The Role of Community-Mindedness in the Self-Regulation of Drug Cultures
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The Role of Community-Mindedness in the Self-Regulation of Drug Cultures

By Anke Stallwitz
Free
Book Description

This book analyzes heroin users and the drug subculture on the Shetland Islands, an area known for its geographical remoteness, rural character and relative wealth. It fills the scientific gap created by the conventional research in heroin research, which is usually conducted in urban areas and relies on treatment and prison populations. Based on qualitative, in-depth interviews with twenty-four heroin users, this book depicts and analyzes the nature and historical development of the local heroin scene. It illustrates the features and internal structures of the subculture, and it examines the manner in which both are influenced by the location-specific geographical, cultural and socio-economic conditions. It thus reveals complex causal associations that are hard to recognize in urban environments. Complete with a list of references used and recommendations for future research, this book is a vital tool for progressive and pragmatic approaches to policy, intervention and research in the field of illicit drug use.

Table of Contents
  • The Role of Community-Mindedness in the Self-Regulation of Drug Cultures
    • Acknowledgements
    • Contents
    • Synopsis
    • Part I: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of the Study
      • Chapter 1: Introduction
        • 1.1 Drug Use on the Shetland Islands
        • 1.2 Forerun of the Study
        • 1.3 Overview of the Book
        • References
      • Chapter 2: Theoretical Background and Literature Review
        • 2.1 An Introduction
        • 2.2 De fi nitions of Problematic and Unproblematic Drug Use
          • 2.2.1 De fi ning Problematic Drug Use
          • 2.2.2 Defining Unproblematic, Controlled Drug Use
            • 2.2.2.1 Social Integration
          • 2.2.3 Spectrum of Using Patterns
          • 2.2.4 Definitions Employed in This Book
        • 2.3 Deficiency-Oriented Approaches: The Prevailing Theoretical Basis of Most Research on Heroin Use
          • 2.3.1 The Medical or Disease Model
          • 2.3.2 Biological, Psychological, and Sociological Approaches
            • 2.3.2.1 The Risk and Protection Factor Approach
            • 2.3.2.2 The Receptor Model
            • 2.3.2.3 Social- and Individual-Psychological Models
            • 2.3.2.4 Sociological Models
          • 2.3.3 Conclusions Regarding Conventional Theories of Heroin Use and Addiction
        • 2.4 Limitations of Knowledge from Traditional Samples
        • 2.5 Qualitative Drugs Research
          • 2.5.1 Qualitative Heroin Studies with Urban Problematic Heroin Users
        • 2.6 Non-habitual, Controlled Use of ‘Hard’ Drugs
          • 2.6.1 Research on Non-dependent and Controlled Heroin Use
          • 2.6.2 The Significance of Drug, Set, and Setting in the Prevention of Problematic Drug Use
          • 2.6.3 Further Research Concerned with the Control of Heroin and Crack/Cocaine Use
          • 2.6.4 Practical Application of Findings from Research on Controlled Heroin Use
        • 2.7 Drug Subcultures
          • 2.7.1 Defining Drug Subculture and Drug Scene
          • 2.7.2 Research on Heroin Subcultures
        • 2.8 Location-Specific Research Perspectives of Drug Use Across the World
          • 2.8.1 Heroin Use in Non-urban Areas
          • 2.8.2 Defining ‘Rural’
            • 2.8.2.1 ‘Rurality’ of Shetland
          • 2.8.3 Excursion into the Empirical Evidence of Non-urban Drugs Research Across the World
            • 2.8.3.1 Research on Drug Use in Rural US America
            • 2.8.3.2 Research on Drug Use in Rural Australia
            • 2.8.3.3 Research on Drug Use in Rural Europe
            • 2.8.3.4 Research on Drug Use in Rural England and Scotland
