A Treatise on Painting
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A Treatise on Painting

By Leonardo da Vinci
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Table of Contents
  • A TREATISE ON PAINTING,
  • TABLE OF CHAPTERS.
  • PREFACE TO THE PRESENT TRANSLATION.
  • THE LIFE OF LEONARDO DA VINCI.
  • CATALOGUE OF THE WORKS OF LEONARDO DA VINCI.
  • A TREATISE, &c.
  • DRAWING.
  • PROPORTION.
    • Chap. I.—What the young Student in Painting ought in the first Place to learn.
      • Chap. II.—Rule for a young Student in Painting.
      • Chap. III.—How to discover a young Man’s Disposition for Painting.
      • Chap. IV.—Of Painting, and its Divisions.
      • Chap. V.—Division of the Figure.
      • Chap. VI.—Proportion of Members.
      • Chap. VII.—Of Dimensions in general.
      • Chap. VIII.—Motion, Changes, and Proportion of Members.
      • Chap. IX.—The Difference of Proportion between Children and grown Men.
      • Chap. X.—The Alterations in the Proportion of the human Body from Infancy to full Age.
      • Chap. XI.—Of the Proportion of Members.
      • Chap. XII.—That every Part be proportioned to its Whole.
      • Chap. XIII.—Of the Proportion of the Members.
      • Chap. XIV.—The Danger of forming an erroneous Judgment in regard to the Proportion and Beauty of the Parts.
      • Chap. XV.—Another Precept.
      • Chap. XVI.—The Manner of drawing from Relievos, and rendering Paper fit for it.
      • Chap. XVII.—Of drawing from Casts or Nature.
      • Chap. XVIII.—To draw Figures from Nature.
      • Chap. XIX.—Of drawing from Nature.
      • Chap. XX.—Of drawing Academy Figures.
      • Chap. XXI.—Of studying in the Dark, on first waking in the Morning, and before going to sleep.
      • Chap. XXII.—Observations on drawing Portraits.
      • Chap. XXIII.—The Method of retaining in the Memory the Likeness of a Man, so as to draw his Profile, after having seen him only once.
      • Chap. XXIV.—How to remember the Form of a Face.
      • Chap. XXV.—That a Painter should take Pleasure in the Opinion of every body.
    • Chap. II.—Rule for a young Student in Painting.
    • Chap. III.—How to discover a young Man’s Disposition for Painting.
    • Chap. IV.—Of Painting, and its Divisions.
    • Chap. V.—Division of the Figure.
    • Chap. VI.—Proportion of Members.
    • Chap. VII.—Of Dimensions in general.
    • Chap. VIII.—Motion, Changes, and Proportion of Members.
    • Chap. IX.—The Difference of Proportion between Children and grown Men.
    • Chap. X.—The Alterations in the Proportion of the human Body from Infancy to full Age.
    • Chap. XI.—Of the Proportion of Members.
    • Chap. XII.—That every Part be proportioned to its Whole.
    • Chap. XIII.—Of the Proportion of the Members.
    • Chap. XIV.—The Danger of forming an erroneous Judgment in regard to the Proportion and Beauty of the Parts.
    • Chap. XV.—Another Precept.
    • Chap. XVI.—The Manner of drawing from Relievos, and rendering Paper fit for it.
    • Chap. XVII.—Of drawing from Casts or Nature.
    • Chap. XVIII.—To draw Figures from Nature.
    • Chap. XIX.—Of drawing from Nature.
    • Chap. XX.—Of drawing Academy Figures.
    • Chap. XXI.—Of studying in the Dark, on first waking in the Morning, and before going to sleep.
    • Chap. XXII.—Observations on drawing Portraits.
    • Chap. XXIII.—The Method of retaining in the Memory the Likeness of a Man, so as to draw his Profile, after having seen him only once.
    • Chap. XXIV.—How to remember the Form of a Face.
    • Chap. XXV.—That a Painter should take Pleasure in the Opinion of every body.
    • ANATOMY.
      • Chap. XXVI.—What is principally to be observed in Figures.
      • Chap. XXVII.—Mode of Studying.
      • Chap. XXVIII.—Of being universal.
      • Chap. XXIX.—A Precept for the Painter.
      • Chap. XXX.—Of the Measures of the human Body, and the bending of Members.
      • Chap. XXXI.—Of the small Bones in several Joints of the human Body.
      • Chap. XXXII.—Memorandum to be observed by the Painter.
      • Chap. XXXIII.—The Shoulders.
      • Chap. XXXIV.—The Difference of Joints between Children and grown Men.
      • Chap. XXXV.—Of the Joints of the Fingers.
      • Chap. XXXVI.—Of the Joint of the Wrist.
      • Chap. XXXVII.—Of the Joint of the Foot.
      • Chap. XXXVIII.—Of the Knee.
