Digital Passages: Migrant Youth 2.0. Diaspora, Gender and Youth Cultural Intersections
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Digital Passages: Migrant Youth 2.0. Diaspora, Gender and Youth Cultural Intersections

By Koen Leurs
Free
Book Description

Increasingly, young people live online, with the vast majority of their social and cultural interactions conducted through means other than face-to-face conversation. How does this transition impact the ways in which young migrants understand, negotiate, and perform identity? That's the question taken up by Digital Passages: Migrant Youth 2.0, a ground-breaking analysis of the ways that youth culture online interacts with issues of diaspora, gender, and belonging. Drawing on surveys, in-depth interviews, and ethnography, Koen Leurs builds an interdisciplinary portrait of online youth culture and the spaces it opens up for migrant youth to negotiate power relations and to promote intercultural understanding.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Table of Contents
    • Acknowledgements
    • Introduction
      • 1. Online/offline space and power relations
        • Digital divides
        • Internet platforms as passages
        • Space invader tactics
      • 2. Digital identity performativity
        • Micro-politics
        • Intersectionality
        • Digital identities: Materiality, representation & affectivity
      • 3. Moroccan-Dutchness in the context of the Netherlands
        • Deconstructing labels
      • 4. The transnational habitus of second-generation migrant youth: From roots to routes
      • 5. Hypertextual selves: Digital conviviality
      • 6. Structure of the book
    • 1. Methodological trajectory
      • 1.1 Empiricism versus constructivism
      • 1.2 The Wired Up survey
        • Constructing the survey
        • The power of definition
        • Survey sampling and access
        • Conducting the survey
        • Descriptive survey data about digital practices of Moroccan-Dutch youth
      • 1.3 In-depth interviews
        • Interview sampling
        • Doing interviews using participatory techniques
        • Reflexivity and power relations
        • Inside and outside school: The dynamics of interview settings
        • Selecting field sites
      • 1.4 Virtual ethnography
        • Publicly accessible digital field sites
        • Accessing closed digital field sites
      • 1.5 Analyzing informants’ narratives
        • Politics of translation
        • Coding
        • Feminist poststructuralist critical discourse analysis
      • 1.6 Conclusions
    • 2. Voices from the margins on Internet forums
      • 2.1 Internet forum participation among Moroccan-Dutch youth
        • Marokko.nl and Chaima.nl
      • 2.2 Theorizing Internet forums as subaltern counterpublics
      • 2.3 Digital multiculturalism: “Not all Moroccans are the same”
        • Hush harbors
        • The carnivalesque
        • Networked power contradictions
      • 2.4 Digital “hchouma”: Renegotiating gender
        • Daring to break taboos: “I just want to know what ‘the real deal’ is”
      • 2.5 Digital postsecularism: Performing Muslimness
        • Digital reconfigurations of religious authority
        • Voicing Muslimness
      • 2.6 Conclusions
    • 3. Expanding socio-cultural parameters of action using Instant messaging
      • 3.1 Moroccan-Dutch youth using instant messaging
      • 3.2 Theorizing instant messaging as a way of being in the world
      • 3.3 The private backstage
        • Conversational topics
        • Boundary making
        • Unstable boundaries: Risks and opportunities
      • 3.4 The more public onstage
        • Display pictures and gender stereotypes
        • Display names and bricolage
        • A funky, informal writing style
      • 3.5 Conclusions
    • 4. Selfies and hypertextual selves on social networking sites
      • 4.1 Moroccan-Dutch youth on Hyves and Facebook
        • Self-profiling attributes
        • Motivations
      • 4.2 Theorizing the politics of online social networking sites
        • Templates and user cultures
        • Neoliberal SNS logics
        • Teenager SNS logics
      • 4.3 Selfies and the gendered gaze
        • Selfie ideals
        • Meeting the gaze: Objectification and/or representation
        • Victimization and cautionary measures
        • In-betweenness
      • 4.4 Hypertextual selves and the micro-politics of association
        • Cultural self-profiling as fandom
        • Differential networking
        • Cosmopolitan perspectives
      • 4.5 Conclusions
    • 5. Affective geographies on YouTube
      • 5.1 Moroccan-Dutch youth using YouTube
        • The Ummah
        • Fitna
      • 5.2 Theorizing the politics of YouTube
      • 5.3 Theorizing affective geographies and YouTube use
      • 5.4 Rooted belongings: Transnational affectivity
      • 5.5 Routed affective belongings across geographies
      • 5.6 Conclusions
    • Conclusions
      • 1. Transdisciplinary dialogues
      • 2. Methodological considerations
      • 3. Digital inequality and spatial hierarchies
      • 4. Space invader tactics and digital belonging
    • Bibliography
    • Appendix 1: Meet the informants
    • Index
    • List of figures
      • Fig. 1: “Mocro’s be like. Born Here,” tweet @Nasrdin_Dchar (March 17, 2014)
      • Fig. 2: Geweigerd.nl website top banner (March 6, 2005).