          • 2.8.4 Location-Specific Drugs Research
            • 2.8.4.1 Research on Drug Use in Rural Arabia and Asia, Polynesia, Central- and Very Remote North America
            • 2.8.4.2 Location-Specific Drugs Research in Scotland
        • 2.9 Published and Unpublished Research on Drug Use in Shetland
          • 2.9.1 Statistical Information on Drug Use in Shetland: ISD and CADSS
          • 2.9.2 Unpublished Research on Drug Use in Shetland
          • 2.9.3 Published Research on Heroin Use in Shetland
          • 2.9.4 Media Information on Heroin Use in Shetland
        • 2.10 The Laboratory Situation of the Shetland Islands
        • 2.11 Research Aim
          • 2.11.1 Original Research Question
        • References
      • Chapter 3: Methodology
        • 3.1 Methodological Approach: Qualitative, Semi-structured In-Depth Interviews
        • 3.2 The Significance of Qualitative Methods in Drugs Research
          • 3.2.1 Qualitative Methods Within the Social Sciences
          • 3.2.2 Status and Role of Qualitative Drugs Research
        • 3.3 Grounded Theory as Methodological Foundation
          • 3.3.1 Historical and Epistemological Roots of Grounded Theory
          • 3.3.2 The Principles of Grounded Theory
        • 3.4 Speci fi cation of the Research Perspective and Question
          • 3.4.1 Revised Research Question
          • 3.4.2 Cultural Psychology as Meta-theoretical Framework
            • 3.4.2.1 ‘Culture’ According to Cultural Psychology
            • 3.4.2.2 Research Angles Within Cultural Psychology
        • 3.5 Preconceptions
        • 3.6 Research Procedure
          • 3.6.1 Research Location and Design
          • 3.6.2 Participant Criteria
          • 3.6.3 Sampling
          • 3.6.4 Participant Characteristics3
            • 3.6.4.1 Clients
            • 3.6.4.2 Non-clients and Occasional Users
          • 3.6.5 Research Instrument
          • 3.6.6 Interview Setting
          • 3.6.7 Data Collection and Interview Conditions
            • 3.6.7.1 Specificities of Conducting Research in a Small, Remote, and Isolated Island Location
          • 3.6.8 Provisions for Trustworthiness
          • 3.6.9 Con fi dentiality and Ethical Considerations
        • 3.7 Data Analysis
        • References
    • Part II: The Shetland Heroin Scene: Location-Specific Characteristics and Historical Evolution
      • Chapter 4: Introduction to Part II
        • 4.1 Participant Perspectives and Reality Understanding
        • 4.2 Overview of Part II
        • Reference
      • Chapter 5: Shetland and Substance Use
        • 5.1 The Alcohol Culture
        • 5.2 The Overall Drug Scene
          • 5.2.1 Historical Roots
          • 5.2.2 Nature and Mentality
          • 5.2.3 Male/Female Ratio
          • 5.2.4 Availability and Spread of Drugs Inside and Outside Lerwick
            • 5.2.4.1 Availability and Use of Speci fi c Drugs
              • Cannabis
              • Crack/Cocaine
              • Benzodiazepines
            • 5.2.4.2 Acceptability of Drugs and Drug Use
          • 5.2.5 Quality and Prices
          • 5.2.6 Excessiveness
          • 5.2.7 Intravenous Use
          • 5.2.8 Problematic Use
        • References
      • Chapter 6: The Features and Descriptive Characteristics of the Heroin Scene in Shetland
        • 6.1 Introduction
        • 6.2 Noticeability of Heroin Use in Shetland
        • 6.3 Size of the Scene
          • 6.3.1 Number of Users
        • 6.4 Location and Expansion of the Heroin Scene
        • 6.5 Age Range
        • 6.6 Male/Female Ratio
        • 6.7 Nature and Extent of Heroin-Use-Associated Problems
          • 6.7.1 Financing Use and Habit: Work Instead of Crime?
          • 6.7.2 Bene fi ts
          • 6.7.3 Dealing as a Means of Financing
          • 6.7.4 ‘Skag Slags’
          • 6.7.5 Community-Mindedness: Protection Against Crime?
