The Women of the Caesars
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The Women of the Caesars

By Guglielmo Ferrero
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Table of Contents
  • [Frontispiece: Livia, the wife of Augustus, superintending the weaving of robes for her family.]
  • THE WOMEN OF THE CAESARS
    • BY
      • GUGLIELMO FERRERO
      • NEW YORK THE CENTURY CO. MCMXI
    • GUGLIELMO FERRERO
    • NEW YORK THE CENTURY CO. MCMXI
    • CONTENTS
    • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
      • Livia, the Wife of Augustus, Superintending the Weaving of Robes for her Family … Frontispiece
        • A Roman Marriage Custom
        • Eumachia, a Public Priestess of Ancient Rome
        • The Forum under the Caesars
        • The So-called Bust of Cicero
        • Julius Caesar
        • The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus
        • Livia, the Mother of Tiberius, in the Costume of a Priestess
        • The Young Augustus
        • The Emperor Augustus
        • A Silver Denarius of the Second Triumvirate
        • Silver Coin Bearing the Head of Julius Caesar
        • The Great Paris Cameo
        • Octavia, the Sister of Augustus
        • A Reception at Livia's Villa
        • Mark Antony
        • Antony and Cleopatra
        • Tiberius, Elder Son of Livia and Stepson of Augustus
        • Drusus, the Younger Brother of Tiberius
        • Statue of a Young Roman Woman
        • A Roman Girl of the Time of the Caesars
        • Costumes of Roman Men, Women, and Children in the Procession of a Peace Festival
        • Bust of Tiberius in the Museo Nazionale, Naples
        • Types of Head-dresses Worn in the Time of the Women of the Caesars
        • A Roman Feast in the Time of the Caesars
        • Depositing the Ashes of a Member of the Imperial Family in a Roman Columbarium
        • The Starving Livilla Refusing Food
        • Costume of a Chief Vestal (Virgo Vestalis Maxima)
        • Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins
        • Bust, Supposed to be of Antonia, Daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, and Mother of Germanicus, in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence
        • Caligula
        • A Bronze Sestertius (Slightly Enlarged), Showing the Sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on One Side and Germanicus on the Other Side
        • A Bronze Sestertius with the Head of Agrippina the Elder, Daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the Daughter of Augustus
        • Claudius, Messalina, and Their Two Children in What is Known as the "Hague Cameo"
        • Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars
        • The Emperor Caligula
        • Claudius
        • The Emperor Claudius
        • Messalina, Third Wife of Claudius
        • The Philosopher Seneca
        • The Emperor Nero
        • Agrippina the Younger, Sister of Caligula and Mother of Nero
        • Britannicus
        • Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome
        • Agrippina the Younger
        • The Emperor Nero
        • The Death of Agrippina
      • A Roman Marriage Custom
      • Eumachia, a Public Priestess of Ancient Rome
      • The Forum under the Caesars
      • The So-called Bust of Cicero
      • Julius Caesar
      • The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus
      • Livia, the Mother of Tiberius, in the Costume of a Priestess
      • The Young Augustus
      • The Emperor Augustus
      • A Silver Denarius of the Second Triumvirate
      • Silver Coin Bearing the Head of Julius Caesar
      • The Great Paris Cameo
      • Octavia, the Sister of Augustus
      • A Reception at Livia's Villa
      • Mark Antony
      • Antony and Cleopatra
      • Tiberius, Elder Son of Livia and Stepson of Augustus
      • Drusus, the Younger Brother of Tiberius
      • Statue of a Young Roman Woman
      • A Roman Girl of the Time of the Caesars
      • Costumes of Roman Men, Women, and Children in the Procession of a Peace Festival
      • Bust of Tiberius in the Museo Nazionale, Naples
      • Types of Head-dresses Worn in the Time of the Women of the Caesars
      • A Roman Feast in the Time of the Caesars
      • Depositing the Ashes of a Member of the Imperial Family in a Roman Columbarium
      • The Starving Livilla Refusing Food
      • Costume of a Chief Vestal (Virgo Vestalis Maxima)
      • Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins
      • Bust, Supposed to be of Antonia, Daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, and Mother of Germanicus, in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence
      • Caligula
      • A Bronze Sestertius (Slightly Enlarged), Showing the Sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on One Side and Germanicus on the Other Side
      • A Bronze Sestertius with the Head of Agrippina the Elder, Daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the Daughter of Augustus
      • Claudius, Messalina, and Their Two Children in What is Known as the "Hague Cameo"
      • Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars
      • The Emperor Caligula
      • Claudius
      • The Emperor Claudius
      • Messalina, Third Wife of Claudius
      • The Philosopher Seneca
      • The Emperor Nero
      • Agrippina the Younger, Sister of Caligula and Mother of Nero
      • Britannicus
      • Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome
      • Agrippina the Younger
      • The Emperor Nero
      • The Death of Agrippina
    • Livia, the Wife of Augustus, Superintending the Weaving of Robes for her Family … Frontispiece
      • A Roman Marriage Custom
      • Eumachia, a Public Priestess of Ancient Rome
      • The Forum under the Caesars
      • The So-called Bust of Cicero
      • Julius Caesar
      • The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus
      • Livia, the Mother of Tiberius, in the Costume of a Priestess
      • The Young Augustus
      • The Emperor Augustus
      • A Silver Denarius of the Second Triumvirate
      • Silver Coin Bearing the Head of Julius Caesar
      • The Great Paris Cameo
      • Octavia, the Sister of Augustus
      • A Reception at Livia's Villa
      • Mark Antony
      • Antony and Cleopatra
      • Tiberius, Elder Son of Livia and Stepson of Augustus
      • Drusus, the Younger Brother of Tiberius
      • Statue of a Young Roman Woman
      • A Roman Girl of the Time of the Caesars
      • Costumes of Roman Men, Women, and Children in the Procession of a Peace Festival
      • Bust of Tiberius in the Museo Nazionale, Naples
      • Types of Head-dresses Worn in the Time of the Women of the Caesars
      • A Roman Feast in the Time of the Caesars
      • Depositing the Ashes of a Member of the Imperial Family in a Roman Columbarium
      • The Starving Livilla Refusing Food
      • Costume of a Chief Vestal (Virgo Vestalis Maxima)
      • Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins
      • Bust, Supposed to be of Antonia, Daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, and Mother of Germanicus, in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence
      • Caligula
      • A Bronze Sestertius (Slightly Enlarged), Showing the Sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on One Side and Germanicus on the Other Side
      • A Bronze Sestertius with the Head of Agrippina the Elder, Daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the Daughter of Augustus
      • Claudius, Messalina, and Their Two Children in What is Known as the "Hague Cameo"
      • Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars
      • The Emperor Caligula
      • Claudius
      • The Emperor Claudius
      • Messalina, Third Wife of Claudius
      • The Philosopher Seneca
      • The Emperor Nero
      • Agrippina the Younger, Sister of Caligula and Mother of Nero
      • Britannicus
      • Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome
      • Agrippina the Younger
      • The Emperor Nero
      • The Death of Agrippina
    • A Roman Marriage Custom
    • Eumachia, a Public Priestess of Ancient Rome
    • The Forum under the Caesars
    • The So-called Bust of Cicero
    • Julius Caesar
    • The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus
    • Livia, the Mother of Tiberius, in the Costume of a Priestess
    • The Young Augustus
    • The Emperor Augustus
    • A Silver Denarius of the Second Triumvirate
    • Silver Coin Bearing the Head of Julius Caesar
    • The Great Paris Cameo
    • Octavia, the Sister of Augustus
    • A Reception at Livia's Villa
    • Mark Antony
    • Antony and Cleopatra
    • Tiberius, Elder Son of Livia and Stepson of Augustus
    • Drusus, the Younger Brother of Tiberius
    • Statue of a Young Roman Woman
    • A Roman Girl of the Time of the Caesars
    • Costumes of Roman Men, Women, and Children in the Procession of a Peace Festival
    • Bust of Tiberius in the Museo Nazionale, Naples