      • Fig. 3: Google.nl search for “Marokkanen” (June 28, 2012)
      • Fig. 4: Internet map made by Soesie, a thirteen-year-old girl
      • Fig. 5: Word cloud based on all Internet applications included in the Internet maps of the informants
      • Fig. 6: Four different approaches to discourse analysis (Phillips and Hardy, 2002, p. 20)
      • Fig. 7: “Average Moroccan boys look like this,” forum user Mocro_s contesting Moroccan-Dutch masculinity (Mocro_s, 2007a)
      • Fig. 8: “Average Moroccan girls look like this,” forum user Mocro_s contesting Moroccan-Dutch femininity (Mocro_s, 2007b)
      • Fig. 9: Forum user Mocro_s contesting Moroccan-Dutch religiosity (Mocro_s, 2007b)
      • Fig. 10: Cartoon Overvaren (in English: Sailing Across) (Rafje.nl, 2011)
      • Fig. 11: Screenshot of an MSN Messenger conversation with twelve-year-old Soufian (July 22, 2011)
      • Fig. 12: Hyves groups thirteen-year-old Anas linked to on his Hyves profile page (July 22, 2011)
      • Fig. 13: Facebook advertisements (advertisements appeared on October 16, 2011, and January 11, 2012)
      • Fig. 14: Still from Bezems 2010.!! uploaded by user Bezemswalla on YouTube (February 8, 2010)
      • Fig. 15: Hyves groups Midia linked to on her Hyves profile page (April 15, 2009)
      • Fig. 16: “I’m a Berber Soldier,” archived from http://imazighen.hyves.nl (September 19, 2009)
      • Fig. 17: “Error,” archived from http://trotsopmarokko.hyves.nl (October 23, 2009)
      • Fig. 18: “100% Marokaan,” archived from http://trotsopmarokko.hyves.nl (October 23, 2009)
      • Fig. 19: Still from Kop of Munt, YouTube video uploaded by MUNT (October 20, 2009)
      • Fig. 20: Still from Marrakech, Morocco City Drive, YouTube video uploaded by eMoroccan (October 8, 2010)
    • List of tables
      • Table 1: Time frame of different fieldwork activities
      • Table 2: Frequency of non-Internet media use among Moroccan-Dutch youth (percentages, n = 344)
      • Table 3: The interviewees; names are pseudonyms suggested by the informants
      • Table 4: The importance of online discussion forums in the lives of Moroccan-Dutch youth (percentages, n = 344)
      • Table 5: The importance of instant messaging in the lives of Moroccan-Dutch youth (percentages, n = 344)
      • Table 6: The importance of social networking sites in the lives of Moroccan-Dutch youth (percentages, n = 344)
      • Table 7: Self-profiling cultural affiliations (n = 344 Moroccan-Dutch and 448 ethnic-majority Dutch respondents)
      • Table 8: The importance of YouTube in the lives of Moroccan-Dutch youth (percentages, n = 344)
    • List of diagrams
      • Diagram 1: Subcultural affiliations as expressed by the Moroccan-Dutch survey respondents (percentages, multiple answers possible, n = 344)
      • Diagram 2: Locations where Moroccan-Dutch youth connect to the Internet (percentages, n = 344)
      • Diagram 3: Internet application user frequencies of Moroccan-Dutch youth (means, 5-point scale, n = 344)
      • Diagram 4: The attachment of Moroccan-Dutch youth to various Internet applications (means, 3-point scale, n = 344)
      • Diagram 5: Attention for major news events on nl.politiek and Marokko.nl (adapted from Van Stekelenburg, Oegema Klandermans, 2011, p. 263)
      • Diagram 6: Topics Moroccan-Dutch youth report to discuss (graph shows percentages, n = 344)
      • Diagram 7: Moroccan-Dutch youth self-reporting SNS profiling attributes (graph shows percentages, n = 344)
      • Diagram 8: Reasons for participating in self-profiling on SNSs (multiple answers possible, graph shows percentages, n = 344)
      • Diagram 9: Selfie ideals reported by Moroccan-Dutch youth (multiple answers possible, percentages, n = 344)
      • Diagram 10: Moroccan-Dutch youth cultural self-profiling on SNSs (multiple answers possible, graph shows percentages, n = 344)
      • Diagram 11: Geographical locations of music artists interviewees look up on YouTube (percentages, multiple answers possible, n = 43)
      • Diagram 12: Geographical locations of artists interviewees combine in their YouTube viewing practices (percentages, n = 43)
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