The Colonization of North America 1492-1783
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The Colonization of North America 1492-1783

By Thomas Maitland Marshall, Herbert Eugene Bolton
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Table of Contents
  • THE COLONIZATION OF NORTH AMERICA
  • 1492-1783
    • BY
  • HERBERT EUGENE BOLTON, Ph.D.
    • PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
      • AND
    • AND
  • THOMAS MAITLAND MARSHALL, Ph.D.
    • PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
      • THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
      • 1920
    • THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
    • 1920
    • PREFACE
  • THE COLONIZATION OF NORTH AMERICA
  • THE FOUNDING OF THE COLONIES
    • CHAPTER I
    • THE BACKGROUND AND THE DISCOVERY
      • GROWTH OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE
      • PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES
      • COLUMBUS AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
      • READINGS
    • GROWTH OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE
    • PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES
    • COLUMBUS AND THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER II
    • THE FOUNDING OF NEW SPAIN (1492-1543)
      • SPAIN DURING THE CONQUEST
      • THE OCCUPATION OF THE WEST INDIES
      • BEGINNINGS OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY
      • EXPLORATION OF THE MAINLAND COASTS AND THE SEARCH FOR A STRAIT
      • THE MAYAS AND THE NAHUAS
      • THE CONQUEST OF CENTRAL AMERICA
      • THE CONQUEST OF THE VALLEY OF MEXICO
      • THE SPREAD OF THE CONQUEST
      • EXPLORATIONS IN THE NORTHERN INTERIOR AND ON THE PACIFIC
      • THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE VICEROYALTY OF NEW SPAIN
      • READINGS
    • SPAIN DURING THE CONQUEST
    • THE OCCUPATION OF THE WEST INDIES
    • BEGINNINGS OF COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY
    • EXPLORATION OF THE MAINLAND COASTS AND THE SEARCH FOR A STRAIT
    • THE MAYAS AND THE NAHUAS
    • THE CONQUEST OF CENTRAL AMERICA
    • THE CONQUEST OF THE VALLEY OF MEXICO
    • THE SPREAD OF THE CONQUEST
    • EXPLORATIONS IN THE NORTHERN INTERIOR AND ON THE PACIFIC
    • THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE VICEROYALTY OF NEW SPAIN
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER III
    • THE EXPANSION OF NEW SPAIN (1543-1609)
      • OLD AND NEW SPAIN UNDER PHILIP II
      • THE MINES OF NORTHERN MEXICO
      • THE SETTLEMENT OF THE ATLANTIC SEABOARD
      • FOREIGN INTRUSIONS IN THE ATLANTIC
      • THE PHILIPPINES AND CALIFORNIA
      • THE FOUNDING OF NEW MEXICO
      • SPANISH ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
      • READINGS
    • OLD AND NEW SPAIN UNDER PHILIP II
    • THE MINES OF NORTHERN MEXICO
    • THE SETTLEMENT OF THE ATLANTIC SEABOARD
    • FOREIGN INTRUSIONS IN THE ATLANTIC
    • THE PHILIPPINES AND CALIFORNIA
    • THE FOUNDING OF NEW MEXICO
    • SPANISH ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER IV
    • THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FRENCH COLONIES (1500-1700)
      • THE FRENCH BACKGROUND
      • EARLY EXPLORATIONS AND COLONIZING EFFORTS
      • ACADIA
      • THE ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY
      • REORGANIZATION AND THE IROQUOIS WARS
      • THE WEST INDIES
      • OPENING THE UPPER LAKE REGION AND THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY
      • READINGS
    • THE FRENCH BACKGROUND
    • EARLY EXPLORATIONS AND COLONIZING EFFORTS
