Early European History
Free
Early European History
By Hutton Webster
Free
Book Description

Table of Contents
  • EARLY EUROPEAN HISTORY
  • PREFACE
  • CONTENTS
    • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
  • LIST OF MAPS
  • LIST OF PLATES
  • SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
    • PERIODICALS
      • SYLLABI
      • GENERAL WORKS
      • PREHISTORIC TIMES
      • ORIENTAL HISTORY
      • GREEK AND ROMAN HISTORY
      • MEDIEVAL HISTORY
      • TRANSITION TO MODERN TIMES
    • SYLLABI
    • GENERAL WORKS
    • PREHISTORIC TIMES
    • ORIENTAL HISTORY
    • GREEK AND ROMAN HISTORY
    • MEDIEVAL HISTORY
    • TRANSITION TO MODERN TIMES
  • CHAPTER I
    • 1. THE STUDY OF HISTORY
      • 2. PREHISTORIC PEOPLES
      • 3. DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS
      • 4. WRITING AND THE ALPHABET
      • 5. PRIMITIVE SCIENCE AND ART
      • 6. HISTORIC PEOPLES
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 2. PREHISTORIC PEOPLES
    • 3. DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS
    • 4. WRITING AND THE ALPHABET
    • 5. PRIMITIVE SCIENCE AND ART
    • 6. HISTORIC PEOPLES
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER II
    • 7. PHYSICAL ASIA
      • 8. BABYLONIA AND EGYPT
      • 9. THE BABYLONIANS AND THE EGYPTIANS
      • 10. THE PHOENICIANS AND THE HEBREWS
      • 11. THE ASSYRIANS
      • 12. THE WORLD EMPIRE OF PERSIA
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 8. BABYLONIA AND EGYPT
    • 9. THE BABYLONIANS AND THE EGYPTIANS
    • 10. THE PHOENICIANS AND THE HEBREWS
    • 11. THE ASSYRIANS
    • 12. THE WORLD EMPIRE OF PERSIA
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER III
    • 13. SOCIAL CLASSES
      • 14. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
      • 15. COMMERCE AND TRADE ROUTES
      • 16. LAW AND MORALITY
      • 17. RELIGION
      • 18. LITERATURE AND ART
      • 19. SCIENCE AND EDUCATION
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 14. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
    • 15. COMMERCE AND TRADE ROUTES
    • 16. LAW AND MORALITY
    • 17. RELIGION
    • 18. LITERATURE AND ART
    • 19. SCIENCE AND EDUCATION
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER IV
    • 20. PHYSICAL EUROPE
      • 21. GREECE AND THE AEGEAN
      • 22. THE AEGEAN AGE (TO ABOUT 1100 B.C.)
      • 23. THE HOMERIC AGE (ABOUT 1100-750 B.C.)
      • 24. EARLY GREEK RELIGION
      • 25. RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS: ORACLES AND GAMES
      • 26. THE GREEK CITY-STATE
      • 27. THE GROWTH OF SPARTA (TO 500 B.C.)
      • 29. COLONIAL EXPANSION OF GREECE (ABOUT 750-500 B.C.)
      • 30. BONDS OF UNION AMONG THE GREEKS
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 21. GREECE AND THE AEGEAN
    • 22. THE AEGEAN AGE (TO ABOUT 1100 B.C.)
    • 23. THE HOMERIC AGE (ABOUT 1100-750 B.C.)
    • 24. EARLY GREEK RELIGION
    • 25. RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS: ORACLES AND GAMES
    • 26. THE GREEK CITY-STATE
    • 27. THE GROWTH OF SPARTA (TO 500 B.C.)
    • 29. COLONIAL EXPANSION OF GREECE (ABOUT 750-500 B.C.)
    • 30. BONDS OF UNION AMONG THE GREEKS
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER V
    • 31. THE PERILS OF HELLAS
      • 32. EXPEDITIONS OF DARIUS AGAINST GREECE
      • 33. XERXES AND THE GREAT PERSIAN WAR
      • 34. ATHENS UNDER THEMISTOCLES, ARISTIDES, AND CIMON
      • 35. ATHENS UNDER PERICLES
      • 36. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR, 431-404 B.C.