    • Types of Head-dresses Worn in the Time of the Women of the Caesars
    • A Roman Feast in the Time of the Caesars
    • Depositing the Ashes of a Member of the Imperial Family in a Roman Columbarium
    • The Starving Livilla Refusing Food
    • Costume of a Chief Vestal (Virgo Vestalis Maxima)
    • Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins
    • Bust, Supposed to be of Antonia, Daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, and Mother of Germanicus, in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence
    • Caligula
    • A Bronze Sestertius (Slightly Enlarged), Showing the Sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on One Side and Germanicus on the Other Side
    • A Bronze Sestertius with the Head of Agrippina the Elder, Daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the Daughter of Augustus
    • Claudius, Messalina, and Their Two Children in What is Known as the "Hague Cameo"
    • Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars
    • The Emperor Caligula
    • Claudius
    • The Emperor Claudius
    • Messalina, Third Wife of Claudius
    • The Philosopher Seneca
    • The Emperor Nero
    • Agrippina the Younger, Sister of Caligula and Mother of Nero
    • Britannicus
    • Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome
    • Agrippina the Younger
    • The Emperor Nero
    • The Death of Agrippina
  • WOMEN OF THE CAESARS
    • I
      • WOMAN AND MARRIAGE IN ANCIENT ROME
        • [Illustration: A Roman marriage custom. The picture shows the bride entering her new home in the arms of the bridegroom.]
        • [Illustration: Eumachia, a public priestess of ancient Rome.]
        • [Illustration: The Forum under the Caesars.]
        • [Illustration: The so-called bust of Cicero. All but the head is modern. Now in the Museo Capitolino, it was formerly in the Palazzo Barberini.]
        • [Illustration: Julius Caesar]
        • [Illustration: The sister of M. Nonius Balbus.]
      • [Illustration: A Roman marriage custom. The picture shows the bride entering her new home in the arms of the bridegroom.]
      • [Illustration: Eumachia, a public priestess of ancient Rome.]
      • [Illustration: The Forum under the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: The so-called bust of Cicero. All but the head is modern. Now in the Museo Capitolino, it was formerly in the Palazzo Barberini.]
      • [Illustration: Julius Caesar]
      • [Illustration: The sister of M. Nonius Balbus.]
    • WOMAN AND MARRIAGE IN ANCIENT ROME
      • [Illustration: A Roman marriage custom. The picture shows the bride entering her new home in the arms of the bridegroom.]
      • [Illustration: Eumachia, a public priestess of ancient Rome.]
      • [Illustration: The Forum under the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: The so-called bust of Cicero. All but the head is modern. Now in the Museo Capitolino, it was formerly in the Palazzo Barberini.]
      • [Illustration: Julius Caesar]
      • [Illustration: The sister of M. Nonius Balbus.]
    • [Illustration: A Roman marriage custom. The picture shows the bride entering her new home in the arms of the bridegroom.]
    • [Illustration: Eumachia, a public priestess of ancient Rome.]
    • [Illustration: The Forum under the Caesars.]
    • [Illustration: The so-called bust of Cicero. All but the head is modern. Now in the Museo Capitolino, it was formerly in the Palazzo Barberini.]
    • [Illustration: Julius Caesar]
    • [Illustration: The sister of M. Nonius Balbus.]
    • II
      • LIVIA AND JULIA
        • [Illustration: Livia, the mother of Tiberius, in the costume of a priestess.]
        • [Illustration: The young Augustus.]
        • [Illustration: The Emperor Augustus. This statue was found in 1910 in the Via Labicana, not far from the Colosseum.]
        • [Illustration (top): A silver denarius of the Second Triumvirate. The portrait at the right (obverse) is of Caesar Octavianus (Augustus), with a slight beard to indicate mourning, and at the left (reverse), of Mark Antony. The date is 41 B.C.]
        • [Illustration (bottom): Silver coin bearing the head of Julius Caesar. This coin, a denarius, worth about seventeen cents, represents Caesar as Pontifex Maximus. Together with all the other Roman coins bearing Caesar's image, it was struck in the year before his death—44-45 B.C. The fact that Caesar placed his image on these coins may have strengthened the suspicion of his enemies that he wished to make himself king.]
