Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs
L. Kieven
Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs

This title is available online in its entirety in Open Access. This publication provides a new understanding of the religious function of the East Javanese temples. The study of the cap-figures and their symbolism yields an outstanding contribution to the uniqueness of Majapahit culture.

Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs: A New Look at the Religious Function of East Javanese Temples, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
Technical notes
List of figures, tables, and plates
I: Introduction
introducing the subject
previous research
II: Narrative reliefs and panji stories
narrative reliefs and literary traditions
panji stories
the literary genre
previous research
symbolism of the panji stories
narratives, panji stories, and performing arts
III: Iconography of the Late East Javanese temple reliefs
iconographical conventions in the late east javanese temple reliefs
types of characters
types of postures
types of place
the cap-figures
the term ‘cap’
iconography and classification
the kadeyan: gambyok relief and grogol statues
the gambyok relief
the grogol statues
further kertolo statues
IV: Temples in context of religion and politics
architecture of the majapahit period
the religious belief systems: saiwism and buddhism
religious practices in majapahit temples
the politics of majapahit
temples in the ‘unity of the realm’
the decline of majapahit – mountain sanctuaries
water and mountain in ancient javanese mythology and art
V: Table of depictions of cap-figures in Majapahit art in chronological order
selection of case studies
VI: Candi Jago: The cap, a new fashion of headgear
layout and architecture
history and function
reliefs with cap-figures
tantri stories
angling dharma story
kunjarakarna story
sudhanakumara-awadana story
VII: Candi Panataran: Panji, introducing the pilgrim into the Tantric doctrine
layout and architecture
history and function
iconography and interpretation of the reliefs with cap-figures
the outer bathing place
the pendopo terrace (C)
analysis of the symbolic meaning of the reliefs on the pendopo terrace
the naga temple (E)
the small pendopo terrace (F)
the dwarapala in front of the main temple
the main temple (G)/(H)
the inner bathing place (I)
VIII: Candi Surowono: Sidapaksa, a nobleman with a cap
layout and architecture
history and function
iconography and interpretation of the narrative reliefs
the sri tanjung reliefs
the arjunawiwaha reliefs and the bubukshah reliefs
cross-references between the three narrative relief series
addendum: further cap-figures
IX: Candi Mirigambar: Panji, the ideal lover and warrior
layout and architecture
history and function
iconography and interpretation of the narrative reliefs
X: Sanctuaries on Mount Penanggungan: Candi Kendalisodo, Candi Yudha, and the Panji statue from Candi Selokelir – the climax
geographical situation and layout of the sanctuaries
history and function of the sites
candi kendalisodo
candi yudha
the panji statue from candi selokelir
XI: Conclusion: Panji and the Cap-figure as intermediary characters on the path to Tantric rituals
Appendix: Previous research on the single case studies
Glossary: Javanese and Old Javanese terms
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