      • 37. THE SPARTAN AND THEBAN SUPREMACIES, 404-362 B.C.
      • 38. DECLINE OF THE CITY-STATE
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 32. EXPEDITIONS OF DARIUS AGAINST GREECE
    • 33. XERXES AND THE GREAT PERSIAN WAR
    • 34. ATHENS UNDER THEMISTOCLES, ARISTIDES, AND CIMON
    • 35. ATHENS UNDER PERICLES
    • 36. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR, 431-404 B.C.
    • 37. THE SPARTAN AND THEBAN SUPREMACIES, 404-362 B.C.
    • 38. DECLINE OF THE CITY-STATE
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER VI
    • 39. PHILIP AND THE RISE OF MACEDONIA
      • 40. DEMOSTHENES AND THE END OF GREEK FREEDOM
      • 41. ALEXANDER THE GREAT
      • 42. CONQUEST OF PERSIA AND THE FAR EAST, 334-323 B.C.
      • 43. THE WORK OF ALEXANDER
      • 44. HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS AND CITIES
      • 45. THE HELLENISTIC AGE
      • 46. THE GRAECO-ORIENTAL WORLD
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 40. DEMOSTHENES AND THE END OF GREEK FREEDOM
    • 41. ALEXANDER THE GREAT
    • 42. CONQUEST OF PERSIA AND THE FAR EAST, 334-323 B.C.
    • 43. THE WORK OF ALEXANDER
    • 44. HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS AND CITIES
    • 45. THE HELLENISTIC AGE
    • 46. THE GRAECO-ORIENTAL WORLD
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER VII
    • 47. ITALY AND SICILY
      • 48. THE PEOPLES OF ITALY
      • 49. THE ROMANS
      • 50. EARLY ROMAN SOCIETY
      • 51. ROMAN RELIGION
      • 52. THE ROMAN CITY-STATE
      • 53. EXPANSION OF ROME OVER ITALY, 509(?)-264 B.C.
      • 54. ITALY UNDER ROMAN RULE
      • 55. THE ROMAN ARMY
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 48. THE PEOPLES OF ITALY
    • 49. THE ROMANS
    • 50. EARLY ROMAN SOCIETY
    • 51. ROMAN RELIGION
    • 52. THE ROMAN CITY-STATE
    • 53. EXPANSION OF ROME OVER ITALY, 509(?)-264 B.C.
    • 54. ITALY UNDER ROMAN RULE
    • 55. THE ROMAN ARMY
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER VIII
    • 56. THE RIVALS: ROME AND CARTHAGE, 264-218 B.C.
      • 57. HANNIBAL AND THE GREAT PUNIC WAR, 218-201 B.C.
      • 58. ROMAN SUPREMACY IN THE WEST AND IN THE EAST, 201-133 B.C.
      • 59. THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD UNDER ROMAN RULE
      • 60. THE GRACCHI
      • 61. MARIUS AND SULLA
      • 62. POMPEY AND CAESAR
      • 63. THE WORK OF CAESAR
      • 64. ANTONY AND OCTAVIAN
      • 65. THE END OF AN EPOCH
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 57. HANNIBAL AND THE GREAT PUNIC WAR, 218-201 B.C.
    • 58. ROMAN SUPREMACY IN THE WEST AND IN THE EAST, 201-133 B.C.
    • 59. THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD UNDER ROMAN RULE
    • 60. THE GRACCHI
    • 61. MARIUS AND SULLA
    • 62. POMPEY AND CAESAR
    • 63. THE WORK OF CAESAR
    • 64. ANTONY AND OCTAVIAN
    • 65. THE END OF AN EPOCH
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER IX
    • 67. THE SUCCESSORS OF AUGUSTUS, 14-96 A.D.
      • 68. THE "GOOD EMPERORS," 96-180 A.D.
      • 69. THE PROVINCES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
      • 70. THE ROMAN LAW AND THE LATIN LANGUAGE
      • 71. THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
      • 72. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN THE FIRST AND SECOND CENTURIES
      • 73. THE GRAECO-ROMAN WORLD
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 68. THE "GOOD EMPERORS," 96-180 A.D.