        • [Illustration: The great Paris Cameo. This is the largest ancient cameo known, and is said to have been sent from Constantinople by Baldwin II. to Louis IX. It represents the living members of the imperial family protected by the deified Augustus. In the center Tiberius is shown seated, as Jupiter, with his mother, Livia, at his left, as Ceres. In front of them stand Germanicus and his mother Antonia.]
        • [Illustration: Octavia, the sister of Augustus.]
        • [Illustration: A reception at Livia's villa. The scene evidently is at Livia's country palace at Prima Porta. Agrippa is seen descending the steps to be received by Augustus and Livia (who are not shown in the picture). The original of the status of Augustus, here shown, was found in the ruins of Livia's villa close to the flight of marble steps and its base. The remains of the steps and the base of the statue are standing to-day at Prima Porta.]
      • [Illustration: Livia, the mother of Tiberius, in the costume of a priestess.]
      • [Illustration: The young Augustus.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Augustus. This statue was found in 1910 in the Via Labicana, not far from the Colosseum.]
      • [Illustration (top): A silver denarius of the Second Triumvirate. The portrait at the right (obverse) is of Caesar Octavianus (Augustus), with a slight beard to indicate mourning, and at the left (reverse), of Mark Antony. The date is 41 B.C.]
      • [Illustration (bottom): Silver coin bearing the head of Julius Caesar. This coin, a denarius, worth about seventeen cents, represents Caesar as Pontifex Maximus. Together with all the other Roman coins bearing Caesar's image, it was struck in the year before his death—44-45 B.C. The fact that Caesar placed his image on these coins may have strengthened the suspicion of his enemies that he wished to make himself king.]
      • [Illustration: The great Paris Cameo. This is the largest ancient cameo known, and is said to have been sent from Constantinople by Baldwin II. to Louis IX. It represents the living members of the imperial family protected by the deified Augustus. In the center Tiberius is shown seated, as Jupiter, with his mother, Livia, at his left, as Ceres. In front of them stand Germanicus and his mother Antonia.]
      • [Illustration: Octavia, the sister of Augustus.]
      • [Illustration: A reception at Livia's villa. The scene evidently is at Livia's country palace at Prima Porta. Agrippa is seen descending the steps to be received by Augustus and Livia (who are not shown in the picture). The original of the status of Augustus, here shown, was found in the ruins of Livia's villa close to the flight of marble steps and its base. The remains of the steps and the base of the statue are standing to-day at Prima Porta.]
    • LIVIA AND JULIA
      • [Illustration: Livia, the mother of Tiberius, in the costume of a priestess.]
      • [Illustration: The young Augustus.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Augustus. This statue was found in 1910 in the Via Labicana, not far from the Colosseum.]
      • [Illustration (top): A silver denarius of the Second Triumvirate. The portrait at the right (obverse) is of Caesar Octavianus (Augustus), with a slight beard to indicate mourning, and at the left (reverse), of Mark Antony. The date is 41 B.C.]
      • [Illustration (bottom): Silver coin bearing the head of Julius Caesar. This coin, a denarius, worth about seventeen cents, represents Caesar as Pontifex Maximus. Together with all the other Roman coins bearing Caesar's image, it was struck in the year before his death—44-45 B.C. The fact that Caesar placed his image on these coins may have strengthened the suspicion of his enemies that he wished to make himself king.]
      • [Illustration: The great Paris Cameo. This is the largest ancient cameo known, and is said to have been sent from Constantinople by Baldwin II. to Louis IX. It represents the living members of the imperial family protected by the deified Augustus. In the center Tiberius is shown seated, as Jupiter, with his mother, Livia, at his left, as Ceres. In front of them stand Germanicus and his mother Antonia.]
      • [Illustration: Octavia, the sister of Augustus.]
