The Enemy Within
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The Enemy Within

By Anu Koskivirta
Free
Book Description

This work explores the quantitative and qualitative development of homicide in eastern Finland in the second half of the eighteenth century and the early years of the nineteenth. The area studied comprised northern Savo and northern Karelia in eastern Finland. At that time, these were completely agricultural regions on the periphery of the kingdom of Sweden. Indeed the majority of the population still got their living from burn-beating agriculture.

The analysis of homicide there reveals characteristics that were exceptional by Western European standards: the large proportion of premeditated homicides (murders) and those within the family is more reminiscent of modern cities in the West than of a pre-modern rural society. However, there also existed some archaic forms of Western crime there. Most of the homicides within the family were killings of brothers or brothers-in law, connected with the family structure (the extended family) that prevailed in the region. This study uses case analysis to explore the causes for the increase in both familial homicide and murder in the area. One of the explanatory factors that is dealt with is the interaction between the faltering penal practice that then existed and the increase in certain types of homicide.

Despite the fact that it focuses on a particular region, the study and the questions it poses have both international and current relevance. This work builds a bridge between research into legal history and the sociologically oriented study of the history of criminality.

This book is part of the Studia Fennica Historica series.

Table of Contents
  • The Enemy Within
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Contents
  • THE LAW AND HOMICIDE IN EASTERN FINLAND 1748–1808
    • INTRODUCTION
      • The Subject of the Research
      • Definition of Concepts and Delimitation of the Subject
      • The Traditions of Criminal Research
    • HOMICIDE AND LEGAL CERTAINTY
      • Forms of Homicide and Penal Ordinances at the Time of the Law of 1734
      • The Jurisdiction of the Courts in Homicide Trials
      • The Legality and Predictability of Sentencing Practice
    • HOMICIDE IN EASTERN FINLAND AND IN THE WESTERN WORLD IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE
      • A Quantitative Survey of Homicide in Eastern Finland
      • The Parties Involved
      • Murder
    • HOMICIDE AND PENAL CERTAINTY
      • The Increasing Brutality of the Deeds
      • Problems in Obtaining a Proof and the Debilitation of Repression
  • HOMICIDE AS UNOFFICIAL SOCIAL CONTROL
    • THE FRONTIER REGION AND THE GRIP OF AUTHORITY
    • Homicide in the Outlying Parishes
    • The Trouble Spots of the Periphery
    • The Problems of the Periphery in the Pre-Modern World
    • Administrative Weakness and Delays
    • The Frontier Region Thesis as an Explanation of Violence
    • A TRAGEDY OF INTERNALIZED CONTROL
    • DENIAL OF GUILT: THE MANIPULATION OF JUSTICE
    • HOMICIDE AS A FORM OF PUNITIVE CONTROL
      • Self-help and Unofficial Justice
      • The Individual and the Law: from Victim to Victor
      • The Culture of Shame and Revenge Murders
      • Outlaws and Bandits
    • HOMICIDE AS AN EXTENSION OF CONCILIATORY CONTROL
      • Settling Differences in the Family
      • Fratricide in Different Types of Society
      • Fratricide in Eastern Finland
      • Conjugal Homicide
      • Infanticide as an Instrument in Conjugal Disputes
      • Breaking the Fourth and Fifth Commandments
      • Summary
      • The Effects of Depleted Forest Resources
      • The Vengeance of the Tenant Farmers in a Truncated Parish
      • Conclusion
    • HOMICIDE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF CONTROL
    • REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
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