Faecal Sludge Management
Free

Faecal Sludge Management

By Linda Strande
Free
Book Description

"It is estimated that literally billions of residents in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation systems (e.g. various types of latrines and septic tanks). Until recently, the management of faecal sludge from these onsite systems has been grossly neglected, partially as a result of them being considered temporary solutions until sewer-based systems could be implemented. However, the perception of onsite or decentralized sanitation technologies for urban areas is gradually changing, and is increasingly being considered as long-term, sustainable options in urban areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries that lack sewer infrastructures. This is the first book dedicated to faecal sludge management. It compiles the current state of knowledge of the rapidly evolving field of faecal sludge management, and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management, and planning based on Sandecs 20 years of experience in the field. Faecal Sludge Management: Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, and the current state of knowledge of treatment options, to the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. The book also presents important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, and engineers and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering."

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Contents
  • Chapter 1: The Global Situation
    • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.2 WHAT IS FAECAL SLUDGE?
    • 1.3 GLOBAL RELEVANCE
    • 1.4 BOOK OBJECTIVE
    • 1.5 DESIGNING FOR FAECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT TREATMENT ENDUSE
      • 1.5.1 Systems approach
        • Chapter 2 Quantifi cation, Characterisation and Treatment Objectives
        • Chapter 3 Treatment Mechanisms
        • Chapter 4 Methods and Means for Collection and Transport
        • Chapter 5 Overview of Treatment Technologies
        • Chapter 6 Settling-Thickening Tanks
        • Chapter 7 Unplanted Drying Beds
        • Chapter 8 Planted Drying Beds
        • Chapter 9 Co-treatment with Wastewater
        • Chapter 10 Enduse of Treatment Products
        • Chapter 11 Operation, Maintenance and Monitoring
        • Chapter 12 Institutional Frameworks
        • Chapter 13 Financial Transfers and Responsibilities
        • Chapter 14 Assessment of the Initial Situation
        • Chapter 15 Stakeholder Analysis
        • Chapter 16 Stakeholder Engagement
        • Chapter 17 Planning Integrated Systems
        • Chapter 18 The Way Forward
        • Available Resources
        • Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation (CLUES), EAWAG/WSSCC/UN-Habitat
        • Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies
        • How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries (RTI/IWA)
        • Expanding your knowledge in a course
    • 1.6 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 2: Faecal Sludge Quantifi cation, Characterisation and Treatment Objectives
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 QUANTIFICATION OF FAECAL SLUDGE
      • 2.2.1 Sludge production method
      • 2.2.2 Sludge collection method
    • 2.3 CHARACTERISATION OF FAECAL SLUDGE
    • 2.4 OPERATIONAL FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE VARIABILITY OF FAECAL SLUDGE
      • 2.4.1 Toilet usage
      • 2.4.2 Storage duration
      • 2.4.3 Infl ow and infi ltration
      • 2.4.4 Collection method
      • 2.4.5 Climate
    • 2.5 TREATMENT TARGETS
    • 2.6 TREATMENT OBJECTIVES
      • 2.6.1 Dewatering
      • 2.6.2 Pathogens
      • 2.6.3 Nutrients
      • 2.6.4 Stabilisation
    • 2.7 TREATMENT CONCERNS
    • 2.8 SAMPLING PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMMES
    • 2.9 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
      • 2.9.1 Nutrients
        • Nitrogen
