Physical Geology
Free

Physical Geology

By Steven Earle
Free
Book Description


Physical Geology is a comprehensive introductory text on the physical aspects of geology, including rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciation, groundwater, streams, coasts, mass wasting, climate change, planetary geology and much more. It has a strong emphasis on examples from western Canada, especially British Columbia, and also includes a chapter devoted to the geological history of western Canada. The book is a collaboration of faculty from Earth Science departments at Universities and Colleges across British Columbia and elsewhere.

Table of Contents
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Table Of Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Geology
  • 1.1 What Is Geology?
  • 1.2 Why Study Earth?
  • 1.3 What Do Geologists Do?
  • 1.4 Minerals and Rocks
  • 1.5 Fundamentals of Plate Tectonics
  • 1.6 Geological Time
  • Chapter 1 Summary
  • Chapter 2 Minerals
  • 2.1 Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, and Atoms
  • 2.2 Bonding and Lattices
  • 2.3 Mineral Groups
  • 2.4 Silicate Minerals
  • 2.5 Formation of Minerals
  • 2.6 Mineral Properties
  • Chapter 2 Summary
  • Chapter 3 Intrusive Igneous Rocks
  • 3.1 The Rock Cycle
  • 3.2 Magma and Magma Formation
  • 3.3 Crystallization of Magma
  • 3.4 Classification of Igneous Rocks
  • 3.5 Intrusive Igneous Bodies
  • Chapter 3 Summary
  • Chapter 4 Volcanism
  • 4.1 Plate Tectonics and Volcanism
  • 4.2 Magma Composition and Eruption Style
  • 4.3 Types of Volcanoes
  • 4.4 Volcanic Hazards
  • 4.5 Monitoring Volcanoes and Predicting Eruptions
  • 4.6 Volcanoes in British Columbia
  • Chapter 4 Summary
  • Chapter 5 Weathering and Soil
  • 5.1 Mechanical Weathering
  • 5.2 Chemical Weathering
  • 5.3 The Products of Weathering and Erosion
  • 5.4 Weathering and the Formation of Soil
  • 5.5 The Soils of Canada
  • 5.6 Weathering and Climate Change
  • Chapter 5 Summary
  • Chapter 6 Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.2 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.3 Depositional Environments and Sedimentary Basins
  • 6.4 Sedimentary Structures and Fossils
  • 6.5 Groups, Formations, and Members
  • Chapter 6 Summary
  • Chapter 7 Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks
  • 7.1 Controls over Metamorphic Processes
  • 7.2 Classification of Metamorphic Rocks
  • 7.3 Plate Tectonics and Metamorphism
  • 7.4 Regional Metamorphism
  • 7.5 Contact Metamorphism and Hydrothermal Processes
  • Chapter 7 Summary
  • Chapter 8 Measuring Geological Time
  • 8.1 The Geological Time Scale
  • 8.2 Relative Dating Methods
  • 8.3 Dating Rocks Using Fossils
  • 8.4 Isotopic Dating Methods
  • 8.5 Other Dating Methods
  • 8.6 Understanding Geological Time
  • Chapter 8 Summary
  • Chapter 9 Earth’s Interior
  • 9.1 Understanding Earth through Seismology
  • 9.2 The Temperature of Earth’s Interior
  • 9.3 Earth’s Magnetic Field
  • 9.4 Isostasy
  • Chapter 9 Summary
  • Chapter 10 Plate Tectonics
  • 10.1 Alfred Wegener — the Father of Plate Tectonics
  • 10.2 Global Geological Models of the Early 20th Century
  • 10.3 Geological Renaissance of the Mid-20th Century
  • 10.4 Plates, Plate Motions and Plate-Boundary Processes
  • 10.5 Mechanisms for Plate Motion
  • Chapter 10 Summary
  • Chapter 11 Earthquakes
  • 11.1 What Is an Earthquake?
  • 11.2 Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics
  • 11.3 Measuring Earthquakes
  • 11.4 The Impacts of Earthquakes
  • 11.5 Forecasting Earthquakes and Minimizing Damage and Casualties
  • Chapter 11 Summary
  • Chapter 12 Geological structures
  • 12.1 Stress and strain
  • 12.2 Folding
  • 12.3 Fracturing and faulting
  • 12.4 Measuring geological structures
  • Chapter 12 Summary
  • Chapter 13 Streams and Floods
  • 13.1 The Hydrological Cycle
  • 13.2 Drainage Basins
  • 13.3 Stream Erosion and Deposition
  • 13.4 Stream Types
  • 13.5 Flooding
  • Chapter 13 Summary
  • Chapter 14 Groundwater
  • 14.1 Groundwater and Aquifers
  • 14.2 Groundwater Flow
  • 14.3 Groundwater Extraction
  • 14.4 Groundwater Quality
  • Chapter 14 Summary
  • Chapter 15 Mass Wasting
  • 15.1 Factors That Control Slope Stability
  • 15.2 Classification of Mass Wasting
  • 15.3 Preventing, Delaying, Monitoring and Mitigating Mass Wasting
  • Chapter 15 Summary
  • Chapter 16 Glaciation
  • 16.1 Glacial Periods in Earth’s History
  • 16.2 How Glaciers Work
  • 16.3 Glacial Erosion
  • 16.4 Glacial Deposition
  • Chapter 16 Summary
  • Chapter 17 Shorelines
  • 17.1 Waves
  • 17.2 Landforms of Coastal Erosion
  • 17.3 Landforms of Coastal Deposition
  • 17.4 Sea-Level Change
  • 17.5 Human Interference with Shorelines
  • Chapter 17 Summary
  • Chapter 18 Geology of the Oceans
  • 18.1 The Topography of the Sea Floor
  • 18.2 The Geology of the Oceanic Crust
  • 18.3 Sea-Floor Sediments
  • 18.4 Ocean Water
  • Chapter 18 Summary
  • Chapter 19 Climate Change
  • 19.1 What Makes the Climate Change?
  • 19.2 Anthropogenic Climate Change
  • 19.3 Implications of Climate Change
  • Chapter 19 Summary
  • Chapter 20 Geological Resources
  • 20.1 Metal Deposits
  • 20.2 Industrial Minerals
  • 20.3 Fossil Fuels
  • 20.4 Diamonds
  • Chapter 20 Summary
  • Chapter 21 Geological History of Western Canada
  • 21.1 Geological History of Canada
  • 21.2 Western Canada during the Precambrian
  • 21.3 Western Canada during the Paleozoic
  • 21.4 Western Canada during the Mesozoic
  • 21.5 Western Canada during the Cenozoic
  • Chapter 21 Summary
  • Chapter 22 The Origin of Earth and the Solar System
  • 22.1 Starting with a Big Bang
  • 22.2 Forming Planets from the Remnants of Exploding Stars
  • 22.3 How to Build a Solar System
  • 22.4 Earth’s First 2 Billion Years
  • 22.5 Are There Other Earths?
  • Chapter 22 Summary
  • About the Author
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