Democracy in America — Volume 2

Democracy in America — Volume 2

By Alexis de Tocqueville
Book Description

De La Démocratie en Amérique (French pronunciation: ​[dəla demɔkʁasi ɑ̃n‿ameˈʁik]; published in two volumes, the first in 1835 and the second in 1840) is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville. Its title translates as On Democracy in America, but English translations are usually simply entitled Democracy in America. In the book, Tocqueville examines the democratic revolution that he believed had been occurring over the previous seven hundred years.
In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustave de Beaumont were sent by the French government to study the American prison system. In his later letters Tocqueville indicates that he and Beaumont used their official business as a pretext to study American society instead. They arrived in New York City in May of that year and spent nine months traveling the United States, studying the prisons, and collecting information on American society, including its religious, political, and economic character. The two also briefly visited Canada, spending a few days in the summer of 1831 in what was then Lower Canada (modern-day Quebec) and Upper Canada (modern-day Ontario).
After they returned to France in February 1832, Tocqueville and Beaumont submitted their report, Du système pénitentiaire aux États-Unis et de son application en France, in 1833. When the first edition was published, Beaumont, sympathetic to social justice, was working on another book, Marie, ou, L'esclavage aux Etats-Unis (two volumes, 1835), a social critique and novel describing the separation of races in a moral society and the conditions of slaves in the United States. Before finishing Democracy in America, Tocqueville believed that Beaumont's study of the United States would prove more comprehensive and penetrating.
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Table of Contents
  • Translated by Henry Reeve
    • Volume II.
  • Book Two: Influence Of Democracy On Progress Of Opinion in The United States
  • De Tocqueville's Preface To The Second Part
  • Section I: Influence of Democracy on the Action of Intellect in The United States.
  • Chapter I: Philosophical Method Among the Americans
  • Chapter II: Of The Principal Source Of Belief Among Democratic Nations
  • Chapter III: Why The Americans Display More Readiness And More Taste For General Ideas Than Their Forefathers, The English.
  • Chapter IV: Why The Americans Have Never Been So Eager As The French For General Ideas In Political Matters
  • Chapter V: Of The Manner In Which Religion In The United States Avails Itself Of Democratic Tendencies
  • Chapter VI: Of The Progress Of Roman Catholicism In The United States
  • Chapter VII: Of The Cause Of A Leaning To Pantheism Amongst Democratic Nations
  • Chapter VIII: The Principle Of Equality Suggests To The Americans The Idea Of The Indefinite Perfectibility Of Man
  • Chapter IX: The Example Of The Americans Does Not Prove That A Democratic People Can Have No Aptitude And No Taste For Science, Literature, Or Art
  • Chapter X: Why The Americans Are More Addicted To Practical Than To Theoretical Science
  • Chapter XI: Of The Spirit In Which The Americans Cultivate The Arts
  • Chapter XII: Why The Americans Raise Some Monuments So Insignificant, And Others So Important
  • Chapter XIII: Literary Characteristics Of Democratic Ages
  • Chapter XIV: The Trade Of Literature
  • Chapter XV: The Study Of Greek And Latin Literature Peculiarly Useful In Democratic Communities
  • Chapter XVI: The Effect Of Democracy On Language
  • Chapter XVII: Of Some Of The Sources Of Poetry Amongst Democratic Nations
  • Chapter XVIII: Of The Inflated Style Of American Writers And Orators
  • Chapter XIX: Some Observations On The Drama Amongst Democratic Nations
  • Chapter XX: Characteristics Of Historians In Democratic Ages
  • Chapter XXI: Of Parliamentary Eloquence In The United States
  • Section 2: Influence of Democracy on the Feelings of Americans
  • Chapter I: Why Democratic Nations Show A More Ardent And Enduring Love Of Equality Than Of Liberty
  • Chapter II: Of Individualism In Democratic Countries
  • Chapter III: Individualism Stronger At The Close Of A Democratic Revolution Than At Other Periods
  • Chapter IV: That The Americans Combat The Effects Of Individualism By Free Institutions
  • Chapter V: Of The Use Which The Americans Make Of Public Associations In Civil Life
  • Chapter VI: Of The Relation Between Public Associations And Newspapers
  • Chapter VII: Connection Of Civil And Political Associations
  • Chapter VIII: The Americans Combat Individualism By The Principle Of Interest Rightly Understood
  • Chapter IX: That The Americans Apply The Principle Of Interest Rightly Understood To Religious Matters
  • Chapter X: Of The Taste For Physical Well-Being In America
  • Chapter XI: Peculiar Effects Of The Love Of Physical Gratifications In Democratic Ages
  • Chapter XII: Causes Of Fanatical Enthusiasm In Some Americans
  • Chapter XIII: Causes Of The Restless Spirit Of Americans In The Midst Of Their Prosperity
  • Chapter XIV: Taste For Physical Gratifications United In America To Love Of Freedom And Attention To Public Affairs
  • Chapter XV: That Religious Belief Sometimes Turns The Thoughts Of The Americans To Immaterial Pleasures
  • Chapter XVI: That Excessive Care Of Worldly Welfare May Impair That Welfare
  • Chapter XVII: That In Times Marked By Equality Of Conditions And Sceptical Opinions, It Is Important To Remove To A Distance The Objects Of Human Actions
