Advances in the study of Siouan languages and linguistics
Catherine Rudin (editor)
Advances in the study of Siouan languages and linguistics

" The Siouan family comprises some twenty languages, historically spoken across a broad swath of the central North American plains and woodlands, as well as in parts of the southeastern United States.In spite of its geographical extent and diversity, and the size and importance of several Siouan-speaking tribes, this family has received relatively little attention in the linguistic literature and many of the individual Siouan languages are severely understudied. This volume aims to make work on Siouan languages more broadly available and to encourage deeper investigation of the myriad typological, theoretical, descriptive, and pedagogical issues they raise.The 17 chapters in this volume present a broad range of current Siouan research, focusing on various Siouan languages, from a variety of linguistic perspectives: historical-genetic, philological, applied, descriptive, formal/generative, and comparative/typological. The editors' preface summarizes characteristic features of the Siouan family, including head-final and ""verb-centered"" syntax, a complex system of verbal affixes including applicatives and subject-possessives, head-internal relative clauses, gendered speech markers, stop-systems including ejectives, and a preference for certain prosodic and phonotactic patterns.The volume is dedicated to the memory of Professor Robert L. Rankin, a towering figure in Siouan linguistics throughout his long career, who passed away in February of 2014."

I Historical linguistics and philology
Introduction to Part I
1 A distant genetic relationship between Siouan-Catawban and YuchiRyan M. Kasak
1 Introduction
2 Previous scholarship on Siouan-Catawban and Yuchi
2.1 lan]CatawbanCatawban language family
2.2 Siouan language family
2.2.1 Early classification of languages within Siouan
2.2.2 Discovery of an additional branch of the Siouan family tree
2.2.3 A possible eastern origin
2.2.4 Support from missionary texts
2.2.5 Support from historical toponymy
2.2.6 Siouan tribes in the midwest
2.2.7 Summary of the eastern origin question
2.3 lan]YuchiYuchi language
2.3.1 Early records
2.3.2 Removal from the southeast
2.3.3 Known linguistic work on Yuchi
3 Previous attempts at a Siouan-lan]YuchiYuchi connection
3.1 Initial suspicions of common ancestry
3.2 Sapir's ``lan]Macro-SiouanHokan-Siouan''
3.3 A possible link to Proto-Gulf
3.4 Chafe's ``lan]Macro-SiouanMacro-Siouan''
3.5 Siouan-Yuchi
4 Phono-lexical evidence
4.1 lan]Proto-SiouanProto-Siouan sound inventory
4.2 lan]YuchiYuchi sound inventory
4.3 Some cognatessbj]cognates
4.4 Correspondence with lan]Proto-SiouanProto-Siouan *ii
4.5 Correspondence with lan]Proto-SiouanProto-Siouan *y
4.6 Correspondence with lan]Proto-SiouanProto-Siouan *uu and *ųų
4.7 Miscellaneous cognatessbj]cognates
4.8 Summary of phono-lexical evidence
5 Morphological evidence
5.1 Siouan, lan]CatawbanCatawban, and lan]YuchiYuchi classifiers
5.2 Pronominal morphology
5.3 Templatic morphology
5.4 Sound symbolism and ablaut
6 Conclusion
2 Two Siouan languages walk into a sprachbundDavid Kaufman
1 Introduction
2 Internal versus external language developments
3 Phonetic and phonological features
3.1 Nasalized vowels
3.2 Voiceless labiodental sbj]fricativefricative /f/
3.3 Alternation of /i/ and /u/
3.4 Alternation of word initial /h/ ~ Ø
4 Morphological features
4.1 Discourse marking
4.1.1 Focus
4.1.2 Topic
4.1.3 Assertive marking
4.2 Valence-reducing prefix
4.3 Positional verb auxiliariessbj]positional auxiliaries
4.4 Verbal number suppletion
5 Lexical features
5.1 Basic vocabulary
5.2 Semantic classes of borrowingssbj]borrowing
5.3 Widespread lexical borrowingssbj]borrowing in the sbj]Lower Mississippi ValleyLMV and Southeast
6 Summary and conclusion
3 Regular sound shifts in the history of SiouanRory Larson
1 Introduction
2 The Siouan family tree
3 The reconstructed lan]Proto-SiouanProto-Siouan phoneme set
4 Historical Siouan sound shifts
4.1 Missouri Valley (lan]ApsaalookeCrow-lan]HidatsaHidatsa) reflexes
4.1.1 lan]HidatsaHidatsa reflexes
4.1.2 lan]ApsaalookeCrow reflexes
4.2 lan]MandanMandan reflexes
4.3 lan]Mississippi Valley SiouanMVS reflexes
4.3.1 lan]DakotanDakotan reflexes lan]SanteeSantee-Sisseton reflexes lan]Yankton-YanktonaiYankton-Yanktonai reflexes lan]TetonTeton (lan]LakotaLakota) reflexes lan]AssiniboineAssiniboine reflexes lan]StoneyStoney reflexes
4.3.2 lan]Ho-Chunk-JiwereWinnebago-Chiwere reflexes lan]Ho-ChunkHoocąk reflexes lan]Ioway, Otoe-MissouriaIOM reflexes
4.3.3 lan]DhegihaDhegiha reflexes lan]Omaha-PoncaOmaha-Ponca reflexes lan]KanzaKaw-lan]OsageOsage reflexes lan]QuapawQuapaw reflexes
4.4 lan]Southeastern SiouanSoutheastern Siouan reflexes
4.4.1 lan]TuteloTutelo reflexes
4.4.2 lan]Ofo-BiloxiOfo-Biloxi reflexes lan]BiloxiBiloxi reflexes lan]OfoOfo reflexes
