The evolution of case grammar
Free

The evolution of case grammar

By Remi van Trijp
Free
Book Description

"There are few linguistic phenomena that have seduced linguists so skillfully as grammatical case has done.Ever since Panini (4th Century BC), case has claimed a central role in linguistic theory and continues to do so today. However, despite centuries worth of research, case has yet to reveal its most important secrets. This book offers breakthrough explanations for the understanding of case through agent-based experiments in cultural language evolution. The experiments demonstrate that case systems may emerge because they have a selective advantage for communication: they reduce the cognitive effort that listeners need for semantic interpretation, while at the same time limiting the cognitive resources required for doing so."

Table of Contents
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • 1 Case and artificial language evolution
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Case and the grammar square
      • 1.2.1 Overview
      • 1.2.2 The functions of case systems
      • 1.2.3 Stage I: no marking
      • 1.2.4 Stage II: specific marking
      • 1.2.5 Stage III: semantic roles
      • 1.2.6 Stage IV: syntactic roles
      • 1.2.7 Further developments
    • 1.3 Modeling language evolution
      • 1.3.1 Overview
      • 1.3.2 Three models of artificial language evolution
      • 1.3.3 The do's and don'ts of artificial language evolution
    • 1.4 A brief history of prior work
      • 1.4.1 Overview
      • 1.4.2 The emergence of adaptive lexicons
      • 1.4.3 Towards grammar
      • 1.4.4 Other research avenues
  • 2 Processing case and argument structure
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Representing and linking meanings
    • 2.3 A brief introduction to Fluid Construction Grammar
      • 2.3.1 Overview
      • 2.3.2 Unify and Merge
      • 2.3.3 Structure building.
    • 2.4 Parsing `Jack sweep dust off-floor'
      • 2.4.1 Overview
      • 2.4.2 Unifying and merging lexical entries
      • 2.4.3 A syntactic case marker
      • 2.4.4 The caused motion construction
    • 2.5 Producing `jack sweep floor'
      • 2.5.1 Overview
      • 2.5.2 Unifying and merging lexical entries
      • 2.5.3 The agent-acts-on-surface construction
    • 2.6 Networks and conventionalization
  • 3 Baseline experiments
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Experimental set-up
      • 3.2.1 Overview
      • 3.2.2 Key abilities and self-assessment criteria
      • 3.2.3 Description games
      • 3.2.4 The world, sensory-motor input and conceptualization
        • 3.2.4.1 Overview
        • 3.2.4.2 The environment
        • 3.2.4.3 Sensory-motor input
        • 3.2.4.4 Conceptualization
      • 3.2.5 Additional assumptions and scaffolds
    • 3.3 Baseline experiment 1: no marking
      • 3.3.1 Overview
      • 3.3.2 An inferential coding system
        • 3.3.2.1 Inferential coding
        • 3.3.2.2 The speaker
        • 3.3.2.3 The hearer
        • 3.3.2.4 Communicative success
      • 3.3.3 Results and discussion
        • 3.3.3.1 Results
        • 3.3.3.2 Discussion
    • 3.4 Baseline experiment 2: specific marking
      • 3.4.1 Overview
      • 3.4.2 Speaker-based innovation
        • 3.4.2.1 Innovation and expansion
        • 3.4.2.2 Re-entrance
        • 3.4.2.3 Innovation
        • 3.4.2.4 Learning
        • 3.4.2.5 Consolidation
      • 3.4.3 Results and discussion
        • 3.4.3.1 Results of set-up 2a
        • 3.4.3.2 Results of set-up 2b
        • 3.4.3.3 Results of set-up 2c
        • 3.4.3.4 Discussion
    • 3.5 Baseline experiment 3: semantic roles
      • 3.5.1 Overview
      • 3.5.2 Generalization as a side-effect
        • 3.5.2.1 Analogical reasoning
        • 3.5.2.2 The target and the source
        • 3.5.2.3 Elaborate the mapping between the two
        • 3.5.2.4 A good mapping
        • 3.5.2.5 Adapting the inventory
        • 3.5.2.6 Learning
        • 3.5.2.7 Consolidation
      • 3.5.3 Results and discussion of set-up 3a
        • 3.5.3.1 Results
        • 3.5.3.2 Discussion
      • 3.5.4 Results and discussion of set-up 3b
        • 3.5.4.1 Results
        • 3.5.4.2 Discussion
      • 3.5.5 Results and discussion of set-up 3c
        • 3.5.5.1 Results
        • 3.5.5.2 Discussion
      • 3.5.6 Results and discussion of set-up 3d
        • 3.5.6.1 Results
        • 3.5.6.2 Discussion
      • 3.5.7 Conclusions and future work
  • 4 Multi-level selection and language systematicity