    • ACADIA
    • THE ST. LAWRENCE VALLEY
    • REORGANIZATION AND THE IROQUOIS WARS
    • THE WEST INDIES
    • OPENING THE UPPER LAKE REGION AND THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER V
    • THE BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH EXPANSION (1485-1603)
      • THE TUDOR PERIOD
      • COMMERCIAL EXPANSION
      • THE ELIZABETHAN SEA-DOGS
      • SEARCH FOR A NORTHWEST PASSAGE
      • ATTEMPTS AT COLONIZATION
      • READINGS
    • THE TUDOR PERIOD
    • COMMERCIAL EXPANSION
    • THE ELIZABETHAN SEA-DOGS
    • SEARCH FOR A NORTHWEST PASSAGE
    • ATTEMPTS AT COLONIZATION
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER VI
    • THE CHESAPEAKE BAY AND INSULAR COLONIES (1603-1640)
      • ENGLAND UNDER THE EARLY STUARTS, 1603-1640
      • THE COLONIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM OF THE EARLY STUARTS
      • THE FOUNDING OF VIRGINIA
      • THE FOUNDING OF MARYLAND
      • THE BERMUDAS
      • GUIANA
      • THE LESSER ANTILLES
      • THE PROVIDENCE ISLAND COMPANY
      • READINGS
    • ENGLAND UNDER THE EARLY STUARTS, 1603-1640
    • THE COLONIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM OF THE EARLY STUARTS
    • THE FOUNDING OF VIRGINIA
    • THE FOUNDING OF MARYLAND
    • THE BERMUDAS
    • GUIANA
    • THE LESSER ANTILLES
    • THE PROVIDENCE ISLAND COMPANY
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER VII
    • THE BEGINNINGS OF NEW ENGLAND (1606-1640)
      • THE PURITAN MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND
      • PLYMOUTH COLONY
      • COLONIZING ACTIVITIES ON THE NEW ENGLAND COAST
      • THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
      • EXPANSION OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
      • RHODE ISLAND
      • SETTLEMENTS IN THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY
      • READINGS
    • THE PURITAN MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND
    • PLYMOUTH COLONY
    • COLONIZING ACTIVITIES ON THE NEW ENGLAND COAST
    • THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
    • EXPANSION OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY
    • RHODE ISLAND
    • SETTLEMENTS IN THE CONNECTICUT VALLEY
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER VIII
    • THE ENGLISH COLONIES DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD (1640-1660)
      • POLITICS, ADMINISTRATION, AND EXPANSION
      • NEW ENGLAND DEVELOPMENT
      • VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND, 1640-1660
      • READINGS
    • POLITICS, ADMINISTRATION, AND EXPANSION
    • NEW ENGLAND DEVELOPMENT
    • VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND, 1640-1660
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER IX
    • THE DUTCH AND SWEDISH COLONIES (1609-1644)
      • DUTCH EXPANSION
      • NEW NETHERLANDS
      • THE DUTCH AND THE SWEDES ON THE DELAWARE
      • ABSORPTION OF NEW NETHERLANDS BY THE ENGLISH
      • READINGS
    • DUTCH EXPANSION
    • NEW NETHERLANDS
    • THE DUTCH AND THE SWEDES ON THE DELAWARE
    • ABSORPTION OF NEW NETHERLANDS BY THE ENGLISH
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER X
    • THE OLD ENGLISH COLONIES UNDER THE LATER STUARTS (1660-1689)
      • COLONIAL POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION
      • MACHINERY OF GOVERNMENT
      • MISRULE AND REBELLION IN VIRGINIA
      • DISCONTENT IN MARYLAND
      • ROYAL INTERFERENCE IN NEW ENGLAND
      • READINGS
    • COLONIAL POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION
    • MACHINERY OF GOVERNMENT