        • Phosphorus
      • 2.9.2 pH
      • 2.9.3 Total solids
      • 2.9.4 Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand
      • 2.9.5 Oil and grease
      • 2.9.6 Grit and sand
      • 2.9.7 Municipal solid waste
    • 2.10 PATHOGENS IN FAECAL SLUDGE
      • 2.10.1 The use of indicators
      • 2.10.2 Coliform bacteria
        • Helminths
        • Viruses
    • 2.11 CONCLUSION
    • 2.12 BIBLIOGRAPHY
      • Additional Reading Material
  • Chapter 3: Treatment Mechanisms
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 3.2 PHYSICAL MECHANISMS
      • 3.2.1 Gravity separation
      • 3.2.2 Filtration
      • 3.2.3 Evaporation and evapotranspiration
      • 3.2.4 Centrifugation
      • 3.2.5 Heat drying
      • 3.2.6 Screening
    • 3.3 BIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS
      • 3.3.1 Metabolism
      • 3.3.2 Temperature
      • 3.3.3 Types of microorganisms
      • 3.3.4 Aerobic treatment
      • 3.3.5 Composting
      • 3.3.6 Anaerobic treatment
      • 3.3.7 Nitrogen cycling
        • Nitrification
        • Denitrification
        • Phosphorus cycling
      • 3.3.8 Pathogen reduction
        • Temperature
        • Time
        • Sorption
        • Desiccation
        • UV
        • pH
    • 3.4 CHEMICAL MECHANISMS
      • 3.4.1 Alkaline stabilisation
      • 3.4.2 Ammonia treatment
      • 3.4.3 Coagulation and fl occulation
      • 3.4.4 Conditioning
      • 3.4.5 Disinfection of liquid effl uents
    • 3.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 4: Methods and Means for Collection and Transport of Faecal Sludge
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 TYPICAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
      • 4.2.1 Interfacing with clients
      • 4.2.2 Locating the system to be emptied
      • 4.2.3 Determining accessibility
        • Width of the road
        • Access to the site
        • Location of the site
      • 4.2.4 Tools of the trade
    • 4.3 PROPERTIES OF FAECAL SLUDGE IN RELATION TO COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT
    • 4.4 MANUAL COLLECTION
      • 4.4.1 Cartridge containment devices
      • 4.4.2 Direct lift
    • 4.5 MANUALLY OPERATED MECHANICAL COLLECTION
      • 4.5.1 Sludge Gulper
      • 4.5.2 Manually operated diaphragm pumps
      • 4.5.3 Nibbler
      • 4.5.4 MAPET
      • 4.5.5 Comparison of equipment
    • 4.6 FULLY MECHANISED COLLECTION
      • 4.6.1 Motorised diaphragm pumps
      • 4.6.2 Trash pump
      • 4.6.3 Motorised pit screw auger
      • 4.6.4 Gobbler
      • 4.6.5 Vehicle-mounted vacuum equipment
        • Conventional vacuum trucks
        • BREVAC
        • Vacutug
      • 4.6.6 Delivering vehicle-mounted vacuum services
      • 4.6.7 Summary of fully mechanised systems
    • 4.7 TRANSPORT OF FAECAL SLUDGE
      • 4.7.1 Manual transport
      • 4.7.2 Motorised transport
      • 4.7.3 Delivering faecal sludge to the treatment plant or transfer station
    • 4.8 TRANSFER STATIONS
      • 4.8.1 Introduction
      • 4.8.2 Types of transfer stations
        • Fixed transfer stations
        • Mobile transfer stations
      • 4.8.3 Siting of transfer stations
        • Optimising coverage
        • Land availability
        • Acceptance
        • Access
    • 4.9 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
      • 4.9.1 Physical hazards
      • 4.9.2 Chemical hazards
      • 4.9.3 Biological hazards
      • 4.9.4 Other hazards
      • 4.9.5 Mitigating risks
    • 4.10 CONCLUSION
    • 4.11 BIBLIOGRAPHY
      • Additional Reading Material
  • Chapter 5: Overview of Treatment Technologies
    • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 5.2 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
    • 5.3 ESTABLISHED FAECAL SLUDGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
      • 5.3.1 Co-composting of faecal sludge
        • Potential advantages and constraints of co-composting
      • 5.3.2 Co-treatment in waste stabilisation ponds