4 Ba-be-bi-bo-ra: Refinement of the Ho-Chunk syllabary in the nineteenth and twentieth centuriesKathleen Danker
1 Introduction
2 The Fletcher publications
3 The phonemes of the Ho-Chunk and Sac and Fox languages
4 The Fletcher syllabary
5 The Blowsnake syllabary
6 The White syllabary
7 Conclusion
5 A forgotten figure in Siouan and Caddoan linguistics: Samuel Stehman Haldeman (1812-1880)Anthony Grant
1 Introduction
2 Haldeman the Americanist and his work on Dhegiha
3 Modern counterparts of the data
4 Remarks on the forms
5 Conclusion
II Applied and descriptive linguistics
Introduction to Part II
6 In his own words: Robert Rankin recalls his work with the Kaw people and their languageLinda Cumberland
7 Perspectives on Chiwere revitalizationJimm Goodtracks, Bryan James Gordon & Saul Schwartz
1 Introduction
2 The Ioway, Otoe-Missouria Language Project (Jimm)
3 Phrases in Báxoje Ich^é Indispensible to Living with a Three-Year Old (Bryan)
4 Strategies and challenges in Chiwere revitalization (Saul)
5 Conclusion
8 Reconstructing post-verbal negation in Kansa: A pedagogical problemJustin T. McBride
1 Introduction
1.1 X-Bar considerations
1.2 Aspect
1.2.1 pot enclitic status
1.2.2 Aspect order
2 The problem, in formal terms: neg and aspect
2.1 neg with pot and cont
2.2 neg with ncont
2.3 neg with person and number
3 Analysis
3.1 Enclitic placement
3.2 Feature expansion and prediction
4 Conclusion
9 Baxoje-Jiwere grammar sketch Jill D. Greer
1 Introduction
2 Sound system (sbj]phonologyphonology)
2.1 Consonants
2.1.1 Stops
2.1.2 Affricates
2.1.3 Fricatives
2.1.4 Nasals
2.1.5 Liquids
2.1.6 Glides
2.2 Vowels
2.2.1 Oral vs. nasal
2.2.2 Vowel allophones as gender indexicals
2.2.3 Vowel length
2.3 Stress/accent
2.4 Syllable structure
2.5 Longer sound patterns/prosody
2.6 Phonological processes
2.6.1 Elision
2.6.2 Vowel harmony and nasal spread
2.6.3 Vowel ablaut
3 Words/morphology
3.1 Nouns
3.1.1 Possessing: inalienable vs. alienable
3.1.2 Address form -o `speaking to this one'
3.1.3 Names
3.1.4 Number
3.1.5 Compound nouns
3.1.6 Culture contact and word coinage
3.1.7 Degrees of noun incorporation
3.1.8 Nominalizing prefixes
3.2 The verb and its many parts: The verb template
3.3 Auxiliary verbs
3.4 Pronominals
3.5 Conjugating verbs
3.5.1 Regular verbs
3.5.2 Irregular verb stems in d-, r-, w-.
3.5.3 Other special conjugation patterns: motion verbs
3.6 Adverbials
3.6.1 Spatial elements
3.6.2 Negatives
3.6.3 Time elements
3.7 Other morphological processes
3.7.1 Sound symbolism
3.7.2 Reduplication
4 Word order/syntax
4.1 Noun phrases
4.1.1 Adjectival forms
4.1.2 Determiners, demonstratives, articles and more
4.1.3 Article(s)
4.1.4 Interrogatives
4.1.5 Indefinite quantifiers
4.2 Subordinate clauses
4.3 Relative clauses
4.4 Conjoined clauses
4.5 Beyond statements: Other kinds of sentences
4.5.1 Directives/requests/commands
4.5.2 Questions
5 Variation in speech by social group
5.1 Tribal identity and language use
5.2 Gender-marked speech
