Il discorso di Eraclito
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Il discorso di Eraclito

By Laura Gianvittorio
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Book Description

Since the “scuola urbinate” (e. g. B. Gentili) applied the oral theory to the Greek lyricists, orality is seen to have influenced thought and language not only of rhapsodists, but of archaic authors in general. Against this background, I investigate how the interaction between orality and literacy, which I suggest to call “aurality”, influences the semantics and the linguistic reasoning chiefly of Heraclitus among the early presocratic thinkers. On the one hand Heraclitus is an oral “image-thinker” (Havelock) and his prose is poetically constructed; on the other hand only by writing he can figure out the discourse (λόγος) as a ὀνόματα-composed unity, as I mean he does, rather than holistic or as a continuum, what is common in oral societies. Such a λόγος is able to serve as a cosmological model, for the physical world consisting of a multiplicity of phenomena closely jointed to each other into an invisible unity.

Im allgemeinen Verständnis begründen die Vorsokratiker das philosophische Fachwissen und die philosophische Fachsprache. Diese Annahme wird in der vorliegendenArbeit mittels einer semantischenAnalyse revidiert: die Sprache derVorsokratiker meidet nicht, sondern zielt geradezu auf mehrdeutige und redundante Ausdrucksweisen. Hier ist der nicht-terminologische Gebrauch von logos bei Heraklit besonders aufschlussreich. In der Bedeutung dieses Lexems, die an den biszur Zeit des Ephesiers belegten Verwendungskontexten untersucht wird, zeigt sich die noch wirkende Kontinuität mit der legein- Grundbedeutung „sammeln“:die „Rede“ besteht nämlich aus einerSammlung einzelner epea bzw. onomata. Aufgrund ihrer synthetischen Struktur istsie geeignet, eine heuristische Funktion für das menschliche Verstehen der latenten Einheit scheinbar loser Erscheinungen zuerfüllen. Sowohl formal, in der Art, wiedas Lexem semantisch aufgeladen wird, als auch inhaltlich, in der spezifi sch herakliteischen Interdependenz zwischen Realität und Sprache, lassen sich in dem logos desHeraklit Charakteristika erkennen, die auf den Übergang von der Mündlichkeit zur Schriftlichkeit zurückgeführt werden können.Secondo la communis opinio, i Presocratici segnano l’inizio della filosofi a come disciplina e del relativo linguaggio specialistico. Tali presupposti vengono qui messi in discussione in base ad un’analisi semantica del linguaggio presocratico:piuttosto che ridurre, esso potenziaambiguità e ridondanza sfruttandolecome risorse del senso. L’esame siconcentra sull’uso non terminologicodi logos in Eraclito. Il signifi cato dellessema, stabilito in base ai contestid’uso attestati fi no all’epoca dell’Efesio ed affrancato dalla successiva Wirkungsgeschichte,è ancora contraddistintodall’idea del ‘raccogliere insieme’ (legein): il ‘discorso’, infatti, consiste nella sintesi di singoli epea (detti) ed onomata (nomi). Mostrando il farsi uno dei molti, il logos assume dunque una funzione euristica per la comprensione dell’unità di fenomeni apparentemente irrelati o contraddittori. Sia a livello formale, neimodi della “ri-semantizzazione” della parola- chiave, sia a livello contenutistico, nella specifi ca interdipendenza scorta tra linguaggio e mondo, si riconoscono nel logos di Eraclito caratteristiche salienti del compromesso tra oralità e scrittura.Der Erwerb des Buches ist ,möglich: www.olms.de

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