The Challenge of Stability and Security in West Africa
Free

The Challenge of Stability and Security in West Africa

By Alexandre Marc
Free
Book Description

This book seeks to critically examine the challenges of fragility and security in West Africa, along with the factors of resilience. It seeks to investigate key drivers of conflict and violence, and the way in which they impact the countries of the subregion. Along with emerging threats and challenges, these include the challenge of youth inclusion; migration; regional imbalances; extractives; the fragility of political institutions and managing the competition for power; security; and land. The book explores how the subregion, under the auspices of the regional organization ECOWAS has become a pioneer on the continent in terms of addressing regional challenges. This book also seeks to identify key lessons in the dynamics of resilience against political violence and civil war, drawn from countries such as Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire that can be useful for countries around the world in the midst of similar situations. Finally, it draws on knowledge and findings from a series background papers written by leading experts, and provides insights from the perspectives of academics and development practitioners

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Contents
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
    • Note
    • References
  • 1 An Overview of Conflict and Violence in West Africa
    • The Nature of Violence and Conflict in West Africa
    • The Rapidly Changing Nature of Violence in West Africa
    • Notes
    • References
  • 2 Addressing Emerging Threats: Trafficking, Maritime Piracy, and Religious Extremism
    • The Scourge of Narcotrafficking
    • Maritime Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea
    • The Rise of Religious Extremism in West Africa
    • Recommendations for Addressing Emerging Threats
    • Notes
    • References
  • 3 Tackling the Complex Challenges of Youth and Migration
    • The Challenge of Youth Inclusion: Promise or Peril?
    • Migration: A Subregion on the Move
    • Notes
    • References
  • 4 Redressing Regional Imbalances and Distributing Mineral Resource Revenues More Equitably
    • The Time Bomb of Regional Imbalances
    • Avoiding the “Resource Curse” by Recognizing and Addressing Social Grievances
    • Notes
    • References
  • 5 Managing the Competition for Power in Order to Reduce the Fragility of Political Institutions
    • The Postcolonial Centralization of Power
    • Military Coups
    • The Lost Decade: The Unexpected Impact on Democratization
    • The End of the Cold War and the Collapse of the State in Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, and Sierra Leone
    • Difficult Steps toward Democratization
    • Citizen Engagement: A Call to Action
    • Citizenship and the Ethnicization of Politics
    • Recommendations for Reducing the Fragility of Political Institutions
    • Annex 5.A: Political Leadership in West Africa
    • References
  • 6 Reforming the Security Sector
    • Authoritarianism, Ethnicization, and the Degradation of the Security Forces since Independence
    • Human Rights Violations, Abuse of Power by the State, and the Weak Rule of Law
    • Defense Budgets in West Africa
    • Challenges of Reform
    • Areas in Need of Reform
    • Recommendations for Reforming the Security Sector
    • References
  • 7 Addressing the Challenges of Legal Pluralism and Improving the Management of Land
    • The Challenge of Legal Pluralism
    • Options for Land Management
    • Recommendations for Addressing the Challenges of Legal Pluralism and Improving the Management of Land
    • Notes
    • References
  • 8 Lessons in Resilience: Learning from the End of the Conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Côte d’Ivoire
    • Descriptions of the Conflicts
    • Lessons Learned
    • Note
    • References
  • 9 Improving the Way Donors and Development Agencies Support Stability
    • Integrating the Stability Dimension into the Planning of Development Policies
    • Supporting Institutional Development
    • Using Development to Support Lagging Regions
    • Strengthening Local Governance
    • Improving Land Management and the Management of Extractives
    • Improving Prospects for Youth and Displaced Persons
    • Supporting Security Sector Reform and Strengthening Justice and the Rule of Law
    • Increasing Transparency, Strengthening Accountability, and Supporting Regional Institution Building
    • Note
    • References
  • Index
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • Y
  • Boxes
    • 1.1 Violence after the End of the Cold War
    • 1.2 Legacy of Guinea-Bissau’s Protracted and Violent Anticolonial Insurgency
    • 1.3 Theories of Civil War and Political Violence: Greed versus Grievance
    • 1.4 Overlapping Forms of Violence in Nigeria
    • 1.5 Guinea-Bissau’s Fragility Trap
    • 1.6 Subregional Conflict Systems: The Example of the Mano River Basin
    • 2.1 Niger: Holding Fast in a Troubled Neighborhood
    • 4.1 Lessons from Ghana on Transparency in Extractives
    • 5.1 Citizen Participation as a Lever of Good Governance
    • 5.2 The Politicization of Ethnicities in Guinea
    • 6.1 Centers of Excellence for International Peacekeeping in West Africa
    • 6.2 A New Chapter for Guinea-Bissau
    • 6.3 Sustained Reform of the Security Sector in Sierra Leone
    • 6.4 Senegal: A Model for Civil-Military Relations
    • 8.1 The Important Role of ECOWAS in Developing West Africa’s Security Architecture
    • 8.2 Women’s Role in Peacebuilding in West Africa
  • Figures
    • 1.1 State-Based Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, by Subregion, 1960–2012
    • 1.2 Fatalities from Organized Violence in West Africa, 1989–2012
    • 1.3 Estimates of Fatalities from Organized Violence in East, Central, and Southern Africa, 1989–2012
    • 1.4 Combination of Drivers That Created and Sustained Conditions for Civil War in Côte d’Ivoire
  • Maps
    • 1.1 Conflict Systems in West Africa
    • 2.1 Flow of Cocaine from Latin America via West Africa to Europe
    • 2.2 Piracy Incidents in the Gulf of Guinea, 2012
    • 3.1 Intraregional Migration within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
  • Tables
    • 1.1 Selected Conflicts in West Africa
    • 2.1 Estimated Value of Flows of Some Trafficked Goods in West Africa
    • 4.1 Access to Electricity and Education in the North and South of Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, and Nigeria
    • 4.2 Access to Electricity and Education in Nigeria, by Ethnicity and Religion, 2008
    • 4.3 Access to Electricity and Education in Côte d’Ivoire, by Ethnicity and Religion, 2013
    • 4.4 Access to Electricity and Education in Ghana, by Ethnicity and Religion, 2009
    • 4.5 Gross Domestic Product and Significance of Extractive Industry Investment in West Africa, by Country, 2005 and 2012
    • 5.1 Fatalities as a Result of Election-Related Violence in West Africa
    • 5.2 Successful Military Coups in West Africa since 1960, by Country
    • 5A.1 Election-Related Violence in West Africa, 1990–2013
    • 5A.2 Manner in Which Longest-Serving Leaders in West Africa Left Office
    • 5A.3 Years in Office of West African Leaders as of 2014
    • 5A.4 Number of Military Coups in Africa, by Subregion, 1960–2010
    • 5A.5 Presidential Term Limits in West Africa, by Country
    • 7.1 Land-Related Conflicts in West Africa
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