The empirical base of linguistics: Grammaticality judgments and linguistic methodology
Carson Schütze T.
The empirical base of linguistics: Grammaticality judgments and linguistic methodology

Throughout much of the history of linguistics, grammaticality judgments – intuitions about the well-formedness of sentences – have constituted most of the empirical base against which theoretical hypothesis have been tested. Although such judgments often rest on subtle intuitions, there is no systematic methodology for eliciting them, and their apparent instability and unreliability have led many to conclude that they should be abandoned as a source of data.

Preface (2016)
Preface (1996)
Acknowledgments (1996)
1 Introduction
1.1 Goals
1.2 Approach
1.3 Motivation: Whither Linguistics?
1.4 A Working Hypothesis
1.5 Scope and Organization
2 Definitions and Historical Background
2.1 Introduction
2.2 A Short History of Grammaticality
2.3 The Use of Judgment Data in Linguistic Theory
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 The Dangers of Unsystematic Data Collection
2.3.3 A Case Study in the Use of Subtle Judgments
2.3.4 The Interpretation of the Annotations and Degrees of Badness
2.4 Introspection, Intuition, and Judgment
2.5 Conclusion
3 Judging Grammaticality
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Tasks that Access Grammaticality
3.3 The Nature of Graded Judgments
3.3.1 Is Grammaticality Dichotomous?
3.3.2 Experiments on Chomsky's Three Levels of Deviance
3.3.3 Other Experiments
3.3.4 Ratings, Rankings, and Consistency
3.4 The Judgment Process
3.5 The Interpretation of Judgments with Respect to Competence
3.6 Conclusion
4 Subject-Related Factors in Grammaticality Judgments
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Individual Differences: Three Representative Studies
4.3 Organismic Factors
4.3.1 Field Dependence
4.3.2 Handedness
4.3.3 Other Organismic Factors
4.4 Experiential Factors
4.4.1 Linguistic Training
4.4.2 Literacy and Education
4.4.3 Other Experiential Factors
4.5 Conclusion
5 Task-Related Factors in Grammaticality Judgments
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Procedural Factors
5.2.1 Instructions
5.2.2 Order of Presentation
5.2.3 Repetition
5.2.4 Mental State
5.2.5 Judgment Strategy
5.2.6 Modality and Register
5.2.7 Speed of Judgment
5.3 Stimulus Factors
5.3.1 Context
5.3.2 Meaning
5.3.3 Parsability
5.3.4 Frequency
5.3.5 Lexical Content
5.3.6 Morphology and Spelling
5.3.7 Rhetorical Structure
5.4 Conclusion
6 Theoretical and Methodological Implications
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Modeling Grammaticality Judgments
6.2.1 Previous Work
6.2.2 The Outlines of a Preliminary Model
6.2.3 Applications of the Model
6.3 Methodological Proposals
6.3.1 Materials
6.3.2 Procedure
6.3.3 Analysis and Interpretation of Results
6.4 Conclusion
7 Looking Back and Looking Ahead
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Directions for Further Research
7.3 The Future in Linguistics
Name Index
Subject Index
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