      • [Illustration: A reception at Livia's villa. The scene evidently is at Livia's country palace at Prima Porta. Agrippa is seen descending the steps to be received by Augustus and Livia (who are not shown in the picture). The original of the status of Augustus, here shown, was found in the ruins of Livia's villa close to the flight of marble steps and its base. The remains of the steps and the base of the statue are standing to-day at Prima Porta.]
    • [Illustration: Livia, the mother of Tiberius, in the costume of a priestess.]
    • [Illustration: The young Augustus.]
    • [Illustration: The Emperor Augustus. This statue was found in 1910 in the Via Labicana, not far from the Colosseum.]
    • [Illustration (top): A silver denarius of the Second Triumvirate. The portrait at the right (obverse) is of Caesar Octavianus (Augustus), with a slight beard to indicate mourning, and at the left (reverse), of Mark Antony. The date is 41 B.C.]
    • [Illustration (bottom): Silver coin bearing the head of Julius Caesar. This coin, a denarius, worth about seventeen cents, represents Caesar as Pontifex Maximus. Together with all the other Roman coins bearing Caesar's image, it was struck in the year before his death—44-45 B.C. The fact that Caesar placed his image on these coins may have strengthened the suspicion of his enemies that he wished to make himself king.]
    • [Illustration: The great Paris Cameo. This is the largest ancient cameo known, and is said to have been sent from Constantinople by Baldwin II. to Louis IX. It represents the living members of the imperial family protected by the deified Augustus. In the center Tiberius is shown seated, as Jupiter, with his mother, Livia, at his left, as Ceres. In front of them stand Germanicus and his mother Antonia.]
    • [Illustration: Octavia, the sister of Augustus.]
    • [Illustration: A reception at Livia's villa. The scene evidently is at Livia's country palace at Prima Porta. Agrippa is seen descending the steps to be received by Augustus and Livia (who are not shown in the picture). The original of the status of Augustus, here shown, was found in the ruins of Livia's villa close to the flight of marble steps and its base. The remains of the steps and the base of the statue are standing to-day at Prima Porta.]
    • III
      • THE DAUGHTERS OF AGRIPPA
        • [Illustration: Mark Antony.]
        • [Illustration: Antony and Cleopatra.]
        • [Illustration: Tiberius, elder son of Livia and stepson of Augustus. Augustus, lacking a male heir, first adopted his younger stepson Drusus, who died 9 B.C. owing to a fall from his horse. In 4 A.D. he adopted Tiberius, and was succeeded by him as Emperor in 14 A.D.]
        • [Illustration: Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius.]
        • [Illustration: Statue of a young Roman woman.]
        • [Illustration: A Roman girl of the time of the Caesars.]
        • [Illustration: Costumes of Roman men, women, and children in the procession of a peace festival. These reliefs formed part of the outer frieze of the right wall of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), erected by Augustus and dedicated 9 B.C. This and another well-preserved section are in the Uffizi Palace, Florence. One of two other fragments in the Villa Medici contains the head and bust of Augustus, and with the section here shown completes what is supposed to be a group of the family of Augustus.]
      • [Illustration: Mark Antony.]
      • [Illustration: Antony and Cleopatra.]
      • [Illustration: Tiberius, elder son of Livia and stepson of Augustus. Augustus, lacking a male heir, first adopted his younger stepson Drusus, who died 9 B.C. owing to a fall from his horse. In 4 A.D. he adopted Tiberius, and was succeeded by him as Emperor in 14 A.D.]
      • [Illustration: Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius.]
      • [Illustration: Statue of a young Roman woman.]
      • [Illustration: A Roman girl of the time of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: Costumes of Roman men, women, and children in the procession of a peace festival. These reliefs formed part of the outer frieze of the right wall of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), erected by Augustus and dedicated 9 B.C. This and another well-preserved section are in the Uffizi Palace, Florence. One of two other fragments in the Villa Medici contains the head and bust of Augustus, and with the section here shown completes what is supposed to be a group of the family of Augustus.]
    • THE DAUGHTERS OF AGRIPPA
      • [Illustration: Mark Antony.]
      • [Illustration: Antony and Cleopatra.]