        • Potential advantages and constraints of waste stabilisation ponds
      • 5.3.3 Deep row entrenchment
        • Potential advantages and constraints of deep row entrenchment
    • 5.4 TRANSFERRED SLUDGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
      • 5.4.1 Anaerobic digestion
        • Experience with faecal sludge
        • Potential advantages and constraints of anaerobic digestion for faecal sludge management
      • 5.4.2 Imhoff tank
        • Potential advantages and constraints of Imhoff tanks
      • 5.4.3 Sludge incineration
        • Potential advantages and constraints of sludge incineration
      • 5.4.4 Mechanical sludge treatment
        • Potential advantages and constraints of mechanical sludge treatment
      • 5.4.5 Lime addition
        • Potential advantages and constraints of lime treatment
    • 5.5 INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR FAECAL SLUDGE TREATMENT
      • 5.5.1 Vermicomposting
        • Potential advantages and constraints of vermicomposting
      • 5.5.2 Black Soldier flies
        • Potential advantages and constraints of Black Soldier fl ies
      • 5.5.3 Ammonia treatment
        • Potential advantages and constraints of ammonia treatment
      • 5.5.4 Thermal drying and pelletising
        • Potential advantages and constraints of thermal drying
        • Potential advantages and constraints of sludge drying and pelletising
      • 5.5.5 Solar drying
        • Potential advantages and constraints of solar drying
    • 5.6 SELECTING TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
    • 5.7 CONCLUSIONS
    • 5.8 BIBILOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 6: Settling-Thickening Tanks
    • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 6.2 FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS
      • 6.2.1 Settling
      • 6.2.2 Thickening
      • 6.2.3 Flotation
      • 6.2.4 Anaerobic digestion
      • 6.2.5 Solids-liquid zones
    • 6.3 DESIGN OF SETTLING-THICKENING TANKS
      • 6.3.1 Laboratory tests and faecal sludge characteristics infl uencing the design
      • 6.3.2 Tank surface and length
      • 6.3.3 Tank volume
      • 6.3.4 Inlet and outlet configuration
    • 6.4 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SETTLING-THICKENING TANKS
      • 6.4.1 Sludge and scum removal
      • 6.4.2 Start-up period and seasonal variations
    • 6.5 PERFORMANCE OF SETTLING-THICKENING TANKS
      • 6.5.1 Solids-liquid separation
      • 6.5.2 Treatment performance
    • 6.6 ADVANTAGES AND CONSTRAINTS OF SETTLING-THICKENING TANKS
    • 6.7 DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR A SETTLING-THICKENING TANK
      • 6.7.1 Initial situation
      • 6.7.2 Assumptions and design decisions
      • 6.7.3 Design calculations
        • Thickening zone volume
        • Tank configuration
        • Zone depth
      • 6.7.4 Mass fl ow analysis of faecal sludge treatment
    • 6.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 7: Unplanted Drying Beds
    • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 7.2 TREATMENT PRINCIPLE
    • 7.3 UNPLANTED SLUDGE DRYING BED DESIGN PARAMETERS
      • 7.3.1 Climate factors
      • 7.3.2 Type of faecal sludge
      • 7.3.3 Sludge loading rate
      • 7.3.4 Thickness of the sludge layer
      • 7.3.5 Number of beds
      • 7.3.6 Summary of design parameters
    • 7.4 CONSTRUCTION OF AN UNPLANTED SLUDGE DRYING BED
      • 7.4.1 Gravel and sand
      • 7.4.2 Sludge removal
    • 7.5 QUALITY OF DRIED SLUDGE AND LEACHATE
    • 7.6 DESIGN EXAMPLE
      • 7.6.1 Example 1: Known drying time (two weeks per bed at a loading depth of 20 cm)
      • 7.6.2 Example 2: Design for settled sludge under good climate conditions
    • 7.7 INNOVATIONS AND ADAPTATIONS IN SLUDGE DRYING BEDS
      • 7.7.1 Piping systems
      • 7.7.2 Greenhouses
      • 7.7.3 Wedge wire
      • 7.7.4 Additives to the sludge to enhance drying
    • 7.8 CONCLUSIONS
    • 7.9 REFERENCES
