Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs

Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs

By L. Kieven
Book Description

This title is available online in its entirety in Open Access. This publication provides a new understanding of the religious function of the East Javanese temples. The study of the cap-figures and their symbolism yields an outstanding contribution to the uniqueness of Majapahit culture.

Table of Contents
  • Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs: A New Look at the Religious Function of East Javanese Temples, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgements
  • Technical notes
  • List of figures, tables, and plates
  • I: Introduction
    • introducing the subject
    • previous research
    • methodology
    • outline
  • II: Narrative reliefs and panji stories
    • narrative reliefs and literary traditions
    • panji stories
      • the literary genre
      • previous research
      • symbolism of the panji stories
    • narratives, panji stories, and performing arts
  • III: Iconography of the Late East Javanese temple reliefs
    • iconographical conventions in the late east javanese temple reliefs
      • types of characters
      • types of postures
      • types of place
    • the cap-figures
      • the term ‘cap’
      • iconography and classification
    • the kadeyan: gambyok relief and grogol statues
      • the gambyok relief
      • the grogol statues
      • further kertolo statues
  • IV: Temples in context of religion and politics
    • architecture of the majapahit period
    • the religious belief systems: saiwism and buddhism
    • tantrism
    • religious practices in majapahit temples
    • the politics of majapahit
    • temples in the ‘unity of the realm’
    • the decline of majapahit – mountain sanctuaries
    • water and mountain in ancient javanese mythology and art
  • V: Table of depictions of cap-figures in Majapahit art in chronological order
    • selection of case studies
  • VI: Candi Jago: The cap, a new fashion of headgear
    • layout and architecture
    • history and function
    • reliefs with cap-figures
      • tantri stories
      • angling dharma story
      • kunjarakarna story
      • sudhanakumara-awadana story
    • conclusion
  • VII: Candi Panataran: Panji, introducing the pilgrim into the Tantric doctrine
    • layout and architecture
    • history and function
    • iconography and interpretation of the reliefs with cap-figures
      • the outer bathing place
      • the pendopo terrace (C)
      • analysis of the symbolic meaning of the reliefs on the pendopo terrace
      • the naga temple (E)
      • the small pendopo terrace (F)
      • the dwarapala in front of the main temple
      • the main temple (G)/(H)
      • the inner bathing place (I)
    • conclusion
  • VIII: Candi Surowono: Sidapaksa, a nobleman with a cap
    • layout and architecture
    • history and function
    • iconography and interpretation of the narrative reliefs
      • the sri tanjung reliefs
      • the arjunawiwaha reliefs and the bubukshah reliefs
    • cross-references between the three narrative relief series
    • conclusion
    • addendum: further cap-figures
  • IX: Candi Mirigambar: Panji, the ideal lover and warrior
    • layout and architecture
    • history and function
    • iconography and interpretation of the narrative reliefs
    • conclusion
  • X: Sanctuaries on Mount Penanggungan: Candi Kendalisodo, Candi Yudha, and the Panji statue from Candi Selokelir – the climax
    • geographical situation and layout of the sanctuaries
    • history and function of the sites
    • candi kendalisodo
    • candi yudha
    • the panji statue from candi selokelir
    • conclusion
  • XI: Conclusion: Panji and the Cap-figure as intermediary characters on the path to Tantric rituals
  • Appendix: Previous research on the single case studies
  • Glossary: Javanese and Old Javanese terms
  • Bibliography
  • Index
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