Oxford University Press
Essential Economics for Cambridge IGCSE® & O Level
Terry Cook, Jane King, Robert Dransfield
Essential Economics for Cambridge IGCSE® & O Level
US$ 38.99
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Support your EAL learners with the clear approach of iEssential Economics for Cambridge IGCSE & O Level (Third Edition), which builds understanding and confidence. Written by examiners, it is fully matched to the latest syllabus (0455/2281), for examination from 2020.

Front Cover
Title Page
1 The basic economic problem: economic goods, choice and the allocation of resources
1.1 The nature of the economic problem
1.1.1 The economic problem
1.1.2 Economic and free goods
2.1 Microeconomics and macroeconomics
2.1.1 The difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics
3.1 Money and banking
3.1.1 Money
3.1.2 Commercial banks
3.1.3 Central banks
4.1 The role of government
4.1.1 Government roles
5.1 Living standards
5.1.1 Indicators of living standards
5.1.2 Comparing living standards and income distribution
6.1 International specialisation
6.1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of specialisation
1.2 The factors of production
1.2.1 Factors of production and their rewards
1.2.2 Mobility, quantity and quality of factors of production
1.3 Opportunity cost
1.3.1 Definitions and examples of opportunity cost
1.3.2 Opportunity cost and economic decision-making
1.4 Production possibility curves
1.4.1 The production possibility frontier
1.4.2 Movement along and shifts in a production possibility curve
Test yourself
2 The allocation of resources: how the market works and market failure
2.2 The roles of markets in allocating resources
2.2.1 The market system
2.2.2 Resource allocation decisions
2.3 Demand
2.3.1 Price and demand
2.3.2 Causes of shifts in the demand curve
2.4 Supply
2.4.1 Price and supply
2.4.2 Conditions of supply
2.5 Price determination
2.5.1 Market equilibrium
2.6 Price changes
2.6.1 Causes and consequences of price changes
2.7 Elasticity of demand
2.7.1 Price elasticity of demand
2.7.2 Elasticity of demand and total spending/product revenue
2.8 Elasticity of supply
2.8.1 Price elasticity of supply
2.9 Market economic systems
2.9.1 The market economic system
2.9.2 Merits and weaknesses of the market system
2.10 Market failure
2.10.1 The nature of market failure
2.10.2 Private and social costs and benefits
2.10.3 Causes of market failure
2.11 Mixed economic systems
2.11.1 The nature of a mixed economy
2.11.2 Government influence on micro-economy: regulation
2.11.3 Government influence on micro-economy: subsidies
2.11.4 Government influence on micro-economy: indirect taxes
Test yourself
3 Microeconomic decision-makers: banks, households, workers, trade unions, firms
3.2 Households
3.2.1 Influences on spending, saving and borrowing
3.2.2 Income and expenditure patterns
3.3 Workers
3.3.1 Factors affecting choice of occupation
3.3.2 Wage determination
3.3.3 Differences in earnings
3.3.4 Division of labour/specialisation
3.4 Trade unions
3.4.1 Nature and purpose of trade unions
3.5 Firms
3.5.1 Classification of firms
3.5.2 Small firms
3.5.3 Growth of firms
3.5.4 Mergers and integration
3.5.5 Economies and diseconomies of scale
3.6 Firms and production
3.6.1 Demand for factors of production
3.6.2 Labour-intensive and capital-intensive production
3.6.3 Production and productivity
3.7 Firms’ costs revenue and objectives
3.7.1 Fixed and variable costs
3.7.2 Total and average costs
3.7.3 Output and costs
3.7.4 Revenue
3.7.5 Objectives of firms
3.8 Market structure
3.8.1 Competitive markets
3.8.2 Monopoly markets
Test yourself
4 Government and the macroeconomy
4.2 Macroeconomic aims of government
4.2.1 Macroeconomic aims
4.2.2 Conflicts between government aims
4.3 Fiscal policy
4.3.1 Elements of fiscal policy
4.3.2 Classification of taxes
4.3.3 Principles and impact of taxation
4.3.4 Fiscal policy and government aims
4.4 Monetary policy
4.4.1 Monetary policy measures
4.5 Supply-side policy
4.5.1 The effects of supply-side policy
4.6 Economic growth
4.6.1 Measuring gross domestic product
4.6.2 Economic growth and recession
4.6.3 Illustrating growth and recession
4.6.4 Government policies for economic growth
4.7 Employment and unemployment
4.7.1 Patterns and levels of employment
4.7.2 Full employment
4.7.3 Causes of unemployment
4.7.4 Consequences of unemployment
4.8 Inflation and deflation
4.8.1 The retail prices index and inflation
4.8.2 Causes of inflation
4.8.3 Consequences of inflation
4.8.4 Causes and consequences of deflation
4.8.5 Policies to control inflation and deflation
Test yourself
5 Economic development
5.2 Poverty
5.2.1 Causes of poverty
5.2.2 Policies to alleviate poverty
5.3 Population
5.3.1 Factors that affect population growth
5.3.2 Reasons for different rates of population growth
5.3.3 Problems of population change
5.3.4 The effect of changing size of population on an economy
5.3.5 Changes in population structure and their effect on an economy
5.4 Differences in development between countries
5.4.1 Different rates of economic development
5.4.2 Factors affecting development
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6 International trade and globalisation
6.2 Globalisation, free trade and protection
6.2.1 Globalisation
6.2.2 Multinationals
6.2.3 The benefits of free trade
6.2.4 Methods of protection
6.2.5 Reasons for protection
6.3 Foreign exchange rates
6.3.1 Exchange rates
6.3.2 Causes of foreign exchange rate fluctuations
6.3.3 Consequences of fluctuations
6.4 The balance of payments
6.4.1 The current account of the balance of payments
6.4.2 Current account deficit and surplus
6.4.3 Policies to achieve balance of payments stability
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Back Cover
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