE ONE ONLY FIGURATIVELY.
    • VARIOUS ARGUMENTS AGAINST UNITY AS A CATEGORY.
    • GENUINE RELATIONS BETWEEN UNITY AND ESSENCE.
    • UNITY REIGNS STILL MORE IN THE GOOD.
    • FURTHER REASONS WHY UNITY IS NOT A CATEGORY.
    • THESE GENERA EXIST IN BOTH THE SUBORDINATE OBJECTS, AND THEMSELVES.
    • QUANTITY IS A SECONDARY GENUS, THEREFORE NOT A FIRST.
    • NUMBER AND DIMENSION DIFFER SO MUCH AS TO SUGGEST DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATION.
    • QUALITY IS NOT A PRIMARY GENUS BECAUSE IT IS POSTERIOR TO BEING.
    • COMPLEMENT OF BEING IS CALLED QUALITY ONLY BY COURTESY.
    • THE FOUR OTHER CATEGORIES DO NOT TOGETHER FORM QUALITY.
    • RELATION IS AN APPENDAGE EXISTING ONLY AMONG DEFINITE OBJECTS.
    • NEITHER CAN PLACE OR TIME FIGURE AMONG THEM.318
    • ACTION, EXPERIENCE, POSSESSION AND LOCATION ARE SIMILARLY UNSATISFACTORY.
    • NEITHER ARE GOOD, BEAUTY, VIRTUE, SCIENCE, OR INTELLIGENCE.
    • IF THE GOOD BE A GENUS, IT MUST BE ONE OF THE POSTERIOR ONES.
    • IF THE EXCLUSIVE GOOD MEAN UNITY, A NEW GENUS WOULD BE UNNECESSARY.
    • BEAUTY IS TREATED SIMILARLY TO THE GOOD.
    • KNOWLEDGE IS EITHER A MOVEMENT OR SOMETHING COMPOSITE.
    • INTELLIGENCE, JUSTICE, VIRTUES AND TEMPERANCE ARE NO GENERA.
    • ESSENCE DERIVES ITS DIFFERENCES FROM THE OTHER CO-ORDINATE CATEGORIES.
    • INTELLIGENCE AS A COMPOSITE IS POSTERIOR TO THE CATEGORIES.
    • KNOWLEDGE IS THE ACTUALIZATION OF THE NOTIONS WHICH ARE POTENTIAL SCIENCE.
    • INTELLIGENCE IS THE POTENTIALITY OF THE INTELLIGENCES WHICH ARE ITS ACTUALIZATIONS.
    • HOW INTELLIGENCE, THOUGH ONE, PRODUCES PARTICULAR THINGS.
    • THIS INTELLECTUAL LIFE POSSESSES THE REASONS OR IDEAS.
    • FROM ESSENCE ARE BORN ALL LIVING ORGANISMS.
    • THUS INTELLIGENCE BEGETS WORLD SOUL AND INDIVIDUAL SOULS.
  • SIXTH ENNEAD, BOOK THREE. Plotino's Own Sense-Categories.
    • GENERA OF THE PHYSICAL ARE DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • THE WORLD MUST BE STUDIED, JUST AS ONE WOULD ANALYZE THE VOICE.
    • WE MUST FIRST DISSECT AWAY THE SOUL FROM THE BODY, TO EXAMINE IT.
    • WHAT IS BEING IN THE INTELLIGIBLE IS GENERATION IN THE SENSE-WORLD.
    • CAN WE ANALYZE THIS WORLD BY ANALOGY WITH THE INTELLIGIBLE?
    • PHYSICAL CATEGORIES ARE MATTER, FORM, COMBINATION, ATTRIBUTES AND ACCIDENTS.
    • THE THREE FIRST PHYSICAL CATEGORIES OF MATTER, FORM AND COMBINATION.
    • DIFFERENT PHYSICAL CATEGORIES.
    • FIVE PHYSICAL CATEGORIES.
    • SENSE-BEING.
    • BEING IS THAT WHICH IS PREDICATED OF NOTHING ELSE.
    • PHYSICAL BEING IS THE PRINCIPLE OF ALL OTHER THINGS.
    • RELATION BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND INTELLIGIBLE TERMS ARE MERELY VERBAL.
    • PHYSICAL BEING IS THAT WHICH IS NOT IN A SUBJECT.
    • ALL THE OTHER PHYSICAL CATEGORIES REFER TO MATTER, FORM OR COMBINATION.
    • BEING DRAWS ITS EXISTENCE FROM THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • BEING CANNOT BE ASCRIBED TO MATTER, WHICH DERIVES ITS BEING FROM THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • ESSENCES DIFFER ACCORDING TO PARTICIPATION IN FORM.
    • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MATTER AND FORM DUE TO THAT OF INTELLIGIBLE ENTITIES FROM WHICH THEY DEPEND.
    • SENSE-BEING CONSISTS IN THE REUNION OF QUALITIES AND MATTER.
    • CLASSIFICATION OF BODIES.
    • PRIMARY AND SECONDARY BEINGS ARE DIVIDED BY NO SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCE.
    • BODIES MAY BE CLASSIFIED NOT ONLY BY FORMS; BUT BY QUALITIES; ETC.
    • BODIES ARE CLASSIFIABLE ACCORDING TO SPECIFIC FORMS.
    • DEFINITION OF QUANTITY.
    • LARGE AND SMALL ARE CONCEPTIONS BELONGING TO QUANTITY.
    • BEAUTY IS CLASSIFIED ALONG WITH THE RELATIVES.
    • HOW MULTITUDE IS CLASSIFIED WITH RELATIVES.
    • THERE IS NO CONTRARY FOR PLACE.
    • CLASSIFICATION OF SYLLABLES AND SPEECH.
    • DISCRETE QUANTITY QUITE DISTINCT FROM CONTINUOUS QUANTITY.
    • ELEMENTS OF CONTINUOUS QUANTITY.
    • STUDY OF GEOMETRICAL FIGURES.
    • STUDY OF THE STRAIGHT LINE.
    • STUDY OF THE TRIANGLE.
    • GEOMETRY STUDIES QUANTITIES, NOT QUALITIES.
    • DIFFERENCES WHICH COMPLETE THE BEING MUST BE PREFIXED TO THAT TO WHICH THEY REFER.
    • WHETHER QUALITY ONLY CAN BE CALLED SIMILAR OR DISSIMILAR.
    • THE VARIOUS TERMS EXPRESSING QUALITY.
    • THE SEMINAL REASON HARMONIZES WITH ITS APPEARING ACTUALIZATION.
    • MANY OTHER CONCEPTIONS BELONG AMONG SENSE-QUALITIES.
    • IN SPITE OF THIS CLASSIFICATION THE SOUL HERSELF REMAINS INCORPOREAL.
    • QUALITIES ARE CLASSIFIED AS CORPOREAL AND OF THE SOUL.
    • DIFFERENCES OF BEING SHOULD BE DISTINGUISHED ACCORDING TO QUALITY.
    • DIFFERENCE OF QUALITY CANNOT BE DISTINGUISHED BY SENSATION.
    • DIFFERENCE IN EFFECTS IS LIMITED TO THE INTELLIGIBLES.
    • IT IS ABSURD TO DISTINGUISH BEING, QUALITIES AND DIFFERENCES BY THEMSELVES.
    • SOME QUALITIES ARE DIFFERENCES.
    • THERE ARE DIFFERENCES WHICH ARE NOT QUALITIES.
    • VARIOUS DERIVATIVES OF THE CATEGORY OF QUALITY.
    • CONTRARINESS IS NOT THE GREATEST POSSIBLE DIFFERENCE.
    • CONTRARIES ARE THOSE THINGS THAT LACK RESEMBLANCE.
    • QUALITIES ADMIT OF DEGREE.
    • REASONS WHY MOVEMENT IS A CATEGORY.
    • MOVEMENT CANNOT BE REDUCED TO ANY HIGHER GENUS.
    • IS CHANGE ANTERIOR TO MOVEMENT?
    • DEFINITION OF ALTERATION.
    • MOVEMENT AS A FORM OF POWER.
    • MOVEMENT IS ACTIVE FORM, AND CAUSE OF OTHER FORMS.
    • QUESTIONS ABOUT MOVEMENT.
    • COMMON ELEMENT IN GROWTH, INCREASE AND GENERATION.
    • MOVEMENT FOR SENSE-OBJECTS.
    • MOVEMENT AS INFLUX.
    • MOVEMENT OF DISPLACEMENT IS SINGLE.
    • EXPLANATION OF COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION.
    • COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION ARE NOT ALTERATIONS.
    • MOVEMENTS DIVIDED IN NATURAL, ARTIFICIAL, AND VOLUNTARY.
    • DISTINCTION BETWEEN STABILITY AND STILLNESS.
    • MOVEMENT IS MORE THAN THE NEGATION OF REST.
    • IN THE INTELLIGIBLE STABILITY DOES NOT IMPLY STILLNESS.
    • CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY.
  • THIRD ENNEAD, BOOK SEVEN. Of Time and Eternity.435
    • A. ETERNITY.
