Are the Effects of Use and Disuse Inherited? An Examination of the View Held by Spencer and Darwin
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Are the Effects of Use and Disuse Inherited? An Examination of the View Held by Spencer and Darwin
By W. P. (William Platt) Ball
Free
Book Description

Table of Contents
  • ARE THE EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE INHERITED?
    • PREFACE.
    • CONTENTS.
  • ARE THE EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE INHERITED?
    • IMPORTANCE AND BEARING OF THE INQUIRY.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • SPENCER'S EXAMPLES AND ARGUMENTS.
      • DIMINUTION OF THE JAWS IN CIVILIZED RACES.
      • DIMINISHED BITING MUSCLES OF LAP-DOGS.
      • CROWDED TEETH.
      • BLIND CAVE-CRABS.
      • NO CONCOMITANT VARIATION FROM CONCOMITANT DISUSE.
      • THE GIRAFFE, AND NECESSITY FOR CONCOMITANT VARIATION.
      • ALLEGED RUINOUS EFFECTS OF NATURAL SELECTION.
      • ADVERSE CASE OF NEUTER INSECTS.
      • ÆSTHETIC FACULTIES.
      • LACK OF EVIDENCE.
      • INHERITED EPILEPSY IN GUINEA-PIGS.
      • INHERITED INSANITY AND NERVOUS DISORDERS.
      • INDIVIDUAL AND TRANSMISSIBLE TYPE NOT MODIFIED ALIKE BY THE DIRECT EFFECT OF CHANGED HABITS OR CONDITIONS.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • DIMINUTION OF THE JAWS IN CIVILIZED RACES.
    • DIMINISHED BITING MUSCLES OF LAP-DOGS.
    • CROWDED TEETH.
    • BLIND CAVE-CRABS.
    • NO CONCOMITANT VARIATION FROM CONCOMITANT DISUSE.
    • THE GIRAFFE, AND NECESSITY FOR CONCOMITANT VARIATION.
    • ALLEGED RUINOUS EFFECTS OF NATURAL SELECTION.
    • ADVERSE CASE OF NEUTER INSECTS.
    • ÆSTHETIC FACULTIES.
    • LACK OF EVIDENCE.
    • INHERITED EPILEPSY IN GUINEA-PIGS.
    • INHERITED INSANITY AND NERVOUS DISORDERS.
    • INDIVIDUAL AND TRANSMISSIBLE TYPE NOT MODIFIED ALIKE BY THE DIRECT EFFECT OF CHANGED HABITS OR CONDITIONS.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • DARWIN'S EXAMPLES.
      • REDUCED WINGS OF BIRDS OF OCEANIC ISLANDS.
      • DROOPING EARS AND DETERIORATED INSTINCTS.
      • WINGS AND LEGS OF DUCKS AND FOWLS.
      • PIGEONS' WINGS.
      • SHORTENED BREAST-BONE IN PIGEONS.
      • SHORTENED FEET IN PIGEONS.
      • SHORTENED LEGS OF RABBITS.
      • BLIND CAVE-ANIMALS.
      • INHERITED HABITS.
      • TAMENESS OF RABBITS.
      • MODIFICATIONS OBVIOUSLY ATTRIBUTABLE TO SELECTION.
      • SIMILAR EFFECTS OF NATURAL SELECTION AND USE-INHERITANCE.
      • INFERIORITY OF SENSES IN EUROPEANS.
      • SHORT-SIGHT IN WATCHMAKERS AND ENGRAVERS.
      • LARGER HANDS OF LABOURERS' INFANTS.[49]
      • THICKENED SOLE IN INFANTS.
      • A SOURCE OF MENTAL CONFUSION.
      • WEAKNESS OF USE-INHERITANCE.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • REDUCED WINGS OF BIRDS OF OCEANIC ISLANDS.
    • DROOPING EARS AND DETERIORATED INSTINCTS.
    • WINGS AND LEGS OF DUCKS AND FOWLS.
    • PIGEONS' WINGS.
    • SHORTENED BREAST-BONE IN PIGEONS.
    • SHORTENED FEET IN PIGEONS.
    • SHORTENED LEGS OF RABBITS.
    • BLIND CAVE-ANIMALS.
    • INHERITED HABITS.
    • TAMENESS OF RABBITS.
    • MODIFICATIONS OBVIOUSLY ATTRIBUTABLE TO SELECTION.
    • SIMILAR EFFECTS OF NATURAL SELECTION AND USE-INHERITANCE.
    • INFERIORITY OF SENSES IN EUROPEANS.
    • SHORT-SIGHT IN WATCHMAKERS AND ENGRAVERS.
    • LARGER HANDS OF LABOURERS' INFANTS.[49]
    • THICKENED SOLE IN INFANTS.
    • A SOURCE OF MENTAL CONFUSION.
    • WEAKNESS OF USE-INHERITANCE.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • INHERITED INJURIES.
      • INHERITED MUTILATIONS.
      • THE MOTMOT'S TAIL.
      • OTHER INHERITED INJURIES MENTIONED BY DARWIN.
      • QUASI-INHERITANCE.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • INHERITED MUTILATIONS.
    • THE MOTMOT'S TAIL.
    • OTHER INHERITED INJURIES MENTIONED BY DARWIN.
    • QUASI-INHERITANCE.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS.
      • TRUE RELATION OF PARENTS AND OFFSPRING.
      • INVERSE INHERITANCE.
      • EARLY ORIGIN OF THE OVA.
      • MARKED EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE ON THE INDIVIDUAL.
      • WOULD NATURAL SELECTION FAVOUR USE-INHERITANCE?
      • USE-INHERITANCE AN EVIL.
      • VARIED EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE.
      • USE-INHERITANCE IMPLIES PANGENESIS.
      • PANGENESIS IMPROBABLE.
      • SPENCER'S EXPLANATION OF USE-INHERITANCE.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • TRUE RELATION OF PARENTS AND OFFSPRING.
    • INVERSE INHERITANCE.
    • EARLY ORIGIN OF THE OVA.
    • MARKED EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE ON THE INDIVIDUAL.
    • WOULD NATURAL SELECTION FAVOUR USE-INHERITANCE?
    • USE-INHERITANCE AN EVIL.
    • VARIED EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE.
    • USE-INHERITANCE IMPLIES PANGENESIS.
    • PANGENESIS IMPROBABLE.
    • SPENCER'S EXPLANATION OF USE-INHERITANCE.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CONCLUSIONS.
      • USE-INHERITANCE DISCREDITED AS UNNECESSARY, UNPROVEN, AND IMPROBABLE.
      • MODERN RELIANCE ON USE-INHERITANCE MISPLACED.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • USE-INHERITANCE DISCREDITED AS UNNECESSARY, UNPROVEN, AND IMPROBABLE.
    • MODERN RELIANCE ON USE-INHERITANCE MISPLACED.
    • FOOTNOTES:
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