      • Chap. XXXIX.—Of the Joints.
      • Chap. XL.—Of the Naked.
      • Chap. XLI.—Of the Thickness of the Muscles.
      • Chap. XLII.—Fat Subjects have small Muscles.
      • Chap. XLIII.—Which of the Muscles disappear in the different Motions of the Body.
      • Chap. XLIV.—Of the Muscles.
      • Chap. XLV.—Of the Muscles.
      • Chap. XLVI.—The Extension and Contraction of the Muscles.
      • Chap. XLVII.—Of the Muscle between the Chest and the lower Belly.
      • Chap. XLVIII.—Of a Man’s complex Strength, but first of the Arm.
      • Chap. XLIX.—In which of the two Actions, Pulling or Pushing, a Man has the greatest Power, Plate II.
      • Chap. L.—Of the bending of Members, and of the Flesh round the bending Joint.
      • Chap. LI.—Of the naked Body.
      • Chap. LII.—Of a Ligament without Muscles.
      • Chap. LIII.—Of Creases.
      • Chap. LIV.—How near behind the Back one Arm can be brought to the other, Plate III. and IV.
      • Chap. LV.—Of the Muscles.
      • Chap. LVI.—Of the Muscles.
      • Chap. LVII.—Of the Bending of the Body.
      • Chap. LVIII.—The same Subject.
      • Chap. LIX.—The Necessity of anatomical Knowledge.
    • Chap. XXVI.—What is principally to be observed in Figures.
    • Chap. XXVII.—Mode of Studying.
    • Chap. XXVIII.—Of being universal.
    • Chap. XXIX.—A Precept for the Painter.
    • Chap. XXX.—Of the Measures of the human Body, and the bending of Members.
    • Chap. XXXI.—Of the small Bones in several Joints of the human Body.
    • Chap. XXXII.—Memorandum to be observed by the Painter.
    • Chap. XXXIII.—The Shoulders.
    • Chap. XXXIV.—The Difference of Joints between Children and grown Men.
    • Chap. XXXV.—Of the Joints of the Fingers.
    • Chap. XXXVI.—Of the Joint of the Wrist.
    • Chap. XXXVII.—Of the Joint of the Foot.
    • Chap. XXXVIII.—Of the Knee.
    • Chap. XXXIX.—Of the Joints.
    • Chap. XL.—Of the Naked.
    • Chap. XLI.—Of the Thickness of the Muscles.
    • Chap. XLII.—Fat Subjects have small Muscles.
    • Chap. XLIII.—Which of the Muscles disappear in the different Motions of the Body.
    • Chap. XLIV.—Of the Muscles.
    • Chap. XLV.—Of the Muscles.
    • Chap. XLVI.—The Extension and Contraction of the Muscles.
    • Chap. XLVII.—Of the Muscle between the Chest and the lower Belly.
    • Chap. XLVIII.—Of a Man’s complex Strength, but first of the Arm.
    • Chap. XLIX.—In which of the two Actions, Pulling or Pushing, a Man has the greatest Power, Plate II.
    • Chap. L.—Of the bending of Members, and of the Flesh round the bending Joint.
    • Chap. LI.—Of the naked Body.
    • Chap. LII.—Of a Ligament without Muscles.
    • Chap. LIII.—Of Creases.
    • Chap. LIV.—How near behind the Back one Arm can be brought to the other, Plate III. and IV.
    • Chap. LV.—Of the Muscles.
    • Chap. LVI.—Of the Muscles.
    • Chap. LVII.—Of the Bending of the Body.
    • Chap. LVIII.—The same Subject.
    • Chap. LIX.—The Necessity of anatomical Knowledge.
    • MOTION AND EQUIPOISE OF FIGURES.
      • Chap. LX.—Of the Equipoise of a Figure standing still.
      • Chap. LXI.—Motion produced by the Loss of Equilibrium.
      • Chap. LXII.—Of the Equipoise of Bodies, Plate V.
      • Chap. LXIII.—Of Positions.
      • Chap. LXIV.—Of balancing the Weight round the Centre of Gravity in Bodies.
      • Chap. LXV.—Of Figures that have to lift up, or carry any Weight.
      • Chap. LXVI.—The Equilibrium of a Man standing upon his Feet, Plate VI.
      • Chap. LXVII.—Of Walking, Plate VII.
      • Chap. LXVIII.—Of the Centre of Gravity in Men and Animals.
      • Chap. LXIX.—Of the corresponding Thickness of Parts on each Side of the Body.
      • Chap. LXX.—Of the Motions of Animals.
      • Chap. LXXI.—Of Quadrupeds and their Motions.
      • Chap. LXXII.—Of the Quickness or Slowness of Motion.
      • Chap. LXXIII.—Of the Motion of Animals.
      • Chap. LXXIV.—Of a Figure moving against the Wind, Plate VIII.