    • INTRODUCTION. ETERNITY EXISTS PERPETUALLY, WHILE TIME BECOMES.
    • ETERNITY IS THE MODEL OF ITS IMAGE, TIME.
    • RELATION BETWEEN THE AEON AND INTELLIGIBLE BEING.
    • FAULTS OF THE DEFINITION THAT ETERNITY IS AT REST, WHILE TIME IS IN MOTION.
    • ETERNITY AS A UNION OF THE FIVE CATEGORIES.
    • THE LIFE OF THE INTELLIGENCE IS EVER CONTEMPORANEOUS.
    • ETERNITY IS NOT AN ACCIDENT OF THE INTELLIGIBLE, BUT AN INTIMATE PART OF ITS NATURE.
    • TO BEGOTTEN THINGS THE FUTURE IS NECESSARY; BUT NOT TO THE INTELLIGIBLE.
    • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ETERNITY AND PERPETUITY.
    • ETERNITY IS INFINITE UNIVERSAL LIFE THAT CANNOT LOSE ANYTHING.
    • ETERNITY IS SEMPITERNAL EXISTENCE.
    • THE CREATOR, BEING OUTSIDE OF TIME, PRECEDES THE UNIVERSAL ONLY AS ITS CAUSE.
    • TO STUDY TIME WE HAVE TO DESCEND FROM THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD.
    • B. TIME.
    • THE OPINIONS OF THE PHILOSOPHERS ABOUT TIME MUST BE STUDIED.
    • TIME CONSIDERED EITHER AS MOTION; AS SOMETHING MOVABLE; OR SOMETHING OF MOTION.
    • POLEMIC AGAINST THE STOICS; TIME IS NOT MOVEMENT.
    • POLEMIC AGAINST THE PYTHAGOREANS: TIME IS NOT WHAT IS MOVABLE.
    • POLEMIC AGAINST THE STOIC ZENO: TIME IS NO INTERVAL OF MOVEMENT.
    • PERSISTENT MOVEMENT AND ITS INTERVAL ARE NOT TIME, BUT ARE WITHIN IT.
    • POLEMIC AGAINST STRATO: TIME IS NOT MOTION AND REST.
    • POLEMIC AGAINST ARISTOTLE: TIME IS NOT THE NUMBER AND MEASURE OF MOVEMENT.
    • NOR CAN TIME BE A NUMBERED NUMBER (AS ARISTOTLE CLAIMED452).
    • POLEMIC AGAINST EPICURUS: TIME IS NOT AN ACCIDENT OR CONSEQUENCE OF MOVEMENT.
    • PLOTINOS CAN GO NO FURTHER IN REFUTING ENDLESS DEFINITIONS OF TIME.
    • THE NATURE OF TIME WILL BE REVEALED BY ITS ORIGIN.
    • TIME AROSE AS MEASUREMENT OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE UNIVERSAL SOUL.
    • LIKE TIME, SPACE IS THE RESULT OF THE PROCESSION OF THE UNIVERSAL SOUL.
    • TIME IS THE LIFE OF THE SOUL CONSIDERED IN THE MOVEMENT BY WHICH SHE PASSES FROM ONE ACTUALIZATION TO ANOTHER.
    • WHAT ETERNITY IS TO INTELLIGENCE, TIME IS TO THE UNIVERSAL SOUL.
    • TIME IS AS INTERIOR TO THE SOUL AS ETERNITY IS TO EXISTENCE.
    • TIME IS THE LENGTH OF THE LIFE OF THE UNIVERSAL SOUL.
    • TIME IS NOT BEGOTTEN BY MOVEMENT, BUT ONLY INDICATED THEREBY.
    • MOVEMENT IS SAID TO BE MEASURED BY SPACE, BECAUSE OF ITS INDETERMINATION.
    • TIME IS MEASURED BY MOVEMENT, AND IN THAT SENSE IT IS THE MEASURE OF MOVEMENT.
    • PLATO DOES MAKE SOME STATEMENTS THAT ALLOW OF BEING JUSTIFIED.
    • TIME AS THE PRIOR AND POSTERIOR OF THE MOVEMENT OF THIS LIFE WOULD BE ABSURD.
    • THE PRIMARY MOVEMENT OF INTELLIGENCE THE INFORMING POWER OF TIME.
    • WHY TIME IS PRESENT EVERYWHERE; POLEMIC AGAINST ANTIPHANES AND CRITOLAUS.
    • THE MOVEMENT OF THE SOUL IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE PRIMARY MOVEMENT.
    • APPROVAL OF ARISTOTLE: TIME IS ALSO WITHIN US.
  • FOOTNOTES
  • Transcriber's Notes
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