    • 69. THE PROVINCES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    • 70. THE ROMAN LAW AND THE LATIN LANGUAGE
    • 71. THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    • 72. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN THE FIRST AND SECOND CENTURIES
    • 73. THE GRAECO-ROMAN WORLD
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER X
    • 74. THE "SOLDIER EMPERORS," 180-284 A.D.
      • 75. THE "ABSOLUTE EMPERORS," 284-395 A.D.
      • 76. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN THE THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES
      • 77. THE PREPARATION FOR CHRISTIANITY
      • 78. RISE AND SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
      • 79. THE PERSECUTIONS
      • 80. TRIUMPH OF CHRISTIANITY
      • 81. CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 75. THE "ABSOLUTE EMPERORS," 284-395 A.D.
    • 76. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN THE THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES
    • 77. THE PREPARATION FOR CHRISTIANITY
    • 78. RISE AND SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
    • 79. THE PERSECUTIONS
    • 80. TRIUMPH OF CHRISTIANITY
    • 81. CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XI
    • 82. GERMANY AND THE GERMANS
      • 83. BREAKING OF THE DANUBE BARRIER
      • 84. BREAKING OF THE RHINE BARRIER
      • 85. INROADS OF THE HUNS
      • 86. END OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE WEST, 476 A.D.
      • 87. GERMANIC INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 83. BREAKING OF THE DANUBE BARRIER
    • 84. BREAKING OF THE RHINE BARRIER
    • 85. INROADS OF THE HUNS
    • 86. END OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE WEST, 476 A.D.
    • 87. GERMANIC INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XII
    • 88. THE CLASSICAL CITY
      • 89. EDUCATION AND THE CONDITION OF CHILDREN
      • 90. MARRIAGE AND THE POSITION OF WOMEN
      • 91. THE HOME AND PRIVATE LIFE
      • 92. AMUSEMENTS
      • 93. SLAVERY
      • 94. GREEK LITERATURE
      • 95. GREEK PHILOSOPHY
      • 96. ROMAN LITERATURE
      • 97. GREEK ARCHITECTURE
      • 98. GREEK SCULPTURE
      • 99. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
      • 100. ARTISTIC ATHENS
      • 101. ARTISTIC ROME
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 89. EDUCATION AND THE CONDITION OF CHILDREN
    • 90. MARRIAGE AND THE POSITION OF WOMEN
    • 91. THE HOME AND PRIVATE LIFE
    • 92. AMUSEMENTS
    • 93. SLAVERY
    • 94. GREEK LITERATURE
    • 95. GREEK PHILOSOPHY
    • 96. ROMAN LITERATURE
    • 97. GREEK ARCHITECTURE
    • 98. GREEK SCULPTURE
    • 99. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
    • 100. ARTISTIC ATHENS
    • 101. ARTISTIC ROME
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XIII
    • 102. THE OSTROGOTHS IN ITALY, 488-553 A.D.
      • 103. THE LOMBARDS IN ITALY, 568-774 A.D.
      • 104. THE FRANKS UNDER CLOVIS AND HIS SUCCESSORS
      • 105. THE FRANKS UNDER CHARLES MARTEL AND PEPIN THE SHORT
      • 106. THE REIGN OF CHARLEMAGNE, 768-814 A.D.
      • 107. CHARLEMAGNE AND THE REVIVAL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 800 A.D.
      • 108. DISRUPTION OF CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE, 814-870 A.D.
      • 109. GERMANY UNDER THE SAXON KINGS, 919-973 A.D.
      • 110. OTTO THE GREAT AND THE RESTORATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 962 A.D.
      • 111. THE ANGLO-SAXONS IN BRITAIN, 449-839 A.D.
      • 112. CHRISTIANITY IN THE BRITISH ISLES
      • 113. THE FUSION OF GERMANS AND ROMANS
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 103. THE LOMBARDS IN ITALY, 568-774 A.D.
