A Grammar of the Kabardian Language
Free

A Grammar of the Kabardian Language

By John Colarusso
Free
Book Description

This is the first comprehensive grammar of a non-Indo-European language from the Northwest Caucasian family in a language other than Russian. Kabardian is complex at every level. The language treated is not the literary standard, but Kabardian as it was found in texts and in the mouths of Kabardians. This study is an advance over grammatical sketches of related languages in that it gives a complete account of the phonology and morphology of the language, accounting for what were previously known as "random variants."A Grammar of the Kabardian Language also gives the reader the first account of the syntax of this language. It will give the area specialist access to the language. It will give the linguist interested in complex languages access to an extraordinarily difficult language, and it will give the theoretical linguist access to a language that exhibits topological exotica at every level of its grammar, from phonetics to the lexicon.

Table of Contents
  • Analytical Table of Contents
  • Preface and Acknowledgements
  • Maps
  • 1 Ethnographic Introduction
    • 1.1 Background
      • 1.1.2 Diversity
      • 1.1.3 Importance
    • 1.2 Northwest Caucasians
    • 1.3 Demography and Political Units
    • 1.4 Kabardian
    • 1.5 Dialects
    • 1.6 History of the Kabardians
    • 1.7 Traditional Culture
      • 1.7.1 Settlement Patterns
      • 1.7.2 Clothing
      • 1.7.3 Social Organisation
      • 1.7.4 Custom
      • 1.7.5 Kinship
      • 1.7.6 Religion and Myth
      • 1.7.7 Social Etiquette
    • 1.8 Present Culture and Future Prospects
      • 1.8.1 The Russian Federation
      • 1.8.2 The Middle East
      • 1.8.3 Repatriation
      • 1.8.4 Recent Changes in Circassia
      • 1.8.5 The Future
  • 2 Phonetics and Phonology
    • Introductory paragraph
    • 2.1 Segmental Inventory
      • 2.1.1 Source Features
      • 2.1.2 Points of Articulation
      • 2.1.3 Typologically Interesting Features
    • 2.2 Dialect Variations
      • 2.2.1 Besleney
      • 2.2.2 Terek Kabardian
      • 2.2.3 Kuban Kabardian
    • 2.3 Consonantal Clusters
      • 2.3.1 Bi-consonantal Clusters
      • 2.3.2 Stability
      • 2.3.3 Tri-consonantal Clusters
      • 2.3.4 Distribution
    • 2.4 Syllable Canon
      • 2.4.1 Sonorant Syllables
      • 2.4.2 Non-sonorant Syllables
    • 2.5 Stress
      • 2.5.1 Nouns and Pronouns
      • 2.5.2 Stress Assignment on Verbs
      • 2.5.3 Citation Stress and Underlying Vowels
    • 2.6 The Vowels
      • 2.6.1 Controversy
      • 2.6.2 The Open Vowel
      • 2.6.3 Vowel-Deletion in Nouns
      • 2.6.4 Full-Grades in Nouns and Adjectives
      • 2.6.5 Vowel-Colouring
      • 2.6.6 Glide Codas and Vowel-Colouring
    • 2.7 Phonology
      • 2.7.1 Vowel-Deletion before Glide Onset and Glide-Vowel Metathesis
      • 2.7.2 Rounded Glide
      • 2.7.3 /r/-Intercalation
      • 2.7.4 Schwa-Epenthesis for Initial Glides
      • 2.7.5 /y/-Deletion
      • 2.7.6 Schwa-Epenthesis and Deletion
      • 2.7.7 Rounding and Labialisation
      • 2.7.8 Voice Assimilation
    • 2.8 Morphophonological Rule
  • 3 Morphology of the Noun, Adjective, and Pronoun
    • 3.1 The Noun
      • 3.1.1 Gender
      • 3.1.2 Number
      • 3.1.3 Cases
      • 3.1.4 Articles and Specificity
      • 3.1.5 Postpositions
    • 3.2 Adjectives
      • 3.2.1 Predicate Adjectives
      • 3.2.2 Dependent Adjectives
      • 3.2.3 Possessive Adjectives
      • 3.2.4 Demonstrative Adjectives
      • 3.2.5 Gradations of Adjectives
    • 3.3 Pronouns
      • 3.3.1 Personal Pronouns
      • 3.3.2 Interrogative Pronouns
      • 3.3.3 Indefinite Pronouns
      • 3.3.4 Relative Pronouns
      • 3.3.5 Reflexive
      • 3.3.6 Negative Pronouns
      • 3.3.7 Reciprocal
  • 4 The Morphology of the Verb
    • Introductory paragraphs
    • 4.1 Theoretical Account