    • MISRULE AND REBELLION IN VIRGINIA
    • DISCONTENT IN MARYLAND
    • ROYAL INTERFERENCE IN NEW ENGLAND
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XI
    • EXPANSION UNDER THE LATER STUARTS (1660-1689)
      • NEW YORK
      • THE JERSEYS
      • PENNSYLVANIA
      • THE INSULAR COLONIES
      • THE CAROLINAS
      • WESTERN TRADE AND EXPLORATION
      • HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
      • READINGS
    • NEW YORK
    • THE JERSEYS
    • PENNSYLVANIA
    • THE INSULAR COLONIES
    • THE CAROLINAS
    • WESTERN TRADE AND EXPLORATION
    • HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XII
    • THE ENGLISH MAINLAND COLONIES AT THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
      • NEW ENGLAND
      • NEW YORK AND EAST NEW JERSEY
      • COLONIES ALONG DELAWARE RIVER AND BAY
      • THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION
      • SOUTH CAROLINA
      • READINGS
    • NEW ENGLAND
    • NEW YORK AND EAST NEW JERSEY
    • COLONIES ALONG DELAWARE RIVER AND BAY
    • THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION
    • SOUTH CAROLINA
    • READINGS
  • EXPANSION AND INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT
    • CHAPTER XIII
    • THE SPANISH ADVANCE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
      • SPAIN AND THE COLONIES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
      • FRONTIER ADMINISTRATION
      • THE MISSIONS
      • THE JESUITS IN SINALOA AND SONORA
      • EFFORTS TO OCCUPY LOWER CALIFORNIA
      • THE SETTLEMENT OF CHIHUAHUA
      • NEW MEXICO IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
      • COAHUILA OCCUPIED
      • FIRST ATTEMPTS IN EASTERN TEXAS
      • THE STRUGGLE WITH RIVALS IN THE WEST INDIES
      • THE STRUGGLE WITH THE ENGLISH ON THE CAROLINA BORDER
      • READINGS
    • SPAIN AND THE COLONIES IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
    • FRONTIER ADMINISTRATION
    • THE MISSIONS
    • THE JESUITS IN SINALOA AND SONORA
    • EFFORTS TO OCCUPY LOWER CALIFORNIA
    • THE SETTLEMENT OF CHIHUAHUA
    • NEW MEXICO IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
    • COAHUILA OCCUPIED
    • FIRST ATTEMPTS IN EASTERN TEXAS
    • THE STRUGGLE WITH RIVALS IN THE WEST INDIES
    • THE STRUGGLE WITH THE ENGLISH ON THE CAROLINA BORDER
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XIV
    • THE WARS OF THE ENGLISH AND SPANISH SUCCESSIONS (1684-1713)
      • THE PRELIMINARY STRUGGLE FOR THE NORTHERN FUR COUNTRY
      • THE WAR OF THE ENGLISH SUCCESSION
      • THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION
      • READINGS
    • THE PRELIMINARY STRUGGLE FOR THE NORTHERN FUR COUNTRY
    • THE WAR OF THE ENGLISH SUCCESSION
    • THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XV
    • THE FRENCH IN LOUISIANA AND THE FAR NORTHWEST (1699-1762)
      • THE FOUNDING OF LOUISIANA
      • LOUISIANA UNDER THE COMPANY OF THE INDIES (1717-1731)
      • LOUISIANA UNDER THE ROYAL GOVERNORS
      • THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI WEST
      • THE ADVANCE TOWARD NEW MEXICO
      • THE FAR NORTHWEST
      • READINGS
    • THE FOUNDING OF LOUISIANA
    • LOUISIANA UNDER THE COMPANY OF THE INDIES (1717-1731)
    • LOUISIANA UNDER THE ROYAL GOVERNORS
    • THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI WEST
    • THE ADVANCE TOWARD NEW MEXICO
    • THE FAR NORTHWEST
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XVI
    • TEXAS, PIMERÍA ALTA AND THE FRANCO-SPANISH BORDER CONFLICT (1687-1763)
      • NORTHEASTWARD ADVANCE OF THE SPANISH FRONTIER
