On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and On the Will in Nature: Two Essays (revised edition)
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On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and On the Will in Nature: Two Essays (revised edition)

By Arthur Schopenhauer
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Table of Contents
  • TWO ESSAYS BY ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER.
  • TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.
  • CONTENTS.
  • ON THE FOURFOLD ROOT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON.
    • THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
    • EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
      • List of Additions to the Third Edition.
    • List of Additions to the Third Edition.
    • EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
    • CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.
      • § 1. The Method.
      • § 2. Application of the Method in the present case.
      • § 3. Utility of this Inquiry.
      • § 4. Importance of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
      • § 5. The Principle itself.
    • § 1. The Method.
    • § 2. Application of the Method in the present case.
    • § 3. Utility of this Inquiry.
    • § 4. Importance of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
    • § 5. The Principle itself.
    • CHAPTER II. GENERAL SURVEY OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VIEWS HITHERTO HELD CONCERNING THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON.
      • § 6. First Statement of the Principle and Distinction between Two of its Meanings.
      • § 7. Descartes.
      • § 8. Spinoza.
      • § 9. Leibnitz.
      • § 10. Wolf.
      • § 11. Philosophers between Wolf and Kant.
      • § 12. Hume.
      • § 13. Kant and his School.
      • § 14. On the Proofs of the Principle.
    • § 6. First Statement of the Principle and Distinction between Two of its Meanings.
    • § 7. Descartes.
    • § 8. Spinoza.
    • § 9. Leibnitz.
    • § 10. Wolf.
    • § 11. Philosophers between Wolf and Kant.
    • § 12. Hume.
    • § 13. Kant and his School.
    • § 14. On the Proofs of the Principle.
    • CHAPTER III. INSUFFICIENCY OF THE OLD AND OUTLINES OF A NEW DEMONSTRATION.
      • § 15. Cases which are not comprised among the old established meanings of the Principle.
      • § 16. The Roots of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
    • § 15. Cases which are not comprised among the old established meanings of the Principle.
    • § 16. The Roots of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
    • CHAPTER IV. ON THE FIRST CLASS OF OBJECTS FOR THE SUBJECT, AND THAT FORM OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON WHICH PREDOMINATES IN IT.
      • § 17. General Account of this Class of Objects.
      • § 18. Outline of a Transcendental Analysis of Empirical Reality.
      • § 19. Immediate Presence of Representations.
      • § 20. Principle of Sufficient Reason of Becoming.
      • § 21. À priori character of the conception of Causality. Intellectual Character of Empirical Perception. THE UNDERSTANDING.
      • § 22. Of the Immediate Object.
      • § 23. Arguments against Kant's Proof of the à priority of the conception of Causality.
      • § 24. Of the Misapplication of the Law of Causality.
      • § 25. The Time in which a Change takes place.
    • § 17. General Account of this Class of Objects.
    • § 18. Outline of a Transcendental Analysis of Empirical Reality.
    • § 19. Immediate Presence of Representations.
    • § 20. Principle of Sufficient Reason of Becoming.
    • § 21. À priori character of the conception of Causality. Intellectual Character of Empirical Perception. THE UNDERSTANDING.
    • § 22. Of the Immediate Object.
    • § 23. Arguments against Kant's Proof of the à priority of the conception of Causality.
    • § 24. Of the Misapplication of the Law of Causality.
    • § 25. The Time in which a Change takes place.
    • CHAPTER V. ON THE SECOND CLASS OF OBJECTS FOR THE SUBJECT AND THE FORM OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON WHICH PREDOMINATES IN IT.
      • § 26. Explanation of this Class of Objects.
      • § 27. The Utility of Conceptions.
      • § 28. Representatives of Conceptions. The Faculty of Judgment.
      • § 29. Principle of Sufficient Reason of Knowing.
      • § 30. Logical Truth.
      • § 31. Empirical Truth.
      • § 32. Transcendental Truth.
      • § 33. Metalogical Truth.
      • § 34. Reason.
    • § 26. Explanation of this Class of Objects.
    • § 27. The Utility of Conceptions.
    • § 28. Representatives of Conceptions. The Faculty of Judgment.
    • § 29. Principle of Sufficient Reason of Knowing.
    • § 30. Logical Truth.
    • § 31. Empirical Truth.
    • § 32. Transcendental Truth.
    • § 33. Metalogical Truth.
    • § 34. Reason.
    • CHAPTER VI. ON THE THIRD CLASS OF OBJECTS FOR THE SUBJECT AND THAT FORM OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON WHICH PREDOMINATES IN IT.
      • § 35. Explanation of this Class of Objects.
      • § 36. Principle of the Sufficient Reason of Being.
      • § 37. Reason of Being in Space.
      • § 38. Reason of being in Time. Arithmetic.
      • § 39. Geometry.
    • § 35. Explanation of this Class of Objects.
    • § 36. Principle of the Sufficient Reason of Being.
    • § 37. Reason of Being in Space.
    • § 38. Reason of being in Time. Arithmetic.
    • § 39. Geometry.
    • CHAPTER VII. ON THE FOURTH CLASS OF OBJECTS FOR THE SUBJECT, AND THE FORM OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON WHICH PREDOMINATES IN IT.
      • § 40. General Explanation.
      • § 41. Subject of Knowledge and Object.
      • § 42. The Subject of Volition.
      • § 43. Willing. The Law of Motives (Motivation).
      • § 44. Influence of the Will over the Intellect.
      • § 45. Memory.
    • § 40. General Explanation.
    • § 41. Subject of Knowledge and Object.
    • § 42. The Subject of Volition.
    • § 43. Willing. The Law of Motives (Motivation).
    • § 44. Influence of the Will over the Intellect.
    • § 45. Memory.
    • CHAPTER VIII. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS.
      • § 46. The Systematic Order.
      • § 47. Relation in Time between Reason and Consequence.
      • § 48. Reciprocity of Reasons.
      • § 49. Necessity.
      • § 50. Series of Reasons and Consequences.
      • § 51. Each Science has for its Guiding Thread one of the Forms of the Principle of Sufficient Reason in preference to the others.
      • § 52. Two principal Results.
    • § 46. The Systematic Order.
    • § 47. Relation in Time between Reason and Consequence.
    • § 48. Reciprocity of Reasons.
    • § 49. Necessity.
    • § 50. Series of Reasons and Consequences.
    • § 51. Each Science has for its Guiding Thread one of the Forms of the Principle of Sufficient Reason in preference to the others.
    • § 52. Two principal Results.
  • ON THE WILL IN NATURE.
    • PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
    • EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
    • EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
    • INTRODUCTION.
    • PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY.
    • COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS.
    • PHYSICAL ASTRONOMY.
    • LINGUISTIC.
    • ANIMAL MAGNETISM AND MAGIC.
    • SINOLOGY.
    • REFERENCE TO ETHICS.
    • CONCLUSION.
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