  • Chapter 8: Planted Drying Beds
    • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 8.2 MACROPHYTES
    • 8.3 TREATMENT MECHANISMS
      • 8.3.1 Infiltration (percolation)
      • 8.3.2 Evapotranspiration
      • 8.3.3 Stabilisation/mineralisation
      • 8.3.4 Oxygen transfer
    • 8.4 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
      • 8.4.1 Dewatering
      • 8.4.2 Nutrient removal
      • 8.4.3 Fate of heavy metals
      • 8.4.4 Pathogen removal
      • 8.4.5 Other considerations
    • 8.5 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
    • 8.6 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
      • 8.6.1 Commissioning/start-up
      • 8.6.2 Loading rates and sludge accumulation
      • 8.6.3 Feeding frequency and resting phase
      • 8.6.4 Plant harvesting and regrowth
      • 8.6.5 Bed emptying
      • 8.6.6 Leachate
      • 8.6.7 Factors affecting performance
    • 8.7 COSTS AND BENEFITS
    • 8.8 EXAMPLE PROBLEM
      • 8.8.1 Practice question
    • 8.9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • 8.10 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 9: Co-treatment of Faecal Sludge in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants
    • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 9.2 FAECAL SLUDGE BIODEGRADABILITY AND FRACTIONATION
      • 9.2.1 Characterisation ratios
      • 9.2.2 Biodegradability and fractionation
      • 9.2.3 Faecal sludge strength
    • 9.3 CO-TREATMENT IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS
      • 9.3.1 Influence on removal effi ciencies and effluent quality
      • 9.3.2 Effects on oxygen demand
      • 9.3.3 Impact on sludge generation
      • 9.3.4 Impact on aeration requirements
      • 9.3.5 Impact on secondary settling tanks
      • 9.3.6 Effects of the dynamic discharge of faecal sludge
    • 9.4 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CO-TREATMENT OF FAECAL SLUDGE IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS
    • 9.5 ANAEROBIC CO-TREATMENT OF FAECAL SLUDGE
      • 9.5.1 COD overloading
        • UASB
        • Anaerobic digesters
        • Ponds
      • 9.5.2 Ammonia inhibition
      • 9.5.3 pH variations
      • 9.5.4 Sulphide inhibition
    • 9.6 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CO-TREATMENT OF FAECAL SLUDGE IN ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS
    • 9.7 CONCLUSIONS
    • 9.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 10: Enduse of Treatment Products
    • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 10.2 RESOURCE RECOVERY OPTIONS
    • 10.3 GENERAL CONCERNS
      • 10.3.1 Pathogens
      • 10.3.2 Heavy metals
      • 10.3.3 Social factors
    • 10.4 USE OF FAECAL SLUDGE AS A SOIL CONDITIONER
      • 10.4.1 Nutrient content
      • 10.4.2 Untreated faecal sludge
        • Deep row entrenchment
        • Land application
      • 10.4.3 Treated faecal sludge in land application
        • Sludge from drying beds
        • Co-composting
        • Vermicomposting
        • Pellets
    • 10.5 USE OF LIQUID STREAMS
      • 10.5.1 Untreated liquid faecal sludge in irrigation
      • 10.5.2 Treated effluent enduse and disposal
    • 10.6 ADDITIONALFORMS OF RESOURCE RECOVERY
      • 10.6.1 Protein
      • 10.6.2 Fodder and plants
      • 10.6.3 Fish and plants
      • 10.6.4 Building materials
      • 10.6.5 Biofuels
        • Biogas
        • Incineration/co-combustion
        • Pyrolysis/gasifi cation
        • Biodiesel
    • 10.7 GRIT SCREENINGS
    • 10.13 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 11: Operation, Maintenance and Monitoring of Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant
    • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 11.2 INTEGRATING O&M INTO THE FAECAL SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANT PLANNING PROCESS
      • 11.2.1 Location of the faecal sludge treatment plant
      • 11.2.2 Volumes and schedules of faecal sludge delivery