          • 6.7.6 Summary and Conclusions Concerning Drug-Related Crime in Shetland
          • 6.7.7 Extent of Addictive and Heavy Use
          • 6.7.8 High-Risk Behaviour and Blood-Borne Viruses
            • 6.7.8.1 Conclusions on High-Risk Behaviour and Blood-Borne Infections
          • 6.7.9 Emergencies and Fatal Overdoses
          • 6.7.10 Summary and Conclusions Concerning Heroin-Use-Associated Problems
        • 6.8 Availability, Quality, and Price of the Shetland Heroin
          • 6.8.1 Intermittent Supply
          • 6.8.2 Availability Versus Accessibility
          • 6.8.3 External Control Through Intermittent Supply
          • 6.8.4 Coping Strategies to Compensate Restricted Availability
          • 6.8.5 Quality and Price
          • 6.8.6 Summary and Conclusions Concerning Availability, Quality, and Price
        • 6.9 Patterns of Heroin Use
          • 6.9.1 Common Routes of Administration: From Smoking to Injecting?
          • 6.9.2 Polydrug Use
          • 6.9.3 Excessiveness
          • 6.9.4 Christmas Binges
        • 6.10 The Shetland Heroin Scene Compared to Heroin Scenes on the Urban Mainland
        • 6.11 Summary of the Recent Transitions
        • References
      • Chapter 7: The Internal Structure of the Heroin Scene in Shetland
        • 7.1 Introduction
        • 7.2 A Subculture of Diverse User Types and Groups
          • 7.2.1 Integrated Versus Marginalised Users and User Groups
          • 7.2.2 Hidden Versus Obvious Users
          • 7.2.3 Heavy Users
            • 7.2.3.1 Heavy Employed Users: Living on the Edge
              • Example of a Heavy Employed User
              • Example of a Heavy Employed User’s Personal User Group
            • 7.2.3.2 Full-Time Users
            • 7.2.3.3 Users from the Severe End
          • 7.2.4 Soothmoothers
          • 7.2.5 Occasional or Recreational Users
            • 7.2.5.1 Examples of Occasional Users and Their User Circles
            • 7.2.5.2 Control Rules and Mechanisms of Occasional Users
            • 7.2.5.3 Conclusions About Occasional Users
          • 7.2.6 Female Users
            • 7.2.6.1 Personal Examples of Interviewed Female Users
            • 7.2.6.2 Conclusions About Female Users
          • 7.2.7 Users in the Countryside
          • 7.2.8 In fl uential User Groups
            • 7.2.8.1 The Original Crew
            • 7.2.8.2 The Old School Users: The Privileged Core Network
          • 7.2.9 Young Users
        • 7.3 The Heroin Scene’s Social Network and Mentality: Subject to an Underlying Spirit of Community-Mindedness?
          • 7.3.1 Contact Between the Groups and Circles
          • 7.3.2 Level of Scene Involvement and Position
            • 7.3.2.1 Hard Core, Peripheral Edge and in Between
            • 7.3.2.2 Scene Position
            • 7.3.2.3 Access to Heroin
          • 7.3.3 Supply Structures
            • 7.3.3.1 Spread
            • 7.3.3.2 The Shetland Way of Dealing: Exemplified by ‘Small Group Supply’
            • 7.3.3.3 Distributors
            • 7.3.3.4 Dealers
              • Example of a Small Dealer
              • Example of a Significant Dealer
          • 7.3.4 Prevailing Mentality: Insular and Community-Minded?