    • 104. THE FRANKS UNDER CLOVIS AND HIS SUCCESSORS
    • 105. THE FRANKS UNDER CHARLES MARTEL AND PEPIN THE SHORT
    • 106. THE REIGN OF CHARLEMAGNE, 768-814 A.D.
    • 107. CHARLEMAGNE AND THE REVIVAL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 800 A.D.
    • 108. DISRUPTION OF CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE, 814-870 A.D.
    • 109. GERMANY UNDER THE SAXON KINGS, 919-973 A.D.
    • 110. OTTO THE GREAT AND THE RESTORATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 962 A.D.
    • 111. THE ANGLO-SAXONS IN BRITAIN, 449-839 A.D.
    • 112. CHRISTIANITY IN THE BRITISH ISLES
    • 113. THE FUSION OF GERMANS AND ROMANS
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XIV
    • 114. THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE EAST
      • 115. THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN, 527-565 A.D.
      • 116. THE EMPIRE AND ITS ASIATIC FOES
      • 117. THE EMPIRE AND ITS FOES IN EUROPE
      • 118. BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION
      • 119. CONSTANTINOPLE
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 115. THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN, 527-565 A.D.
    • 116. THE EMPIRE AND ITS ASIATIC FOES
    • 117. THE EMPIRE AND ITS FOES IN EUROPE
    • 118. BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION
    • 119. CONSTANTINOPLE
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XV
    • 120. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
      • 121. EASTERN CHRISTIANITY
      • 122. WESTERN CHRISTIANITY: RISE OF THE PAPACY
      • 123. GROWTH OF THE PAPACY
      • 124. MONASTICISM
      • 125. LIFE AND WORK OF THE MONKS
      • 126. SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY OVER EUROPE
      • 127. SEPARATION OF EASTERN AND WESTERN CHRISTIANITY
      • 128. THE GREEK CHURCH
      • 129. THE ROMAN CHURCH
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 121. EASTERN CHRISTIANITY
    • 122. WESTERN CHRISTIANITY: RISE OF THE PAPACY
    • 123. GROWTH OF THE PAPACY
    • 124. MONASTICISM
    • 125. LIFE AND WORK OF THE MONKS
    • 126. SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY OVER EUROPE
    • 127. SEPARATION OF EASTERN AND WESTERN CHRISTIANITY
    • 128. THE GREEK CHURCH
    • 129. THE ROMAN CHURCH
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XVI
    • 130. ARABIA AND THE ARABS
      • 131. MOHAMMED: PROPHET AND STATESMAN, 622-632 A.D.
      • 132. ISLAM AND THE KORAN
      • 133. EXPANSION OF ISLAM IN ASIA AND EGYPT
      • 134. EXPANSION OF ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA AND SPAIN
      • 135. THE CALIPHATE AND ITS DISRUPTION, 632-1058 A.D.
      • 136. ARABIAN CIVILIZATION
      • 137. THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 131. MOHAMMED: PROPHET AND STATESMAN, 622-632 A.D.
    • 132. ISLAM AND THE KORAN
    • 133. EXPANSION OF ISLAM IN ASIA AND EGYPT
    • 134. EXPANSION OF ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA AND SPAIN
    • 135. THE CALIPHATE AND ITS DISRUPTION, 632-1058 A.D.