      • [Illustration: Tiberius, elder son of Livia and stepson of Augustus. Augustus, lacking a male heir, first adopted his younger stepson Drusus, who died 9 B.C. owing to a fall from his horse. In 4 A.D. he adopted Tiberius, and was succeeded by him as Emperor in 14 A.D.]
      • [Illustration: Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius.]
      • [Illustration: Statue of a young Roman woman.]
      • [Illustration: A Roman girl of the time of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: Costumes of Roman men, women, and children in the procession of a peace festival. These reliefs formed part of the outer frieze of the right wall of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), erected by Augustus and dedicated 9 B.C. This and another well-preserved section are in the Uffizi Palace, Florence. One of two other fragments in the Villa Medici contains the head and bust of Augustus, and with the section here shown completes what is supposed to be a group of the family of Augustus.]
    • [Illustration: Mark Antony.]
    • [Illustration: Antony and Cleopatra.]
    • [Illustration: Tiberius, elder son of Livia and stepson of Augustus. Augustus, lacking a male heir, first adopted his younger stepson Drusus, who died 9 B.C. owing to a fall from his horse. In 4 A.D. he adopted Tiberius, and was succeeded by him as Emperor in 14 A.D.]
    • [Illustration: Drusus, the younger brother of Tiberius.]
    • [Illustration: Statue of a young Roman woman.]
    • [Illustration: A Roman girl of the time of the Caesars.]
    • [Illustration: Costumes of Roman men, women, and children in the procession of a peace festival. These reliefs formed part of the outer frieze of the right wall of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), erected by Augustus and dedicated 9 B.C. This and another well-preserved section are in the Uffizi Palace, Florence. One of two other fragments in the Villa Medici contains the head and bust of Augustus, and with the section here shown completes what is supposed to be a group of the family of Augustus.]
    • IV
      • TIBERIUS AND AGRIPPINA
        • [Illustration: Tiberius.]
        • [Illustration: Types of head-dresses worn in the time of the women of the Caesars.]
        • [Illustration: A Roman feast in the time of the Caesars.]
        • [Illustration: Depositing the ashes of a member of the imperial family in a Roman columbarium.]
        • [Illustration: The starving Livilla refusing food.]
        • [Illustration: Costume of a chief vestal (virgo vestalis maxima).]
        • [Illustration: Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins.]
        • [Illustration: Bust, supposed to be of Antonia—daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia—and mother of Germanicus.]
      • [Illustration: Tiberius.]
      • [Illustration: Types of head-dresses worn in the time of the women of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: A Roman feast in the time of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: Depositing the ashes of a member of the imperial family in a Roman columbarium.]
      • [Illustration: The starving Livilla refusing food.]
      • [Illustration: Costume of a chief vestal (virgo vestalis maxima).]
      • [Illustration: Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins.]
      • [Illustration: Bust, supposed to be of Antonia—daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia—and mother of Germanicus.]
    • TIBERIUS AND AGRIPPINA
      • [Illustration: Tiberius.]
      • [Illustration: Types of head-dresses worn in the time of the women of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: A Roman feast in the time of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: Depositing the ashes of a member of the imperial family in a Roman columbarium.]
      • [Illustration: The starving Livilla refusing food.]
      • [Illustration: Costume of a chief vestal (virgo vestalis maxima).]
      • [Illustration: Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins.]
      • [Illustration: Bust, supposed to be of Antonia—daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia—and mother of Germanicus.]
    • [Illustration: Tiberius.]
    • [Illustration: Types of head-dresses worn in the time of the women of the Caesars.]
    • [Illustration: A Roman feast in the time of the Caesars.]
    • [Illustration: Depositing the ashes of a member of the imperial family in a Roman columbarium.]
    • [Illustration: The starving Livilla refusing food.]
    • [Illustration: Costume of a chief vestal (virgo vestalis maxima).]
    • [Illustration: Remains of the House of the Vestal Virgins.]
    • [Illustration: Bust, supposed to be of Antonia—daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia—and mother of Germanicus.]
