Leak Detection: Technology and Implementation
Free

Leak Detection: Technology and Implementation

By Stuart Hamilton
Free
Book Description

Ageing infrastructure and declining water resources are major concerns with a growing global population.  Controlling water loss has therefore become a priority for water utilities around the world. In order to improve efficiencies, water utilities need to apply good practices in leak detection. Leak Detection: Technology and Implementation assists water utilities with the development and implementation of leak detection programs. Leak detection and repair is one of the components of controlling water loss.  In addition, techniques are discussed within this book and relevant case studies are presented. This book provides useful and practical information on leakage issues.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Contents
  • About the Authors
    • Principal Author
    • Authors
    • Contributing Authors
    • Acknowledgements
    • Further acknowledgement
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: The technology matrices
    • 2.1 MAIN PIPELINES ONLY - HIGH PRESSURE
    • 2.2 MAIN PIPELINES ONLY - LOW PRESSURE
    • 2.3 DOMESTIC & MAINS FITTINGS - HIGH PRESSURE
    • 2.4 DOMESTIC & MAINS FITTINGS - LOW PRESSURE
  • Chapter 3: Acoustic principles
    • 3.1 HISTORY OF ACOUSTICS
    • 3.2 PROPAGATION
    • 3.3 RESONANCE
    • 3.4 ATTENUATION
    • 3.5 ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE
  • Chapter 4: Leak detection technologies
    • 4.1 METHOD A: GAS INJECTION METHOD
    • 4.2 METHOD B: MANUAL LISTENING STICK
    • 4.3 METHODS C AND D: LEAK NOISE CORRELATION
    • 4.4 METHOD C: CORRELATION USING ACCELEROMETERS
    • 4.5 METHOD D: CORRELATION USING HYDROPHONES
      • 4.5.1 Technologies for leak noise correlation
        • 4.5.1.1 Radio based correlator
        • 4.5.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of radio-based correlators
          • Advantages
          • Disadvantages
        • 4.5.1.3 Multi-point correlating loggers
        • 4.5.1.4 Advantages and disadvantages of multi-point correlating loggers
          • Advantages
          • Disadvantages
        • 4.5.1.5 Noise loggers with correlation mode
        • 4.5.1.6 Advantages and disadvantages of noise loggers with correlation mode
          • Advantages
          • Disadvantages
      • 4.5.2 Sources of error in correlation
        • 4.5.2.1 Knowledge of pipe network
        • 4.5.2.2 The sound velocity problem
        • 4.5.2.3 Location of non-leak noises
    • 4.6 METHOD E: IN-LINE LEAK DETECTION TECHNIQUES
      • 4.6.1 Tethered systems
      • 4.6.2 Free swimming systems
    • 4.7 METHOD F: NOISE LOGGERS
      • 4.7.1 Direct download
      • 4.7.2 Drive by patrol
        • 4.7.2.1 Fixed
        • 4.7.2.2 Survey
      • 4.7.3 Lift and shift
      • 4.7.4 Permanent installation
      • 4.7.5 Conclusion
    • 4.8 METHOD G: ELECTRONIC AMPLIFIED LISTENING DEVICES
      • 4.8.1 Operational practice
        • 4.8.1.1 Survey by listening at fittings – electronic listening “stick” accessory
        • 4.8.1.2 Survey/pinpointing by surface sounding “elephants foot” – hard ground
        • 4.8.1.3 Operational efficiency – survey vs. confirmation
        • 4.8.1.4 Use where poor noise transmission along the pipe renders other techniques ineffective
      • 4.8.2 Advanced features
        • 4.8.2.1 Filters
        • 4.8.2.2 Memory comparison
        • 4.8.2.3 Amplification
      • 4.8.3 Advantages and disadvantages
        • Advantages
        • Disadvantages
      • 4.8.4 Conclusions
    • 4.9 OTHER TECHNIQUES
      • 4.9.1 Thermal imaging
        • 4.9.1.1 Low level surveys
        • 4.9.1.2 Higher level surveys
      • 4.9.2 Ground Penetrating Radar
      • 4.9.3 Ultrac method
      • 4.9.4 Optimization tools for leak location
      • 4.9.5 Optimization principle
      • 4.9.6 System evaluation
      • 4.9.7 Field data process
      • 4.9.8 Optimization analysis
      • 4.9.9 Post-optimization analysis