III Analyses of individual Siouan languages
Introduction to Part III
10 The phonology of Lakota voiced stopsDavid Rood
1 Orthographic and structural preliminaries
2 The patterns
2.1 The distribution of the voiced stops
2.1.1 [b]
2.1.2 [g]
2.2 Fricatives
2.3 Morpheme-final position or coda positionsbj]coda position
2.4 The theoretical model
3 Analysis
3.1 The sbj]clusterclusters
3.2 Morpheme-final or coda positionsbj]coda position
4 Issues in need of further investigation
4.1 Variable voicing
4.2 Variable nasalizationsbj]nasalization
4.3 The relation between [y] and [l]
5 Conclusion
11 The syntax and semantics of internally headed relative clauses in HidatsaJohn P. Boyle
1 Introduction
2 The status of Hidatsa RCs
2.1 Hidatsa RCs as DPs
2.2 Specificity in Hidatsa RCs
3 The notion of head and internal heads
3.1 Internal heads
4 The syntax of IHRCs
4.1 The indefiniteness restriction
4.2 Williamson's analysis of Lakota
4.3 Culy's analysis of IHRCs
5 The syntax of the Hidatsa IHRC
5.1 The syntactic status of the Hidatsa relative markers
5.2 The Hidatsa relative markers as complementizers
5.3 Hidatsa aku- and aru- as strong features in C
5.4 Move and Merge in the Hidatsa IHRC
6 Semantic constraints and motivations
6.1 Heim's account of indefinite determiners
6.2 Williamson's treatment of IHRCs
6.3 Basilico's account of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping theory
6.4 The semantic motivation for movement at LF
6.5 A unified account of IHRCs and EHRCs
7 Conclusion
12 A description of verb-phrase ellipsis in HocąkMeredith Johnson
1 Introduction
2 Establishing the presence of sbj]ellipsis, verb-phraseVPE in Hocąk
2.1 ųų targets the VP
2.2 Licensing of VPE
3 Crosslinguistic characteristics of VPE
3.1 Ellipsis licensed in both coordinatedsbj]coordination and adjacent CPs
3.2 Ellipsis and the contents of the VP
3.3 Ellipsis in syntactic islands
3.4 Ellipsis in embedded clauses
3.5 Presence of strict and sloppy readingssbj]sloppy readings
4 Deletion vs. pro-form analysis
5 Conclusion
13 On the structure and constituency of Hocąk resultativesBryan Rosen
1 Introduction
2 Overview of lan]Ho-ChunkHocąk sbj]syntaxsyntax
2.1 Word order in lan]Ho-ChunkHocąk
2.2 Resultatives in lan]Ho-ChunkHocąk: Some preliminaries
3 The constituency of lan]Ho-ChunkHocąk resultatives
3.1 The result sbj]predicatepredicate as a phrase
3.2 VP-internal status of the result sbj]predicatepredicate
4 Syntactic representation of Hocąk resultatives
5 The result predicate and adjectives in Hocąk
5.1 The Temporal Iconicity Constraint and sbj]resultativeresultatives
5.2 Barring verbs as the result
5.3 Implications: Status of sbj]adjectiveadjectives
6 Conclusion
14 Evidence for a VP constituent in HocąkMeredith Johnson, Bryan Rosen & Mateja Schuck
1 Introduction
2 Arguments in favor of a sbj]flat structureflat structure
2.1 Nonsbj]configurationalityconfigurationality and pronominal argumentssbj]Pronominal Argument Hypothesis: Hale (1983) and Jelinek (1984)