    • V
      • THE SISTERS OF CALIGULA AND THE MARRIAGE OF MESSALINA
        • [Illustration: Caligula.]
        • [Illustration (top): A bronze sestertius (slightly enlarged), showing the sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on one side and Germanicus on the other side.]
        • [Illustration (bottom): A bronze sestertius with the head of Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus. She was the wife of Germanicus, and their daughter, Agrippina the younger, was the mother of the Emperor Nero.]
        • [Illustration: Claudius, Messalina, and their two children in what is known as the "Hague Cameo."]
        • [Illustration: Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars.]
        • [Illustration: The Emperor Caligula.]
        • [Illustration: Claudius.]
        • [Illustration: The Emperor Claudius.]
        • [Illustration: Messalina, third wife of Claudius.]
        • [Illustration: The philosopher Seneca.]
      • [Illustration: Caligula.]
      • [Illustration (top): A bronze sestertius (slightly enlarged), showing the sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on one side and Germanicus on the other side.]
      • [Illustration (bottom): A bronze sestertius with the head of Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus. She was the wife of Germanicus, and their daughter, Agrippina the younger, was the mother of the Emperor Nero.]
      • [Illustration: Claudius, Messalina, and their two children in what is known as the "Hague Cameo."]
      • [Illustration: Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Caligula.]
      • [Illustration: Claudius.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Claudius.]
      • [Illustration: Messalina, third wife of Claudius.]
      • [Illustration: The philosopher Seneca.]
    • THE SISTERS OF CALIGULA AND THE MARRIAGE OF MESSALINA
      • [Illustration: Caligula.]
      • [Illustration (top): A bronze sestertius (slightly enlarged), showing the sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on one side and Germanicus on the other side.]
      • [Illustration (bottom): A bronze sestertius with the head of Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus. She was the wife of Germanicus, and their daughter, Agrippina the younger, was the mother of the Emperor Nero.]
      • [Illustration: Claudius, Messalina, and their two children in what is known as the "Hague Cameo."]
      • [Illustration: Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Caligula.]
      • [Illustration: Claudius.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Claudius.]
      • [Illustration: Messalina, third wife of Claudius.]
      • [Illustration: The philosopher Seneca.]
    • [Illustration: Caligula.]
    • [Illustration (top): A bronze sestertius (slightly enlarged), showing the sisters of Caligula (Agrippina, Drusilla, and Julia Livilla) on one side and Germanicus on the other side.]
    • [Illustration (bottom): A bronze sestertius with the head of Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus. She was the wife of Germanicus, and their daughter, Agrippina the younger, was the mother of the Emperor Nero.]
    • [Illustration: Claudius, Messalina, and their two children in what is known as the "Hague Cameo."]
    • [Illustration: Remains of the Bridge of Caligula in the Palace of the Caesars.]
    • [Illustration: The Emperor Caligula.]
    • [Illustration: Claudius.]
    • [Illustration: The Emperor Claudius.]
    • [Illustration: Messalina, third wife of Claudius.]
    • [Illustration: The philosopher Seneca.]
    • VI
      • AGRIPPINA, THE MOTHER OF NERO
        • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
        • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger, sister of Caligula and mother of Nero.]
        • [Illustration: Britannicus.]
        • [Illustration: Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.]
        • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger.]
        • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
        • [Illustration: The death of Agrippina.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
      • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger, sister of Caligula and mother of Nero.]
      • [Illustration: Britannicus.]
      • [Illustration: Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.]
      • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
      • [Illustration: The death of Agrippina.]
    • AGRIPPINA, THE MOTHER OF NERO
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
      • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger, sister of Caligula and mother of Nero.]
      • [Illustration: Britannicus.]
      • [Illustration: Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.]
      • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger.]
      • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
      • [Illustration: The death of Agrippina.]
    • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
    • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger, sister of Caligula and mother of Nero.]
    • [Illustration: Britannicus.]
    • [Illustration: Statue of Agrippina the Younger, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.]
    • [Illustration: Agrippina the Younger.]
    • [Illustration: The Emperor Nero.]
    • [Illustration: The death of Agrippina.]
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