            • 7.3.4.1 Defining Community-Mindedness and Specifying Related Aspects
              • Everyone Knowing Each Other
              • Friendship, Trust and Care Among Heavy, Habitual Users
              • Cliqueyness: Excluding Outsiders
              • Soothmoother Prejudice
              • Cliquey Dealing
              • Grassers
          • 7.3.5 Junkie Mentality in Shetland
            • 7.3.5.1 In-Group/Out-Group – Changing Perspectives
            • 7.3.5.2 Mainland Mentality in Shetland
            • 7.3.5.3 Example of ‘Junkie Mentality’ Amongst Shetlanders
          • 7.3.6 Established Norms, Rules and Rituals Within the Heroin Scene
            • 7.3.6.1 The Consequences of the Stigma Attached to Heroin
              • Secrecy of Heroin Use and Supply
              • Unaware Girlfriends
              • Hypocrisy of Heroin Using Party Goers
              • Stigmatisation and Anticipated Costs as Treatment Barrier
            • 7.3.6.2 Supply Norms: Relaxedness, Patience and Softness
            • 7.3.6.3 Norms and Rules of the Old School
          • 7.3.7 Summary of the Heroin Scene Mentality
        • 7.4 Changes of the Heroin Scene’s Appearance and Internal Organisation
          • 7.4.1 Spread and Growth of the Scene
            • 7.4.1.1 Reasons for the Spread and Growth
          • 7.4.2 Increase in Intravenous Drug Use
            • 7.4.2.1 Reasons for the Increase of Intravenous Drug Use
          • 7.4.3 Transitions in the Overall Scene Mentality
            • 7.4.3.1 Reasons for the Mentality and Overall Transitions Within the Scene
        • References
      • Chapter 8: The Shetland Heroin Scene from a Historical Perspective: Five Distinct Eras
        • 8.1 Introduction
        • 8.2 The Early Days: Hippies and Oil Workers
          • 8.2.1 Cultural Conditions at the Beginnings of the Shetland Heroin Scene
          • 8.2.2 A Civilised Friendly Social Scene of Responsible Older Users
          • 8.2.3 Using Heroin in Shetland in the 1980s: ‘Same as Having a Drink or a Joint’
          • 8.2.4 Ideational Heroin Use Within the Framework of Small, Select and Secretive Groups
          • 8.2.5 The Golden Light of the Good Old Days
          • 8.2.6 Conditions of Change: A Second Generation Taking Over
        • 8.3 The Era of the Old School
          • 8.3.1 The Old School Style of Regulating the Scene
          • 8.3.2 The Properties and Conditions of the Heroin Market Throughout the 1990s
            • 8.3.2.1 Availability
            • 8.3.2.2 Quality
            • 8.3.2.3 Accessibility
          • 8.3.3 Police Turning a Blind Eye?
          • 8.3.4 A Changing Trend: A Gradual Growing and Opening of the Scene
            • 8.3.4.1 Increase of Diverse Users with Varying Patterns of Use
            • 8.3.4.2 Increase of Injecting
            • 8.3.4.3 Growing Demand for Intervention
        • 8.4 The Contained Commercialisation: On the Edge of Explosion
          • 8.4.1 Conditions Preceding and Promoting Spread and Growth of Scene
            • 8.4.1.1 Beginning Commercialisation and ‘Normalisation’ of Heroin Use: Aftermath of the Rave Era?
            • 8.4.1.2 Shift from Party Drugs to Heroin
            • 8.4.1.3 Changing Social Status of Heroin: Reduction of the Stigma
            • 8.4.1.4 Cultural Prerequisite: Openness to Experiment with Substances
          • 8.4.2 Drug Use in a Globalised World 1 : The British Heroin-Using Trend Finally Reaching Shetland?
            • 8.4.2.1 Time Scale
          • 8.4.3 Availability and Quality
            • 8.4.3.1 Easier Availability from 1998
              • Heroin Quality During the Contained Commercialisation
          • 8.4.4 Supply Network
            • 8.4.4.1 From Small Group Supply to One Main Dealer
            • 8.4.4.2 Supply Control: ‘Keeping the Lid On’
            • 8.4.4.3 Peter’s Dealing Network
            • 8.4.4.4 Continuation of the Old School Values
          • 8.4.5 Once Again at the Verge of a Changing Trend: On the Edge of Explosion
            • 8.4.5.1 The Explosion
        • 8.5 The Commercial Peak: Flood Gates Opened
          • 8.5.1 Spreading Out and Noticeability
          • 8.5.2 Conditions Associated with the Expansion of the Scene: Supply Network
            • 8.5.2.1 Two People Dealing
            • 8.5.2.2 Changing Principles: From Social to Commercial?