2.2 Previous analyses: Williamson (1984), Van Valin (1985, 1987)
2.3 Hocąk data
3 Arguments in favor of a VP
3.1 Previous analyses: Boyle (2007), Graczyk (1991), West (2003)
3.2 Hocąk data
4 New Evidence for a sbj]verb phraseVP in Hocąk
4.1 Scope of Locatives
4.2 Verb-Phrase Ellipsis (sbj]ellipsis, verb-phraseVPE)
4.3 Quantifier scope
4.4 Resultatives and the Direct Object Restriction
4.5 Structure of the Hocąk VP
5 Conclusion
IV Cross-Siouan studies
Introduction to Part IV
15 Coordination and related constructions in Omaha-Ponca and in Siouan languagesCatherine Rudin
1 Introduction
2 Issues in defining and identifying sbj]coordinationcoordination
2.1 The sbj]syntaxsyntax of sbj]coordinationcoordination
2.2 The semantics of sbj]coordinationcoordination
2.3 Identifying lexical coordinators
3 Additive sbj]coordinationcoordination in lan]OmahaOmaha-Ponca
3.1 Coordinationsbj]coordination of sbj]clausesclauses: shi and similar words
3.2 sbj]coordinationCoordination of non-sentential categories: does it exist?
3.3 Discussion: Once more on shi
4 Siouan languages: An overview
4.1 lan]DhegihaDhegiha
4.2 lan]Ho-Chunk-JiwereWinnebago-Chiwere
4.3 lan]DakotanDakotan
4.4 lan]Missouri Valley SiouanMissouri Valley
4.5 lan]Southeastern SiouanSoutheastern Siouan
4.6 Summary
5 Conclusion
16 Information-structural variations in Siouan languagesBryan James Gordon
1 Introduction
2 Method
2.1 Information-structuralsbj]information structure coding procedure
2.2 sbj]intonationIntonation-structural coding procedure
2.3 Selection of formal variants of interest
3 Findings
3.1 Deaccentingsbj]deaccenting
3.2 Postverbal arguments
3.3 Reduced nominal referring expressions
3.3.1 Determiner dropsbj]determiner drop in languages with two indefinite articles
3.3.2 Determiner dropsbj]determiner drop in languages with one or no indefinite article
3.3.3 Determiner dropsbj]determiner drop in all sampled languages
3.3.4 “Determiner-drop dropsbj]determiner drop”: recent rises in obligatoriness
3.3.5 Determiner dropsbj]determiner drop and sbj]noun incorporationnoun incorporation as continuum
3.3.6 Zero reference (argument drop)
3.4 sbj]intonationIntonational bounding of links, relational sbj]topictopics and relational foci
3.5 Object-subject-verb (OSV) sbj]word orderword order
3.6 Switch-sbj]topictopic markers
4 Discussion
17 NP-internal possessive constructions in Hoocąk and other Siouan languagesJohannes Helmbrecht
1 The structure of NP-internal possessive constructionssbj]possessive construction
2 Methodical remarks
3 NP-internal possession in Ho-ChunkHoocąk
3.1 Juxtaposition
3.2 Nominalized verbal possessive constructions
4 Constructional splits in the other Siouan languages
4.1 Crow
4.1.1 The possessor
4.1.2 The possessed
4.2 Hidatsa
4.2.1 The possessor
4.2.2 The possessed
4.3 Mandan
4.4 Lakota
4.4.1 The possessor
4.4.2 The possessed
4.5 Osage
4.6 Biloxi
5 Conclusions
Name index
Language index
Subject index
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