      • 11.2.3 Availability of local resources
      • 11.2.4 Degree of mechanisation of technologies
      • 11.2.5 Final enduse or disposal of treatment products
    • 11.3 RECEIVING FAECAL SLUDGE AT THE TREATMENT PLANT
      • 11.3.1 Traffic control
      • 11.3.2 Approving faecal sludge for discharge
    • 11.4 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE PLANS
      • 11.4.1 Operational procedures
      • 11.4.2 Maintenance procedures
    • 11.5 ASSET MANAGEMENT
    • 11.6 MONITORING
      • 11.6.1 Monitoring of physical-chemical and microbiological parameters
      • 11.6.2 Analysis manual
    • 11.7 RECORDKEEPING
      • 11.7.1 Operator’s log book
      • 11.7.2 Reception monitoring reports
      • 11.7.3 Treatment unit operation sheets
      • 11.7.4 Interpretation and communication of technical data
    • 11.8 PLANT SECURITY AND SAFETY
      • 11.8.1 Health and safety
      • 11.8.2 Personal protective equipment
      • 11.8.3 Infection control
      • 11.8.4 Emergency contact procedures
      • 11.8.5 Protection against falling and drowning hazards
      • 11.8.6 Confined spaces
      • 11.8.7 Electrical safety
    • 11.9 ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT
      • 11.9.1 Financial procedures
      • 11.9.2 Human resource management
      • 11.9.3 Staffing, roles and responsibilities
        • Plant superintendent
        • Plant engineer
        • Plant operator
        • Plant maintenance technician
    • 11.10 COORDINATION
    • 11.11 STARTUP PERIOD
    • 11.12 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 12: Institutional Frameworks for Faecal Sludge Management
    • 12.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 12.2 SUCCESS FACTORS
    • 12.3 ENABLING REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
    • 12.4 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
      • 12.4.1 Overview of the service chain organisation
      • 12.4.2 Role distribution among the stakeholders
      • 12.4.3 Institutional arrangements for colection and transport
      • 12.4.4 Institutional arrangements for treatment of faecal sludge
      • 12.4.5 Institutional arrangements for enduse and disposal
    • 12.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 13: Financial Transfers and Responsibility in Faecal Sludge Management Chains
    • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 13.2 FINANCIAL MODELS
      • 13.2.1 Stakeholders involved in financial transfers
      • 13.2.2 Financial transfers
    • 13.3 FINANCIAL FLOW MODELS
    • 13.4 FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE OF A COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE
      • 13.4.1 Future perspectives
      • 13.4.2 Case study example
      • 13.4.3 Problem information
    • 13.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 14: Assessment of the Initial Situation
    • 14.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 14.2 TOOLS AND METHODS FOR DATA COLLECTION
      • 14.2.1 Literature review
      • 14.2.2 Semi-structured interviews
      • 14.2.3 Household-level surveys
      • 14.2.4 Qualitative field observations
      • 14.2.5 Mapping
      • 14.2.6 Laboratory analyses
      • 14.2.7 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis
    • 14.3 DATA TO BE COLLECTED
      • 14.3.1 General context
      • 14.3.2 Sanitation sector
      • 14.3.3 Profile of manual and mechanical service providers
      • 14.3.4 Practices at household level
      • 14.3.5 Legal and regulatory framework
      • 14.3.6 Estimation of design parameters
      • 14.3.7 Climatic data
      • 14.3.8 Spatial data and city structure
      • 14.3.9 Enduse practices and market studies
    • 14.4 CHARACTERISATION, EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF TREATMENT SITES
      • 14.4.1 Identification of treatment sites
      • 14.4.2 Characterisation and evaluation criteria
      • 14.4.3 Number of sites
      • 14.4.4 Sludge from manual emptying