            • 8.5.2.3 The ‘Liverpool Connection’
          • 8.5.3 Availability of Heroin: Wholesale Supply
          • 8.5.4 Quality and Price
          • 8.5.5 Growing Accessibility and Loosening of Control
          • 8.5.6 Changes in the Number, Range and Diversity of Users
          • 8.5.7 Problematic Tendencies Associated with the Rise in Heroin Availability
            • 8.5.7.1 Expansion to Kids
            • 8.5.7.2 Increase Addiction
            • 8.5.7.3 Expansion of Intravenous, Hazardous Drug Use
            • 8.5.7.4 ‘Disgraceful’ Formations of Intravenous Heroin Use
            • 8.5.7.5 The Conjunction of Easy Availability and Personal Problems
            • 8.5.7.6 Transformations Within the Heroin Use-Related Value System: Urban Tendencies?
              • Junkie Manners: From Social to Sordid
              • Soothmoother In fl uence
              • The ‘Prison Connection’
            • 8.5.7.7 Beginning of Drugs Crime
            • 8.5.7.8 Rise in Hepatitis C
          • 8.5.8 The Same Trend as on the British Mainland?
          • 8.5.9 The Downfall of the Commercial Peak
            • 8.5.9.1 Causal Conditions: Loss of Control
        • 8.6 The Current Fragmentation
          • 8.6.1 Conditions Associated with Change: Increased Police Intervention
            • 8.6.1.1 The Heroin Scene Turns Underground
            • 8.6.1.2 Cessation of Commercial Supply
            • 8.6.1.3 Dogs Against Drugs
          • 8.6.2 The Fragmentation of the Heroin Supply and Using Network
            • 8.6.2.1 Small-Scale Dealing
            • 8.6.2.2 Small Group Supply: Return to the Original Cliquey Structure?
          • 8.6.3 Availability and Accessibility
            • 8.6.3.1 Effects on Extent of Use and Levels of Addiction
          • 8.6.4 Quality of Heroin
        • Reference
      • Chapter 9: The Current Heroin-Using Trend in Shetland
        • 9.1 No Heroin Problem at the Moment
        • 9.2 Further Spreading of Heroin Use
        • 9.3 Further Spreading of Intravenous Use
        • 9.4 Internal Structure: Impact of the Drug Use Trend on User Circles and Groups
          • 9.4.1 The Original Crew
          • 9.4.2 The Old School Users
          • 9.4.3 User Circles in General
        • 9.5 Continuing Urbanisation?
        • 9.6 Future Prognosis: Cessation of Commercial Supply or Recurrent Commercial Loops?