    • 136. ARABIAN CIVILIZATION
    • 137. THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAM
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XVII
    • 138. SCANDINAVIA AND THE NORTHMEN
      • 139. THE VIKING AGE
      • 140. SCANDINAVIAN HEATHENISM
      • 141. THE NORTHMEN IN THE WEST
      • 142. THE NORTHMEN IN THE EAST
      • 145. NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND; WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR
      • 146. RESULTS OF THE NORMAN CONQUEST
      • 147. NORMAN CONQUEST OF SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY
      • 148. THE NORMANS IN EUROPEAN HISTORY
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 139. THE VIKING AGE
    • 140. SCANDINAVIAN HEATHENISM
    • 141. THE NORTHMEN IN THE WEST
    • 142. THE NORTHMEN IN THE EAST
    • 145. NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND; WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR
    • 146. RESULTS OF THE NORMAN CONQUEST
    • 147. NORMAN CONQUEST OF SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY
    • 148. THE NORMANS IN EUROPEAN HISTORY
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XVIII
    • 149. RISE OF FEUDALISM
      • 150. FEUDALISM AS A SYSTEM OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
      • 151. FEUDAL JUSTICE
      • 152. FEUDAL WARFARE
      • 153. THE CASTLE AND LIFE OF THE NOBLES
      • 154. KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY
      • 155. FEUDALISM AS A SYSTEM OF LOCAL INDUSTRY
      • 156. THE VILLAGE AND LIFE OF THE PEASANTS
      • 157. SERFDOM
      • 158. DECLINE OF FEUDALISM
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 150. FEUDALISM AS A SYSTEM OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
    • 151. FEUDAL JUSTICE
    • 152. FEUDAL WARFARE
    • 153. THE CASTLE AND LIFE OF THE NOBLES
    • 154. KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY
    • 155. FEUDALISM AS A SYSTEM OF LOCAL INDUSTRY
    • 156. THE VILLAGE AND LIFE OF THE PEASANTS
    • 157. SERFDOM
    • 158. DECLINE OF FEUDALISM
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XIX
    • 159. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH
      • 160. CHURCH DOCTRINE AND WORSHIP
      • 161. CHURCH JURISDICTION
      • 162. THE SECULAR CLERGY
      • 163. THE REGULAR CLERGY
      • 164. THE FRIARS
      • 165. POWER OF THE PAPACY
      • 166. POPES AND EMPERORS, 962-1122 A.D.
      • 167. POPES AND EMPERORS, 1122-1273 A.D.
      • 168. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 160. CHURCH DOCTRINE AND WORSHIP
    • 161. CHURCH JURISDICTION
    • 162. THE SECULAR CLERGY
    • 163. THE REGULAR CLERGY
    • 164. THE FRIARS
    • 165. POWER OF THE PAPACY
    • 166. POPES AND EMPERORS, 962-1122 A.D.
    • 167. POPES AND EMPERORS, 1122-1273 A.D.
    • 168. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XX
    • 169. CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES
      • 170. FIRST CRUSADE, 1095-1099 A.D.
      • 171. CRUSADERS' STATES IN SYRIA
      • 172. SECOND CRUSADE, 1147-1149 A.D., AND THIRD CRUSADE, 1189-1192 A.D.
      • 173. FOURTH CRUSADE AND THE LATIN EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE, 1202-1261 A.D.
      • 174. RESULTS OF THE CRUSADES
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 170. FIRST CRUSADE, 1095-1099 A.D.
    • 171. CRUSADERS' STATES IN SYRIA
    • 172. SECOND CRUSADE, 1147-1149 A.D., AND THIRD CRUSADE, 1189-1192 A.D.
    • 173. FOURTH CRUSADE AND THE LATIN EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE, 1202-1261 A.D.
    • 174. RESULTS OF THE CRUSADES
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXI
    • 175. THE MONGOLS
      • 176. CONQUESTS OF THE MONGOLS, 1206-1405 A.D.
      • 177. THE MONGOLS IN CHINA AND INDIA
      • 178. THE MONGOLS IN EASTERN EUROPE
      • 179. THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THEIR CONQUESTS, 1227-1453 A.D.
      • 180. THE OTTOMAN TURKS IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 176. CONQUESTS OF THE MONGOLS, 1206-1405 A.D.
    • 177. THE MONGOLS IN CHINA AND INDIA
    • 178. THE MONGOLS IN EASTERN EUROPE
    • 179. THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THEIR CONQUESTS, 1227-1453 A.D.
    • 180. THE OTTOMAN TURKS IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXII
    • 181. GROWTH OF THE NATIONS
      • 182. ENGLAND UNDER WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, 1066-1087 A.D.; THE NORMAN KINGSHIP
      • 183. ENGLAND UNDER HENRY II, 1154-1189 A.D.; ROYAL JUSTICE AND THE COMMON LAW
      • 184. THE GREAT CHARTER, 1215 A.D.