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Pattern formation
      • 4.2.1 Overview
      • 4.2.2 Pattern formation in language
        • 4.2.2.1 Negation in French
        • 4.2.2.2 Reanalysis versus pattern formation
        • 4.2.2.3 Idioms
      • 4.2.3 Operationalizing pattern formation
    • 4.3 Experiment 1: individual selection without analogy
      • 4.3.1 Overview
      • 4.3.2 Experimental set-up
      • 4.3.3 Results and discussion
        • 4.3.3.1 Results
        • 4.3.3.2 Discussion
      • 4.3.4 The problem of systematicity in other work
        • 4.3.4.1 Exemplar-based simulations
        • 4.3.4.2 Probabilistic grammars
        • 4.3.4.3 Iterated Learning Models
        • 4.3.4.4 Other models
    • 4.4 Experiment 2: multi-level selection without analogy
      • 4.4.1 Overview
      • 4.4.2 Experimental set-up
      • 4.4.3 Results and discussion
        • 4.4.3.1 Results
        • 4.4.3.2 Discussion
    • 4.5 Experiment 3: multi-level selection with analogy
      • 4.5.1 Overview
      • 4.5.2 Experimental set-up
      • 4.5.3 Results and discussion
        • 4.5.3.1 Results
        • 4.5.3.2 Discussion
    • 4.6 Towards syntactic cases
      • 4.6.1 Overview
      • 4.6.2 A first experiment
        • 4.6.2.1 Experimental set-up
        • 4.6.2.2 Results
        • 4.6.2.3 Discussion of the two-agent simulation
        • 4.6.2.4 Discussion of the multi-agent simulation
      • 4.6.3 The grammar square: a roadmap for further work
        • 4.6.3.1 Mapping participant roles onto semantic roles
        • 4.6.3.2 Mapping semantic roles onto syntactic roles
        • 4.6.3.3 Mapping syntactic roles onto case markers
  • 5 Impact on artificial language evolution and linguistic theory
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Pushing the state-of-the-art
      • 5.2.1 Overview
      • 5.2.2 Experiment 1: A primitive case system?
        • 5.2.2.1 The experiment
        • 5.2.2.2 Results
        • 5.2.2.3 Discussion
      • 5.2.3 Experiment 2: dealing with variation
        • 5.2.3.1 Experimental results
        • 5.2.3.2 Discussion
        • 5.2.3.3 Problems with multi-agent simulations
      • 5.2.4 Experiment 3: implementing communicative pressures
        • 5.2.4.1 Experimental results
        • 5.2.4.2 Discussion
      • 5.2.5 Experiment 4: more innate knowledge
        • 5.2.5.1 Experimental results
        • 5.2.5.2 Discussion
      • 5.2.6 Summary: case markers serve communication
    • 5.3 Argument structure and construction grammar
      • 5.3.1 Overview
      • 5.3.2 Argument structure in BCG and SBCG
      • 5.3.3 An example: the ditransitive construction
      • 5.3.4 Discussion and comparison
        • 5.3.4.1 Derivational versus non-derivational constructions.
        • 5.3.4.2 Evidence from corpus-linguistics
        • 5.3.4.3 Thematic hierarchy
        • 5.3.4.4 The emergence of argument structure constructions.
    • 5.4 Analogy, multi-level selection and the constructicon
      • 5.4.1 Overview
      • 5.4.2 The organization of the linguistic inventory
      • 5.4.3 Construction grammars
        • 5.4.3.1 Berkeley Construction Grammar
        • 5.4.3.2 The Lakoff/Goldberg model.
        • 5.4.3.3 Cognitive Grammar.
        • 5.4.3.4 Radical Construction Grammar
      • 5.4.4 The inventory in Fluid Construction Grammar
        • 5.4.4.1 Design stance
        • 5.4.4.2 The emergence of linguistic categories
        • 5.4.4.3 Innovation through analogy and pattern formation.
        • 5.4.4.4 Multi-level selection in the emergence of language systematicity.
        • 5.4.4.5 On the status of inheritance networks.
    • 5.5 Linguistic typology and grammaticalization
      • 5.5.1 Overview
      • 5.5.2 The status of semantic maps
        • 5.5.2.1 Introduction
        • 5.5.2.2 The universality of semantic maps.
        • 5.5.2.3 Prior work on concept emergence.
        • 5.5.2.4 The contribution of this book
      • 5.5.3 Thematic hierarchies in case systems
        • 5.5.3.1 Analogy, pattern formation and multi-level selection.
      • 5.5.4 A redundant approach to grammaticalization
        • 5.5.4.1 Reanalysis and actualization
        • 5.5.4.2 Example: the English verbal gerund.
        • 5.5.4.3 Problems with Fanego's account.
        • 5.5.4.4 A model based on redundancy
        • 5.5.4.5 Back to the computational model
  • Postscriptum
    • Artificial language evolution
    • Acknowledgements
  • Appendix: Measures
  • References
  • Index
    • Name index
    • Subject index
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