        • 9.7 Conclusions Regarding the Future Course of the Heroin-Using Trend in Shetland
      • Chapter 10: The Community-Minded Spirit of the Shetland Heroin Scene
        • 10.1 Strength and Position of Community-Mindedness
        • 10.2 Community-Mindedness, the Overall Scene Mentality, and the Supply Structures During the Five Eras of the Shetland Heroin Scene
          • 10.2.1 The Early Days
          • 10.2.2 The Era of the Old School
          • 10.2.3 The Contained Commercialisation
          • 10.2.4 The Commercial Peak
          • 10.2.5 The Current Fragmentation
          • 10.2.6 The Dichotomy of Community-Mindedness: Social Care and Social Exclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 11: Summary of Part II
        • 11.1 Summary
        • 11.2 Shetland and Substance Use
          • 11.2.1 The Alcohol Culture
          • 11.2.2 The Overall Drug Scene
            • 11.2.2.1 The Problem-Reduced Nature of the Shetland Drug Scene
            • 11.2.2.2 Availability and Acceptability of Illicit Drugs in Shetland
            • 11.2.2.3 Quality of Drugs in Shetland
            • 11.2.2.4 Spread of Excessive and Intravenous Drug Use
        • 11.3 The Features and Descriptive Characteristics of the Heroin Scene on the Shetland Islands
          • 11.3.1 The Shetland Heroin Scene: Problem-Reduced and Socially Unobtrusive
            • 11.3.1.1 Availability, Quality, and Price
            • 11.3.1.2 Community-Mindedness: Caring for One’s Own
            • 11.3.1.3 Size and Location of the Heroin Scene
            • 11.3.1.4 Age Range and Gender Distribution of Users
            • 11.3.1.5 Patterns of Use
          • 11.3.2 Recent Changes of the Heroin Scene in Shetland
        • 11.4 The Internal Structure of the Shetland Heroin Scene
          • 11.4.1 A Subculture of Diverse User Types and Groups
            • 11.4.1.1 Contact Between Groups and Circles
            • 11.4.1.2 Scene Position and Access to Heroin
          • 11.4.2 Supply Structures
            • 11.4.2.1 The Shetland Way of Dealing and Supplying
              • 11.4.2.2 Dealers
          • 11.4.3 Heroin Scene Mentality: Community-Mindedness and Cliqueyness
          • 11.4.4 Beginning Spread of Mainland Mentality: ‘Junkie Tendencies’
        • 11.5 The Shetland Heroin Scene from a Historical Perspective: Five Distinct Eras
          • 11.5.1 The Early Days of the Shetland Heroin Scene
            • 11.5.1.1 The Beginnings of the Shetland Heroin Scene: Hippies and Oil Workers
            • 11.5.1.2 Using Heroin in the Shetland in the 1980s: ‘Same as Having a Drink or a Joint’
            • 11.5.1.3 A Small Scene of Responsible Older Users
            • 11.5.1.4 Ideational Heroin Use Within the Framework of Small, Secretive, and Select Groups
            • 11.5.1.5 The Golden Light of the Good Old Days
            • 11.5.1.6 Conditions of Change: A Second-Generation Taking Over
          • 11.5.2 The Era of the Old School
            • 11.5.2.1 Regulating the Scene
            • 11.5.2.2 Properties and Conditions of the Heroin Market Throughout the 1990s
            • 11.5.2.3 Police Turning a Blind Eye?
            • 11.5.2.4 A Changing Trend: A Gradual Growing and Opening of the Heroin Scene
          • 11.5.3 The Contained Commercialisation
            • 11.5.3.1 Conditions of Change: A Beginning Commercialisation of Heroin Use as an Aftermath of the Rave Era?
            • 11.5.3.2 Drug Use in a Globalised World: The British Heroin Trend Finally Reaching Shetland?
            • 11.5.3.3 Availability and Quality
            • 11.5.3.4 Internal Structure: From Small Group Supply to One Main Dealer
            • 11.5.3.5 Once Again at the Verge of Change: The Explosion
          • 11.5.4 The Commercial Peak
            • 11.5.4.1 Expansion and Noticeability
            • 11.5.4.2 Conditions Associated with the Expansion of the Heroin Scene
            • 11.5.4.3 Availability of Heroin: Wholesale Supply
            • 11.5.4.4 Quality and Price
            • 11.5.4.5 Changes in the Nature of the Heroin Scene: Increasing Physical Morbidity
            • 11.5.4.6 Transformations Within the Heroin Use-Related Value System: Urban Tendencies?
            • 11.5.4.7 The Mainland Heroin Trend Manifesting Itself in Shetland
            • 11.5.4.8 The Downfall of the Commercial Peak
          • 11.5.5 The Current Fragmentation
            • 11.5.5.1 Disruption of Commercial Supply and Underground Turn of the Heroin Scene
            • 11.5.5.2 Availability, Accessibility, and Quality: Reductions in Levels of Addiction and Overall Use
            • 11.5.5.3 Quality of Heroin
        • 11.6 The Current Heroin Using Trend in Shetland
          • 11.6.1 Impact of the Heroin Scene’s Momentary State on User Circles and Groups
          • 11.6.2 Continuing Commercialisation and Urbanisation?