      • THE FOUNDING OF TEXAS
      • WAR WITH FRANCE
      • THE EXPANSION OF TEXAS
      • THE FRANCO-SPANISH BORDER
      • PIMERÍA ALTA
      • THE JESUITS IN LOWER CALIFORNIA
      • READINGS
    • NORTHEASTWARD ADVANCE OF THE SPANISH FRONTIER
    • THE FOUNDING OF TEXAS
    • WAR WITH FRANCE
    • THE EXPANSION OF TEXAS
    • THE FRANCO-SPANISH BORDER
    • PIMERÍA ALTA
    • THE JESUITS IN LOWER CALIFORNIA
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XVII
    • THE ENGLISH ADVANCE INTO THE PIEDMONT, 1715-1750
      • THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT
      • DEFENCE OF THE NORTHERN FRONTIER
      • REORGANIZATION OF THE CAROLINAS
      • THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA
      • THE GERMAN AND SWISS MIGRATION
      • THE SCOTCH-IRISH
      • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE PIEDMONT
      • READINGS
    • THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT
    • DEFENCE OF THE NORTHERN FRONTIER
    • REORGANIZATION OF THE CAROLINAS
    • THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA
    • THE GERMAN AND SWISS MIGRATION
    • THE SCOTCH-IRISH
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE PIEDMONT
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XVIII
    • ENGLISH COLONIAL SOCIETY IN THE MIDDLE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
      • GENERAL FEATURES
      • THE MIDDLE COLONIES
      • THE SOUTHERN COLONIES
      • LABOR SYSTEMS
      • FEATURES OF SOCIETY
      • BARBADOS, THE LEEWARD ISLES, AND JAMAICA
      • READINGS
    • GENERAL FEATURES
    • THE MIDDLE COLONIES
    • THE SOUTHERN COLONIES
    • LABOR SYSTEMS
    • FEATURES OF SOCIETY
    • BARBADOS, THE LEEWARD ISLES, AND JAMAICA
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XIX
    • THE ENGLISH COLONIAL SYSTEM (1689-1763)
      • THE FIRST REORGANIZATION OF WILLIAM III
      • WILLIAM'S SECOND REORGANIZATION
      • THE COLONIAL SYSTEM DURING THE REIGN OF ANNE
      • THE COLONIAL SYSTEM UNDER THE WHIGS
      • READINGS
    • THE FIRST REORGANIZATION OF WILLIAM III
    • WILLIAM'S SECOND REORGANIZATION
    • THE COLONIAL SYSTEM DURING THE REIGN OF ANNE
    • THE COLONIAL SYSTEM UNDER THE WHIGS
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XX
    • A QUARTER-CENTURY OF CONFLICT: THE EXPULSION OF THE FRENCH (1715-1763)
      • SPAIN AND THE POWERS, 1715-1739
      • THE WAR OF JENKINS' EAR
      • THE WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
      • THE APPROACH OF ANOTHER CONFLICT
      • THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
      • READINGS
    • SPAIN AND THE POWERS, 1715-1739
    • THE WAR OF JENKINS' EAR
    • THE WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION
    • THE APPROACH OF ANOTHER CONFLICT
    • THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
    • READINGS
  • CHAPTER XXI
    • THE RUSSIAN ADVANCE: THE OCCUPATION OF ALTA CALIFORNIA AND LOUISIANA BY SPAIN (1763-1783)
      • READJUSTMENT IN SPANISH NORTH AMERICA
      • THE RUSSIAN MENACE
      • THE FOUNDING OF ALTA CALIFORNIA
      • NORTHERN EXPLORATIONS
      • LOUISIANA UNDER SPAIN, 1762-1783
      • READINGS
    • READJUSTMENT IN SPANISH NORTH AMERICA
    • THE RUSSIAN MENACE
    • THE FOUNDING OF ALTA CALIFORNIA
    • NORTHERN EXPLORATIONS
    • LOUISIANA UNDER SPAIN, 1762-1783
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XXII
    • THE NEW BRITISH POSSESSIONS (1763-1783)
      • PROVISIONS FOR DEFENCE, GOVERNMENT, AND THE FUR TRADE
      • THE OCCUPATION OF THE FLORIDAS