      • 185. PARLIAMENT DURING THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
      • 186. EXPANSION OF ENGLAND UNDER EDWARD I, 1272-1307 A.D.
      • 187. UNIFICATION OF FRANCE, 987-1328 A.D.
      • 188. THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGLAND, 1337-1453 A.D.
      • 189. UNIFICATION OF SPAIN (TO 1492 A.D.)
      • 190. AUSTRIA AND THE SWISS CONFEDERATION, 1273-1499 A.D.
      • 191. EXPANSION OF GERMANY
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 182. ENGLAND UNDER WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, 1066-1087 A.D.; THE NORMAN KINGSHIP
    • 183. ENGLAND UNDER HENRY II, 1154-1189 A.D.; ROYAL JUSTICE AND THE COMMON LAW
    • 184. THE GREAT CHARTER, 1215 A.D.
    • 185. PARLIAMENT DURING THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
    • 186. EXPANSION OF ENGLAND UNDER EDWARD I, 1272-1307 A.D.
    • 187. UNIFICATION OF FRANCE, 987-1328 A.D.
    • 188. THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGLAND, 1337-1453 A.D.
    • 189. UNIFICATION OF SPAIN (TO 1492 A.D.)
    • 190. AUSTRIA AND THE SWISS CONFEDERATION, 1273-1499 A.D.
    • 191. EXPANSION OF GERMANY
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXIII
    • 192. GROWTH OF THE CITIES
      • 194. CIVIC INDUSTRY: THE GUILDS
      • 195. TRADE AND COMMERCE
      • 196. MONEY AND BANKING
      • 197. ITALIAN CITIES
      • 198. GERMAN CITIES: THE HANSEATIC LEAGUE
      • 199. THE CITIES OF FLANDERS
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 194. CIVIC INDUSTRY: THE GUILDS
    • 195. TRADE AND COMMERCE
    • 196. MONEY AND BANKING
    • 197. ITALIAN CITIES
    • 198. GERMAN CITIES: THE HANSEATIC LEAGUE
    • 199. THE CITIES OF FLANDERS
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXIV
    • 200. FORMATION OF NATIONAL LANGUAGES
      • 201. DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL LITERATURES
      • 202. ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE; THE CATHEDRALS
      • 203. EDUCATION; THE UNIVERSITIES
      • 204. SCHOLASTICISM
      • 205. SCIENCE AND MAGIC
      • 206. POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS
      • 207. POPULAR AMUSEMENTS AND FESTIVALS
      • 208. MANNERS AND CUSTOMS
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 201. DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL LITERATURES
    • 202. ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE; THE CATHEDRALS
    • 203. EDUCATION; THE UNIVERSITIES
    • 204. SCHOLASTICISM
    • 205. SCIENCE AND MAGIC
    • 206. POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS
    • 207. POPULAR AMUSEMENTS AND FESTIVALS
    • 208. MANNERS AND CUSTOMS
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXV
    • 209. MEANING OF THE RENAISSANCE
      • 210. REVIVAL OF LEARNING IN ITALY
      • 211. PAPER AND PRINTING
      • 212. REVIVAL OF ART IN ITALY
      • 213. REVIVAL OF LEARNING AND ART BEYOND ITALY
      • 214. THE RENAISSANCE IN LITERATURE
      • 215. THE RENAISSANCE IN EDUCATION
      • 216. THE SCIENTIFIC RENAISSANCE
      • 217. THE ECONOMIC RENAISSANCE
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 210. REVIVAL OF LEARNING IN ITALY
    • 211. PAPER AND PRINTING
    • 212. REVIVAL OF ART IN ITALY
    • 213. REVIVAL OF LEARNING AND ART BEYOND ITALY
    • 214. THE RENAISSANCE IN LITERATURE
    • 215. THE RENAISSANCE IN EDUCATION
    • 216. THE SCIENTIFIC RENAISSANCE
    • 217. THE ECONOMIC RENAISSANCE
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXVI
    • 218. MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHY
      • 219. AIDS TO EXPLORATION
      • 220. TO THE INDIES EASTWARD: PRINCE HENRY AND DA GAMA
      • 221. THE PORTUGUESE COLONIAL EMPIRE
      • 222. TO THE INDIES WESTWARD: COLUMBUS AND MAGELLAN
      • 223. THE INDIANS
      • 224. SPANISH EXPLORATIONS AND CONQUESTS IN AMERICA
      • 226. ENGLISH AND FRENCH EXPLORATIONS IN AMERICA
      • 227. THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 219. AIDS TO EXPLORATION
    • 220. TO THE INDIES EASTWARD: PRINCE HENRY AND DA GAMA
    • 221. THE PORTUGUESE COLONIAL EMPIRE
    • 222. TO THE INDIES WESTWARD: COLUMBUS AND MAGELLAN
    • 223. THE INDIANS
    • 224. SPANISH EXPLORATIONS AND CONQUESTS IN AMERICA
    • 226. ENGLISH AND FRENCH EXPLORATIONS IN AMERICA
    • 227. THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXVII
    • 228. DECLINE OF THE PAPACY
      • 229. HERESIES AND HERETICS
      • 230. MARTIN LUTHER AND THE BEGINNING OF THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY, 1517- 1522 A.D.
