Essential Economics for Cambridge IGCSE®  & O Level
$31.25

Essential Economics for Cambridge IGCSE® & O Level

By Terry Cook, Jane King, Robert Dransfield
US$ 31.25
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Book Description

Support your EAL learners with the clear approach of iEssential Economics for Cambridge IGCSE & O Level (Third Edition), which builds understanding and confidence. Written by examiners, it is fully matched to the latest syllabus (0455/2281), for examination from 2020.

Table of Contents
  • Front Cover
  • Title Page
  • Contents
  • 1 The basic economic problem: economic goods, choice and the allocation of resources
    • 1.1 The nature of the economic problem
      • 1.1.1 The economic problem
      • 1.1.2 Economic and free goods
    • 1.2 The factors of production
      • 1.2.1 Factors of production and their rewards
      • 1.2.2 Mobility, quantity and quality of factors of production
    • 1.3 Opportunity cost
      • 1.3.1 Definitions and examples of opportunity cost
      • 1.3.2 Opportunity cost and economic decision-making
    • 1.4 Production possibility curves
      • 1.4.1 The production possibility frontier
      • 1.4.2 Movement along and shifts in a production possibility curve
      • Test yourself
  • 2 The allocation of resources: how the market works and market failure
    • 2.1 Microeconomics and macroeconomics
      • 2.1.1 The difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics
    • 2.2 The roles of markets in allocating resources
      • 2.2.1 The market system
      • 2.2.2 Resource allocation decisions
    • 2.3 Demand
      • 2.3.1 Price and demand
      • 2.3.2 Causes of shifts in the demand curve
    • 2.4 Supply
      • 2.4.1 Price and supply
      • 2.4.2 Conditions of supply
    • 2.5 Price determination
      • 2.5.1 Market equilibrium
    • 2.6 Price changes
      • 2.6.1 Causes and consequences of price changes
    • 2.7 Elasticity of demand
      • 2.7.1 Price elasticity of demand
      • 2.7.2 Elasticity of demand and total spending/product revenue
    • 2.8 Elasticity of supply
      • 2.8.1 Price elasticity of supply
    • 2.9 Market economic systems
      • 2.9.1 The market economic system
      • 2.9.2 Merits and weaknesses of the market system
    • 2.10 Market failure
      • 2.10.1 The nature of market failure
      • 2.10.2 Private and social costs and benefits
      • 2.10.3 Causes of market failure
    • 2.11 Mixed economic systems
      • 2.11.1 The nature of a mixed economy
      • 2.11.2 Government influence on micro-economy: regulation
      • 2.11.3 Government influence on micro-economy: subsidies
      • 2.11.4 Government influence on micro-economy: indirect taxes
      • Test yourself
  • 3 Microeconomic decision-makers: banks, households, workers, trade unions, firms
    • 3.1 Money and banking
      • 3.1.1 Money
      • 3.1.2 Commercial banks
      • 3.1.3 Central banks
    • 3.2 Households
      • 3.2.1 Influences on spending, saving and borrowing
      • 3.2.2 Income and expenditure patterns
    • 3.3 Workers
      • 3.3.1 Factors affecting choice of occupation
      • 3.3.2 Wage determination
      • 3.3.3 Differences in earnings
      • 3.3.4 Division of labour/specialisation
    • 3.4 Trade unions
      • 3.4.1 Nature and purpose of trade unions
    • 3.5 Firms
      • 3.5.1 Classification of firms
      • 3.5.2 Small firms
      • 3.5.3 Growth of firms
      • 3.5.4 Mergers and integration
      • 3.5.5 Economies and diseconomies of scale
    • 3.6 Firms and production
      • 3.6.1 Demand for factors of production
      • 3.6.2 Labour-intensive and capital-intensive production
      • 3.6.3 Production and productivity
    • 3.7 Firms’ costs revenue and objectives
      • 3.7.1 Fixed and variable costs
      • 3.7.2 Total and average costs
      • 3.7.3 Output and costs
      • 3.7.4 Revenue
      • 3.7.5 Objectives of firms
    • 3.8 Market structure
      • 3.8.1 Competitive markets
      • 3.8.2 Monopoly markets
      • Test yourself
  • 4 Government and the macroeconomy
    • 4.1 The role of government
      • 4.1.1 Government roles
    • 4.2 Macroeconomic aims of government
      • 4.2.1 Macroeconomic aims
      • 4.2.2 Conflicts between government aims
    • 4.3 Fiscal policy
      • 4.3.1 Elements of fiscal policy
      • 4.3.2 Classification of taxes
      • 4.3.3 Principles and impact of taxation
      • 4.3.4 Fiscal policy and government aims
    • 4.4 Monetary policy
      • 4.4.1 Monetary policy measures
    • 4.5 Supply-side policy
      • 4.5.1 The effects of supply-side policy
    • 4.6 Economic growth
      • 4.6.1 Measuring gross domestic product
      • 4.6.2 Economic growth and recession
      • 4.6.3 Illustrating growth and recession
      • 4.6.4 Government policies for economic growth
    • 4.7 Employment and unemployment
      • 4.7.1 Patterns and levels of employment
      • 4.7.2 Full employment
      • 4.7.3 Causes of unemployment
      • 4.7.4 Consequences of unemployment
    • 4.8 Inflation and deflation
      • 4.8.1 The retail prices index and inflation
      • 4.8.2 Causes of inflation
      • 4.8.3 Consequences of inflation
      • 4.8.4 Causes and consequences of deflation
      • 4.8.5 Policies to control inflation and deflation
      • Test yourself
  • 5 Economic development
    • 5.1 Living standards
      • 5.1.1 Indicators of living standards
      • 5.1.2 Comparing living standards and income distribution
    • 5.2 Poverty
      • 5.2.1 Causes of poverty
      • 5.2.2 Policies to alleviate poverty
    • 5.3 Population
      • 5.3.1 Factors that affect population growth
      • 5.3.2 Reasons for different rates of population growth
      • 5.3.3 Problems of population change
      • 5.3.4 The effect of changing size of population on an economy
      • 5.3.5 Changes in population structure and their effect on an economy
    • 5.4 Differences in development between countries
      • 5.4.1 Different rates of economic development
      • 5.4.2 Factors affecting development
      • Test yourself
  • 6 International trade and globalisation
    • 6.1 International specialisation
      • 6.1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of specialisation
    • 6.2 Globalisation, free trade and protection
      • 6.2.1 Globalisation
      • 6.2.2 Multinationals
      • 6.2.3 The benefits of free trade
      • 6.2.4 Methods of protection
      • 6.2.5 Reasons for protection
    • 6.3 Foreign exchange rates
      • 6.3.1 Exchange rates
      • 6.3.2 Causes of foreign exchange rate fluctuations
      • 6.3.3 Consequences of fluctuations
    • 6.4 The balance of payments
      • 6.4.1 The current account of the balance of payments
      • 6.4.2 Current account deficit and surplus
      • 6.4.3 Policies to achieve balance of payments stability
      • Test yourself
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Back Cover
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