      • 4.1.1 Argument Structure
      • 4.1.2 Stem Formation (Derivational Morphology)
      • 4.1.3 Post-Stem Clitics
      • 4.1.4 Incorporation
      • 4.1.5 Pragmatic Morphology
      • 4.1.6 The Nature of the Verb
      • 4.1.7 Conclusions
      • 4.1.8 Word Phrases
    • 4.2 Descriptive Account
      • 4.2.1 Order
      • 4.2.2 Argument
      • 4.2.3 Pragma
      • 4.2.4 Oblique Argument Structure
      • 4.2.5 Transformational Fronting of Tense, Aspect, and Mood
      • 4.2.6 Stems
      • 4.2.7 Clitics
      • 4.2.8 Affixes to the Sentence
      • 4.2.9 Verbal Indices
      • 4.2.10 Concord
  • 5 Word Formation
    • Introductory paragraphs
    • 5.1 Adverbs
      • 5.1.1 Simple Adverbs
      • 5.1.2 Derived Adverbs
      • 5.1.3 Clitic Adverbs
    • 5.2 Adjectives
      • 5.2.1 Simple Adjectives
      • 5.2.2 Compound Adjectives
      • 5.2.3 Recursive Compounding
      • 5.2.4 Complex Adjectives
      • 5.2.5 Suffixation
      • 5.2.6 Degree
      • 5.2.7 Prefixation
      • 5.2.8 Circumfixation
    • 5.3 Nouns
      • 5.3.1 Compounding
      • 5.3.2 Recursive Nouns
      • 5.3.3 Complex Compounds
      • 5.3.4 Compounds Employing Inflected Verbs
      • 5.3.5 Affixation
    • 5.4 Verbs
      • 5.4.1 Nouns and Adjectives as Verbs
      • 5.4.2 Active Verbs from Adjectives
    • 5.5 Expressive Particles
    • 5.6 Numerals
      • 5.6.1 Cardinals
      • 5.6.2 Ordinals
      • 5.6.3 Multiplicatives
      • 5.6.4 Distributives
      • 5.6.5 Fractions
      • 5.6.6 Estimates
  • 6 Syntax
    • Introductory paragraphs
    • 6.1 Nouns
      • 6.1.1 Order
      • 6.1.2 Relative Clauses
      • 6.1.3 Possessed Nouns
      • 6.1.4 Coordination
    • 6.2 Basic Clause Structure
      • 6.2.1 Copular Sentences
      • 6.2.2 Order of Nouns
      • 6.2.3 Postpositional Phrases
      • 6.2.4 Position of Adverbs
      • 6.2.5 The Verb 'to move'
    • 6.3 Scrambling
      • 6.3.1 Preposing of Oblique Nominals
      • 6.3.2 Contrastive Fronting
      • 6.3.3 Passive Movement
    • 6.4 Role Changes and Assignments
      • 6.4.1 Anti-Passives
      • 6.4.2 Dative Objects
      • 6.4 3 Subject in Genitive
      • 6.4.4 Subject in Dative
    • 6.5 Coordination of Clauses
      • 6.5.1 Coordinative Particles
      • 6.5.2 Examples
      • 6.5.3 Subject and Tense Dropping
      • 6.5.4 Single Deletion and Retention of Mood
    • 6.6 Subjects
      • 6.6.1 Equal Subject-Deletion
      • 6.6.2 Preferred Subject Principle
      • 6.6.3 Switch Reference
      • 6.6.4 Subjects and the Animacy Hierarchy
    • 6.7 Subordination
      • 6.7.1 Sentential Subjects
      • 6.7.2 Periphrastic Verbs with Sentential Subjects
      • 6.7.3 Sentential Objects
      • 6.7.4 Dummy Subjects and Indirect Object Subordinates
      • 6.7.5 Postposing of Subordinate Clauses
    • 6.8 Relative Clauses
      • 6.8.1 Positions of the Relative Clause
      • 6.8.2 Non-restrictive Relative Clause
      • 6.8.3 Reduced Relative Clause
      • 6.8.4 Relative Head Noun Indices in the Verb
      • 6.8.5 Independent Relative Pronouns
    • 6.9 Reduced Adverbial Clauses
    • 6.10 Inchoatives
    • 6.11 Reflexives
      • 6.11.1 Index and Pronoun
      • 6.11.2 Reflexive of Kinship
    • 6.12 Reciprocals
      • 6.12.1 Syntax of Reciprocals
      • 6.12.2 Special Reciprocals
    • 6.13 Questions and Their Answers
      • 6.13.1 Yes/No Questions
      • 6.13.2 Content Questions
      • 6.13.3 Clefted Interrogatives
      • 6.13.4 Rightward Wh-Movement
      • 6.13.5 Unbounded Rightward Wh-Movement
      • 6.13.6 Rightward Pseudo-Clefting
    • 6.14 Subject-Verb Inversion
    • 6.15 Verb-Raising
    • 6.16 Negation
      • 6.16.1 Double Negatives
      • 6.16.2 Privatives
  • Appendix A: Analysed Text
    • Introductory paragraphs
    • Text
    • Analysis
    • Translation
    • Notes
  • Appendix B: Symbols and Abbreviations
    • Entries
  • Bibliography
    • Works Cited
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