        • 11.7 The Community-Minded Spirit of the Shetland Heroin Scene
    • Part III: Community-Mindedness and Self-regulation in Drug Cultures
      • Chapter 12: Community-Mindedness and Self-regulation in Heroin Scenes in the Scientific Literature
        • 12.1 Community-Minded Orientation
        • 12.2 Grund ( 1993) : Drug Use as a Social Ritual – Functionality, Symbolism, and Determinants of Self-regulation
        • 12.3 Lalander ( 2003) : Hooked on Heroin: Drugs and Drifters in a Globalised World
        • 12.4 Kemmesies ( 2004) : Between Intoxication and Reality – Drug Use in the Bourgeois Context1
        • 12.5 Self-regulation of Heroin Use and Heroin-Using Subcultures
          • 12.5.1 Scenes of Occasional Users
          • 12.5.2 Scenes of Heavy, Habitual Users
          • 12.5.3 The Role of Rituals
          • 12.5.4 Conclusions on the Role of Community-Mindedness in the Self-regulation of Heroin Use and Scenes
        • References
      • Chapter 13: Explaining Drug Markets and Distribution Systems
        • 13.1 Open and Closed Drug Markets
          • 13.1.1 Social Network Markets
        • 13.2 Recent Developments Within Drug Markets
        • 13.3 Different Market Systems
          • 13.3.1 Different Styles of Dealing Within a Market System
          • 13.3.2 Organisational Structure and Social Cohesion of Drug Markets
          • 13.3.3 Community-Minded Norms According to Organisational Structure
        • 13.4 Trajectories of Illicit Drug Markets
        • References
      • Chapter 14: Historical Transitions of Urban Drug Markets and Scenes
        • 14.1 New York Heroin Culture
        • 14.2 Heroin Markets and Scenes in New York
        • References
      • Chapter 15: The British, Scottish, and Shetland Heroin Trends in Numbers
        • 15.1 The British Heroin Trend
        • 15.2 Statistical Information on Drug Trends in Shetland Compared to Glasgow and Overall Scotland
          • 15.2.1 New Clients
          • 15.2.2 Prevalence of Heroin Use
          • 15.2.3 Age of Onset of Heroin Use
          • 15.2.4 Amphetamine Use
          • 15.2.5 Intravenous Drug Use in the Previous Month
          • 15.2.6 Age of Onset of Injecting
            • 15.2.6.1 Intravenous Heroin Use
            • 15.2.6.2 Sharing of Syringes in the Previous Month
            • 15.2.6.3 Prevalence of Hepatitis C
            • 15.2.6.4 Drug Deaths
            • 15.2.6.5 A Comparison of Heroin Users in Shetland and in Scotland Overall
        • References
      • Chapter 16: Media Reports on Heroin in Shetland
        • 16.1 Media Reports
        • References
      • Chapter 17: Heroin Use in Relation to the Location-Specific Particularities of the Shetland Islands
        • 17.1 Socio-economic Situation
        • 17.2 Crime
        • 17.3 Geographic Location
        • 17.4 Culture
          • 17.4.1 ‘Living Life on the Edge’
          • 17.4.2 Community-Mindedness
        • 17.5 Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 18: Explaining the Evolution of Drug Eras
        • References
      • Chapter 19: Future Prognosis of the Shetland Heroin Scene
        • Reference
    • Part IV: Promoting Self-regulation and Social Integration of Drug Cultures
      • Chapter 20: A Model of Self-regulation and Social Integration of Drug Subcultures
        • 20.1 Practical Recommendations Derived from the Model
        • 20.2 Résumé on the Subject of Society’s Dealing with Illicit Drug Use
        • 20.3 Implications for Future Research1
        • References
    • Appendix
      • Appendix 1: Interview Guidelines
      • Appendix 2: Shetland, Scottish and British Slang and Dialect
      • Appendix 3: Strengths and Limitations of the Study
    • Index
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