    • 14.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 15: Stakeholder Analysis
    • 15.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 15.2 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS: WHY AND HOW
    • 15.3 IDENTIFICATION OF STAKEHOLDERS
      • 15.3.1 Faecal sludge management stakeholders
      • 15.3.2 Differences between large and medium-sized cities
    • 15.4 CHARACTERISATION OF STAKEHOLDERS
      • 15.4.1 Information to be collected
      • 15.4.2 Influence and interest
      • 15.4.3 Selection criteria for key stakeholders
      • 15.4.4 Amalgamation of FSM stakeholders' main characteristics and involvement needs
      • 15.4.5 Practical problems faced by faecal sludge management stakeholders
    • 15.5 IN PRACTICE: ITERATIVE SELECTION OF KEY STAKEHOLDERS
      • 15.5.1 STEP1: Identification and preliminary characterisation of the stakeholders
      • 15.5.2 STEP 2: Characterisation and selection of the key stakeholders
      • 15.5.3 STEP 3: Reassessment of the key stakeholders according to the validated options
      • 15.5.4 STEP 4: Reassessment according to the Action Plan
      • 15.5.5 STEP 5: Reassessment before the inauguration of the faecal sludge management plant
    • 15.6 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 16: Stakeholder Engagement
    • 16.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 16.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGAGING STAKEHOLDERS
    • 16.3 PARTICIPATION LEVELS
      • 16.3.1 From information to delegation
      • 16.3.2 Determination of the participation levels based on the stakeholder analysis
      • 16.3.3 The stakeholder participation matrix
    • 16.4 INVOLVEMENT TOOLS
      • 16.4.1 List of involvement tools
      • 16.4.2 Determining the most appropriate involvement tools
    • 16.5 MILESTONES AND CROSS-CUTTING TASKS
      • 16.5.1 Main milestones in the participatory process
      • 16.5.2 Raising awareness
      • 16.5.3 Training and capacity building
    • 16.6 DISTRIBUTING AND FORMALISING ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
      • 16.6.1 Formalisation documents
      • 16.6.2 Diagram of relationships
    • 16.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 17: Planning Integrated Faecal Sludge Management Systems
    • 17.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 17.2 NEED FOR AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
      • 17.2.1 Understanding and working towards an enabling environment
      • 17.2.2 The importance of a participatory approach
    • 17.3 PROPOSAL OF A PLANNING APPROACH AND LOGICAL FRAMEWORK
      • 17.3.1 Exploratory and preliminary studies
      • 17.3.2 Feasibility study
      • 17.3.3 Detailed project development-Action Planning
      • 17.3.4 Implementation
      • 17.3.5 Monitoring and evaluation
    • 17.4 SELECTING CONTEXT-APPROPRIATE TECHNICAL OPTIONS
      • 17.4.1 Combination of services
      • 17.4.2 Criteria for selection of treatment options
      • 17.4.3 Elimination-based approach
      • 17.4.4 Sanitation system proposal
    • 17.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Chapter 18: The Way Forward
    • 18.1 INTRODUCTION
      • 18.1.1 Acknowledging the importance of FSM
      • 18.1.2 Setting up frameworks and responsibilities
      • 18.1.3 Increasing knowledge dissemination and capacity development
      • 18.1.4 Creating sustainable business models and fee structures
      • 18.1.5 Implementingintegrated planning methodologies
      • 18.1.6 Developing appropriate technologies
    • 18.2 CHARACTERISATION OF FAECAL SLUDGE
    • 18.3 COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT
    • 18.4 SEMI-CENTRALISED TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
    • 18.5 ONSITE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
    • 18.6 RESOURCE RECOVERY
    • 18.7 FINAL REMARKS
    • 18.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY
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