  • Chapter XVIII: That Amongst The Americans All Honest Callings Are Honorable
  • Chapter XIX: That Almost All The Americans Follow Industrial Callings
  • Chapter XX: That Aristocracy May Be Engendered By Manufactures
  • Book Three: Influence Of Democracy On Manners, Properly So Called
  • Chapter I: That Manners Are Softened As Social Conditions Become More Equal
  • Chapter II: That Democracy Renders The Habitual Intercourse Of The Americans Simple And Easy
  • Chapter III: Why The Americans Show So Little Sensitiveness In Their Own Country, And Are So Sensitive In Europe
  • Chapter IV: Consequences Of The Three Preceding Chapters
  • Chapter V: How Democracy Affects the Relation Of Masters And Servants
  • Chapter VI: That Democratic Institutions And Manners Tend To Raise Rents And Shorten The Terms Of Leases
  • Chapter VII: Influence Of Democracy On Wages
  • Chapter VIII: Influence Of Democracy On Kindred
  • Chapter IX: Education Of Young Women In The United States
  • Chapter X: The Young Woman In The Character Of A Wife
  • Chapter XI: That The Equality Of Conditions Contributes To The Maintenance Of Good Morals In America
  • Chapter XII: How The Americans Understand The Equality Of The Sexes
  • Chapter XIII: That The Principle Of Equality Naturally Divides The Americans Into A Number Of Small Private Circles
  • Chapter XIV: Some Reflections On American Manners
  • Chapter XV: Of The Gravity Of The Americans, And Why It Does Not Prevent Them From Often Committing Inconsiderate Actions
  • Chapter XVI: Why The National Vanity Of The Americans Is More Restless And Captious Than That Of The English
  • Chapter XVII: That The Aspect Of Society In The United States Is At Once Excited And Monotonous
  • Chapter XVIII: Of Honor In The United States And In Democratic Communities
  • Chapter XIX: Why So Many Ambitious Men And So Little Lofty Ambition Are To Be Found In The United States
  • Chapter XX: The Trade Of Place-Hunting In Certain Democratic Countries
  • Chapter XXI: Why Great Revolutions Will Become More Rare
  • Chapter XXII: Why Democratic Nations Are Naturally Desirous Of Peace, And Democratic Armies Of War
  • Chapter XXIII: Which Is The Most Warlike And Most Revolutionary Class In Democratic Armies?
  • Chapter XXIV: Causes Which Render Democratic Armies Weaker Than Other Armies At The Outset Of A Campaign, And More Formidable In Protracted Warfare
  • Chapter XXV: Of Discipline In Democratic Armies
  • Chapter XXVI: Some Considerations On War In Democratic Communities
  • Book Four: Influence Of Democratic Opinions On Political Society
  • Chapter I: That Equality Naturally Gives Men A Taste For Free Institutions
  • Chapter II: That The Notions Of Democratic Nations On Government Are Naturally Favorable To The Concentration Of Power
  • Chapter III: That The Sentiments Of Democratic Nations Accord With Their Opinions In Leading Them To Concentrate Political Power
  • Chapter IV: Of Certain Peculiar And Accidental Causes Which Either Lead A People To Complete Centralization Of Government, Or Which Divert Them From It
  • Chapter V: That Amongst The European Nations Of Our Time The Power Of Governments Is Increasing, Although The Persons Who Govern Are Less Stable
  • Chapter VI: What Sort Of Despotism Democratic Nations Have To Fear
  • Chapter VII: Continuation Of The Preceding Chapters
  • Chapter VIII: General Survey Of The Subject
  • Part I.
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B
  • Appendix C
  • Appendix D
  • Appendix E
  • Appendix F
  • Part II.
  • Appendix G
    • We read in Jefferson's "Memoirs" as follows:—
  • Appendix H
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix K
  • Appendix L
  • Appendix M
  • Appendix N
  • Appendix O
  • Appendix P
  • Appendix Q
  • Appendix R
  • Appendix S
  • Appendix T
  • Appendix U
  • Appendix V
  • Appendix W
  • Appendix X
  • Appendix Y
  • Appendix Z
  • Constitution Of The United States Of America
  • Article I
  • Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a
  • Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members of
  • Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed
  • Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for
  • Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns
  • Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation
  • Section 7. All Bills for Raising Revenue shall originate in the House of
  • Section 8. The Congress shall have Power to lay and collect Taxes,
    • To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
  • Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the
  • Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or
  • Article II
  • Section 1. The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of the
  • Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and
  • Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information
  • Section 4. The President, Vice-President and all civil Officers of the
  • Article III
  • Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in
  • Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all cases, in Law and
  • Section 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in
  • Article IV
  • Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the
  • Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
  • Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;
  • Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this
  • Article V
  • Article VI
  • Article VII
  • Bill Of Rights
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