      • MILITARY OCCUPATION OF THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY
      • LAND SPECULATION AND PLANS FOR WESTERN COLONIES
      • TRANS-ALLEGHANY SETTLEMENT
      • THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC
      • THE NORTHERN FUR TRADERS
      • READINGS
    • PROVISIONS FOR DEFENCE, GOVERNMENT, AND THE FUR TRADE
    • THE OCCUPATION OF THE FLORIDAS
    • MILITARY OCCUPATION OF THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY
    • LAND SPECULATION AND PLANS FOR WESTERN COLONIES
    • TRANS-ALLEGHANY SETTLEMENT
    • THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC
    • THE NORTHERN FUR TRADERS
    • READINGS
    • THE REVOLT OF THE ENGLISH COLONIES
    • CHAPTER XXIII
    • THE CONTROVERSY OF THE ENGLISH COLONIES WITH THE HOME GOVERNMENT (1763-1775)
      • THE BACKGROUND OF THE CONTEST
      • REFORMS OF THE GRENVILLE MINISTRY
      • REPEAL OF THE STAMP ACT
      • THE TOWNSHEND ACTS
      • BEGINNING OF ORGANIZED RESISTANCE
      • THE TEA CONTROVERSY
      • LORD NORTH'S COERCIVE POLICY
      • THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
      • READINGS
    • THE BACKGROUND OF THE CONTEST
    • REFORMS OF THE GRENVILLE MINISTRY
    • REPEAL OF THE STAMP ACT
    • THE TOWNSHEND ACTS
    • BEGINNING OF ORGANIZED RESISTANCE
    • THE TEA CONTROVERSY
    • LORD NORTH'S COERCIVE POLICY
    • THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XXIV
    • FROM LEXINGTON TO INDEPENDENCE (1775-1776)
      • THE OPENING OF HOSTILITIES
      • THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
      • PROGRESS OF THE WAR
      • THE LOYALISTS
      • THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
      • READINGS
    • THE OPENING OF HOSTILITIES
    • THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
    • PROGRESS OF THE WAR
    • THE LOYALISTS
    • THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XXV
    • THE STRUGGLE FOR THE MUDDLE STATES (1776-1777)
      • THE CONTEST FOR NEW YORK
      • THE NEW JERSEY CAMPAIGN
      • THE STRUGGLE WITH BURGOYNE
      • THE CONTEST FOR PHILADELPHIA
      • READINGS
    • THE CONTEST FOR NEW YORK
    • THE NEW JERSEY CAMPAIGN
    • THE STRUGGLE WITH BURGOYNE
    • THE CONTEST FOR PHILADELPHIA
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XXVI
    • THE WAR AS AN INTERNATIONAL CONTEST
      • THE FRENCH ALLIANCE
      • THE WAR IN THE WEST
      • SPAIN IN THE WAR
      • THE WAR ON THE SEA AND THE DUTCH ALLIANCE
      • READINGS
    • THE FRENCH ALLIANCE
    • THE WAR IN THE WEST
    • SPAIN IN THE WAR
    • THE WAR ON THE SEA AND THE DUTCH ALLIANCE
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XXVII
    • THE CLOSING YEARS OF THE REVOLUTION (1778-1781)
      • THE WAR IN THE SOUTH
      • THE YORKTOWN CAMPAIGN
      • THE TREATY OF PEACE
      • READINGS
    • THE WAR IN THE SOUTH
    • THE YORKTOWN CAMPAIGN
    • THE TREATY OF PEACE
    • READINGS
    • CHAPTER XXVIII
    • GOVERNMENTAL DEVELOPMENT DURING THE REVOLUTION
      • THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
      • FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
      • STATE GOVERNMENTS DURING THE REVOLUTION
      • THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
      • GOVERNMENTAL REORGANIZATION
      • READINGS
    • THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
    • FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
    • STATE GOVERNMENTS DURING THE REVOLUTION
    • THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
    • GOVERNMENTAL REORGANIZATION
    • READINGS
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