      • 231. CHARLES V AND THE SPREAD OF THE GERMAN REFORMATION, 1519-1556 A.D.
      • 232. THE REFORMATION IN SWITZERLAND; ZWINGLI AND CALVIN
      • 233. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION, 1533-1658 A.D.
      • 234. THE PROTESTANT SECTS
      • 235. THE CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION
      • 236. SPAIN UNDER PHILIP II, 1556-1598 A.D.
      • 237. REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS
      • 238. ENGLAND UNDER ELIZABETH, 1558-1603 A.D.
      • 239. THE HUGUENOT WARS IN FRANCE
      • 240. THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR, 1618-1648 A.D.
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 229. HERESIES AND HERETICS
    • 230. MARTIN LUTHER AND THE BEGINNING OF THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY, 1517- 1522 A.D.
    • 231. CHARLES V AND THE SPREAD OF THE GERMAN REFORMATION, 1519-1556 A.D.
    • 232. THE REFORMATION IN SWITZERLAND; ZWINGLI AND CALVIN
    • 233. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION, 1533-1658 A.D.
    • 234. THE PROTESTANT SECTS
    • 235. THE CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION
    • 236. SPAIN UNDER PHILIP II, 1556-1598 A.D.
    • 237. REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS
    • 238. ENGLAND UNDER ELIZABETH, 1558-1603 A.D.
    • 239. THE HUGUENOT WARS IN FRANCE
    • 240. THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR, 1618-1648 A.D.
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXVIII
    • 241. THE DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS
      • 242. THE ABSOLUTISM OF LOUIS XIV, 1661-1715 A.D.
      • 243. FRANCE UNDER LOUIS XIV
      • 244. THE WARS OF LOUIS XIV
      • 245. THE ABSOLUTISM OF THE STUARTS, 1603-1642 A.D.
      • 246. OLIVER CROMWELL AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1642-1649 A.D.
      • 247. THE COMMONWEALTH AND THE PROTECTORATE, 1649-1660 A.D.
      • 248. THE RESTORATION AND THE "GLORIOUS REVOLUTION," 1660-1689 A.D.
      • 249. ENGLAND IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
      • STUDIES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • 242. THE ABSOLUTISM OF LOUIS XIV, 1661-1715 A.D.
    • 243. FRANCE UNDER LOUIS XIV
    • 244. THE WARS OF LOUIS XIV
    • 245. THE ABSOLUTISM OF THE STUARTS, 1603-1642 A.D.
    • 246. OLIVER CROMWELL AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1642-1649 A.D.
    • 247. THE COMMONWEALTH AND THE PROTECTORATE, 1649-1660 A.D.
    • 248. THE RESTORATION AND THE "GLORIOUS REVOLUTION," 1660-1689 A.D.
    • 249. ENGLAND IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
    • STUDIES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • APPENDIX
    • TABLE OF EVENTS AND DATES
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