      • 4.9.10 Step testing
      • 4.9.11 Principles of step testing
      • 4.9.12 Advances in step testing
  • Chapter 5: Case studies
    • 5.1 CASE STUDY: NEW BRAUNFELS UTILITIES (NBU), TEXAS, USA CUTS WATER LOSS BY 50%
      • 5.1.1 Abstract
      • 5.1.2 Introduction
      • 5.1.3 Problem description
      • 5.1.4 Solution provided
      • 5.1.5 Results obtained
    • 5.2 CASE STUDY: LIFT AND SHIFT’ LEAK MONITORING REDUCES LOSSES AND COSTS FOR VEOLIAWATER
      • 5.2.1 Abstract
      • 5.2.2 Introduction
      • 5.2.3 Problem description
      • 5.2.4 Solution provided
      • 5.2.5 Results obtained
    • 5.3 CASE STUDY: LEAK NOISE CORRELATOR AND GROUND MICROPHONE TECHNOLOGY USED IN ZIBO CITY, SHANDONG, CHINA TO PINPOINT LEAKS IN THEIR NETWORK
      • 5.3.1 Abstract
      • 5.3.2 Introduction
      • 5.3.3 Problem description
      • 5.3.4 Solution provided
      • 5.3.5 Results obtained
    • 5.4 CASE STUDY: REDUCING LEAKAGE AT THAMES WATER
      • 5.4.1 Abstract
      • 5.4.2 Introduction
      • 5.4.3 Problem description
      • 5.4.4 Solution provided
      • 5.4.5 Results obtained
    • 5.5 CASE STUDY: LEAK DETECTION FOR ANKARAWATER AND SEWERAGE ADMINISTRATION (ASKI)
      • 5.5.1 Abstract
      • 5.5.2 Introduction
      • 5.5.3 Problem description
      • 5.5.4 Solution provided
      • 5.5.5 Results obtained
    • 5.6 CASE STUDY: LEAK DETECTION PROGRAM IN MANILA, PHILIPPINES
      • 5.6.1 Abstract
      • 5.6.2 Introduction
      • 5.6.3 Problem description
      • 5.6.4 Solution provided
      • 5.6.5 Results achieved
    • 5.7 CASE STUDY: LONG DISTANCE LARGE PIPELINE INSPECTION
      • 5.7.1 Abstract
      • 5.7.2 Introduction
      • 5.7.3 Problem description
      • 5.7.4 Solution provided
      • 5.7.5 Results obtained
    • 5.8 CASE STUDY: POTABLE WATER PIPELINE INSPECTION IN NORTH AMERICA
      • 5.8.1 Abstract
      • 5.8.2 Introduction
      • 5.8.3 Problem description
      • 5.8.4 Solution provided
      • 5.8.5 Results obtained
  • Chapter 6: Paper 1: Water balance - From the desk top to the field
    • Summary
    • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 6.2 WATER AUDIT
    • 6.3 ASSESSING LOSSES - IWAWATER BALANCE
    • 6.4 CASE STUDY EXAMPLES
      • 6.4.1 Top down approach
      • 6.4.2 Bottom up audit - case study to show bottom up and top down comparisons
      • 6.4.3 Benchmarking of non-revenue water
    • 6.5 CONCLUSIONS
    • FURTHER READING
  • Chapter 7: Paper 2: Intermittent supply leakage nexus
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 7.2 WATER RESOURCES AT GREAT RISK
    • 7.3 WATER LOSS MINIMISATION
    • 7.4 THE WATER BOARD OF LEMESOS CASE STUDY
      • 7.4.1 The distribution network
      • 7.4.2 Water supply conditions
      • 7.4.3 Effects of intermittent supply
      • 7.4.4 Cost of intermittent supply
    • 7.5 CONCLUSIONS
    • FURTHER READING
  • Chapter 8: Paper 3: The problem of leakage detection on large diameter mains
    • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 8.2 BACKGROUND
      • 8.2.1 Human ear frequency range
    • 8.3 CASE STUDIES
    • 8.4 LIFE OF A LEAK
    • 8.5 HZ– LEAK NOISE
    • 8.6 CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    • FURTHER READING
  • Chapter 9: Paper 4: Technology - How far can we go?†
    • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 9.2 BACKGROUND
    • 9.3 WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY?
    • 9.4 ACTIVE LEAKAGE CONTROL
    • 9.5 WATERPIPE
    • 9.6 LEAKING
    • 9.7 PRESSURE MANAGEMENT
    • 9.8 SPEED AND QUALITY OF REPAIRS
    • 9.9 RENEWAL OF PIPELINES
    • 9.10 METHODOLOGIES IN REDUCING APPARENT LOSSES
    • 9.11 METER ERROR - METER UNDER REGISTRATION
    • 9.12 AUTOMATIC METER READING
    • 9.13 SOFTWARE
    • 9.14 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
    • 9.15 SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS
    • 9.16 INNOVATION IN THE FUTURE - CONCLUSIONS
    • FURTHER READING
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