Physiological Researches on Life and Death
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Physiological Researches on Life and Death

By Xavier Bichat
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Book Description
Table of Contents
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCHES ON LIFE AND DEATH,
  • TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE.
  • ADVERTISEMENT BY THE FRENCH EDITOR.
  • CONTENTS OF THE WORK.
  • PART THE FIRST.
    • CHAPTER I. GENERAL DIVISION OF LIFE.[1]
      • I. Division of Life into Animal and Organic Life.[3]
      • II. Subdivision of each of the two lives into two orders of functions.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER II. GENERAL DIFFERENCES OF THE TWO LIVES WITH REGARD TO THE OUTWARD FORM OF THEIR RESPECTIVE ORGANS.
      • I. Symmetry of the external forms of the animal life.[6]
      • II. Irregularity of the exterior forms of the organic life.
      • III. Consequences resulting from the difference of exterior form in the organs of the two lives.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER III. GENERAL DIFFERENCE OF THE TWO LIVES WITH REGARD TO THE MODE OF ACTION OF THEIR RESPECTIVE ORGANS.
      • I. Of harmony of action in the animal life.
      • II. Of discordance of action in the organic life.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER IV. GENERAL DIFFERENCES OF THE TWO LIVES WITH RESPECT TO DURATION OF ACTION.
      • I. Of continuity of action in the organic life.
      • II. Of intermission of action in the organic life.
      • III. Application of the law of intermission of action to the theory of sleep.
    • FOOTNOTE:
    • CHAPTER V. GENERAL DIFFERENCES OF THE TWO LIVES WITH RESPECT TO HABIT.
      • I. Of habit in the animal life.
      • II. Habit blunts the sentiment.
      • III. Habit improves the judgment.
      • IV. Of habit in the organic life.
    • FOOTNOTE:
    • CHAPTER VI. GENERAL DIFFERENCES OF THE TWO LIVES WITH RESPECT TO MENTAL AFFECTION.
      • I. Whatever relates to the understanding belongs to the animal life.
      • II. Whatever relates to the passions belongs to the organic life.
      • III. The passions modify the actions of the animal life though seated in the organic life.
      • IV. Of the epigastric centre.—It does not exist in the sense, which Authors have pretended.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VII. GENERAL DIFFERENCES OF THE TWO LIVES WITH RESPECT TO VITAL POWER.
      • I. Difference between vital power and physical law.
      • II. Difference between the vital properties and those of texture.
      • III. Of the two kinds of sensibility; of the animal and organic sensibilities.
      • IV. Of the relation which exists between the sensibility of each organ, and foreign bodies.
      • V. Of the two kinds of contractility, the animal, and the organic contractility.
      • VI. Subdivision of the Organic contractility into two Varieties.[30]
      • VII. Of the extensibility and contractility of texture.
      • VIII. Recapitulation of the properties of living bodies.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VIII. OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANIMAL LIFE.
      • I. In the fœtus the first order of the functions of the animal life is not as yet in action.
      • II. Locomotion exists, but belongs in the fœtus to the organic life.
      • III. Development of the animal life, education of its organs.
      • IV. Of the influence of society over the education of the organs of the animal life.
      • V. Of the laws, which regulate the education of the organs of the animal life.
      • VI. Of the education of the animal life as to duration.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER IX. OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANIC LIFE.
      • I. Of the mode of the organic life in the fœtus.
      • II. Development of the organic life after birth.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER X. OF THE NATURAL TERMINATION OF THE TWO LIVES.
      • I. In Natural Death the animal life is the first to cease.
      • II. The Organic Life in natural death does not terminate as it does in accidental death.
    • FOOTNOTES:
  • PART THE SECOND.
    • CHAPTER I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON DEATH.
    • CHAPTER II. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE HEART, OVER THAT OF THE BRAIN.
      • I. In what way does the cessation of the functions of the red-blooded heart interrupt the functions of the brain?
      • II. In what way does the cessation of the functions of the black-blooded heart interrupt the functions of the brain?
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER III. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE HEART OVER THAT OF THE LUNGS.
      • I. In what manner are the actions of the lungs interrupted, when the black-blooded heart ceases to act?
      • II. In what manner are the actions of the lungs interrupted, when those of the red-blooded heart are suspended?
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER IV. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE HEART OVER THAT OF ALL THE ORGANS.
      • I. On the death of the red-blooded heart, and how that of the organs is occasioned by it.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER V. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE HEART AS TO THE PRODUCTION OF GENERAL DEATH.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VI. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE LUNGS OVER THAT OF THE HEART.
      • I. In what manner is the death of the heart occasioned by the interruption of the mechanical functions of the lungs?
      • II. Why does the heart cease to act, when the chemical functions of the lungs are interrupted?
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VII. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE LUNGS OVER THAT OF THE BRAIN.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VIII. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE LUNGS OVER THAT OF THE ORGANS IN GENERAL.
      • I. Exposition of the phenomena of the production of black blood, when the chemical functions of the lungs are suspended.
      • II. The blood which has been blackened in consequence of the interruption of the chemical functions of the lungs penetrates into the organs, and circulates for some time in the vascular system of the red blood.
      • III. The black blood which penetrates the organs, as soon as the chemical functions of the lungs have ceased, will not maintain them in a state of life and activity.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER IX. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE LUNGS, OVER THE GENERAL DEATH OF THE BODY.
      • I. Remarks upon the differences of asphyxiæ.
      • II. In the greater number of diseases, death commences in the lungs.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER X. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE BRAIN OVER THAT OF THE LUNGS.
      • I. Is it directly that the lungs cease to act upon the death of the brain?
      • II. Is it indirectly that the lungs cease to act upon the death of the brain?
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XI. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE BRAIN OVER THAT OF THE HEART.
      • I. Does the Heart cease to act immediately in consequence of the interruption of the cerebral action?
      • II. In case of lesion of the brain, is the death of the heart occasioned by that of any intermediate organ?
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XII. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE BRAIN OVER THAT OF ALL THE ORGANS.
      • I. Is the interruption of the functions of the organic life a direct consequence of the cessation of the cerebral actions?
      • II. Is the interruption of the functions of the organic life, the indirect effect of the cessation of the cerebral action?
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XIII. OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEATH OF THE BRAIN OVER THAT OF THE BODY IN GENERAL.
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