      • Chap. LXXV.—Of the Balance of a Figure resting upon its Feet.
      • Chap. LXXVI.—A Precept.
      • Chap. LXXVII.—Of a Man standing, but resting more upon one Foot than the other.
      • Chap. LXXVIII.—Of the Balance of Figures, Plate IX.
      • Chap. LXXIX.—In what Manner extending one Arm alters the Balance.
      • Chap. LXXX.—Of a Man bearing a Weight on his Shoulders, Plate X.
      • Chap. LXXXI.—Of Equilibrium.
      • Chap. LXXXII.—Of Motion.
      • Chap. LXXXIII.—The Level of the Shoulders.
      • Chap. LXXXIV.—Objection to the above answered, Plate XI. and XII.
      • Chap. LXXXV.—Of the Position of Figures, Plate XIII.
      • Chap. LXXXVI.—Of the Joints.
      • Chap. LXXXVII.—Of the Shoulders.
      • Chap. LXXXVIII.—Of the Motions of a Man.
      • Chap. LXXXIX.—Of the Disposition of Members preparing to act with great Force, Plate XIV.
      • Chap. XC.—Of throwing any Thing with Violence, Plate XV.
      • Chap. XCI.—On the Motion of driving any Thing into or drawing it out of the Ground.
      • Chap. XCII.—Of forcible Motions, Plate XVI.
      • Chap. XCIII.—The Action of Jumping.
      • Chap. XCIV.—Of the three Motions in jumping upwards.
      • Chap. XCV.—Of the easy Motions of Members.
      • Chap. XCVI.—The greatest Twist which a Man can make, in turning to look at himself behind. Plate XVII.
      • Chap. XCVII.—Of turning the Leg without the Thigh.
      • Chap. XCVIII.—Postures of Figures.
      • Chap. XCIX.—Of the Gracefulness of the Members.
      • Chap. C.—That it is impossible for any Memory to retain the Aspects and Changes of the Members.
      • Chap. CI.—The Motions of Figures.
      • Chap. CII.—Of common Motions.
      • Chap. CIII.—Of simple Motions.
      • Chap. CIV.—Complex Motion.
      • Chap. CV.—Motions appropriated to the Subject.
      • Chap. CVI.—Appropriate Motions.
      • Chap. CVII.—Of the Postures of Women and young People.
      • Chap. CVIII.—Of the Postures of Children.
      • Chap. CIX.—Of the Motion of the Members.
      • Chap. CX.—Of mental Motions.
      • Chap. CXI.—Effect of the Mind upon the Motions of the Body, occasioned by some outward Object.
    • Chap. LX.—Of the Equipoise of a Figure standing still.
    • Chap. LXI.—Motion produced by the Loss of Equilibrium.
    • Chap. LXII.—Of the Equipoise of Bodies, Plate V.
    • Chap. LXIII.—Of Positions.
    • Chap. LXIV.—Of balancing the Weight round the Centre of Gravity in Bodies.
    • Chap. LXV.—Of Figures that have to lift up, or carry any Weight.
    • Chap. LXVI.—The Equilibrium of a Man standing upon his Feet, Plate VI.
    • Chap. LXVII.—Of Walking, Plate VII.
    • Chap. LXVIII.—Of the Centre of Gravity in Men and Animals.
    • Chap. LXIX.—Of the corresponding Thickness of Parts on each Side of the Body.
    • Chap. LXX.—Of the Motions of Animals.
    • Chap. LXXI.—Of Quadrupeds and their Motions.
    • Chap. LXXII.—Of the Quickness or Slowness of Motion.
    • Chap. LXXIII.—Of the Motion of Animals.
    • Chap. LXXIV.—Of a Figure moving against the Wind, Plate VIII.
    • Chap. LXXV.—Of the Balance of a Figure resting upon its Feet.
    • Chap. LXXVI.—A Precept.
    • Chap. LXXVII.—Of a Man standing, but resting more upon one Foot than the other.
    • Chap. LXXVIII.—Of the Balance of Figures, Plate IX.
    • Chap. LXXIX.—In what Manner extending one Arm alters the Balance.
    • Chap. LXXX.—Of a Man bearing a Weight on his Shoulders, Plate X.
    • Chap. LXXXI.—Of Equilibrium.
    • Chap. LXXXII.—Of Motion.
    • Chap. LXXXIII.—The Level of the Shoulders.
    • Chap. LXXXIV.—Objection to the above answered, Plate XI. and XII.
    • Chap. LXXXV.—Of the Position of Figures, Plate XIII.
    • Chap. LXXXVI.—Of the Joints.
    • Chap. LXXXVII.—Of the Shoulders.
    • Chap. LXXXVIII.—Of the Motions of a Man.
    • Chap. LXXXIX.—Of the Disposition of Members preparing to act with great Force, Plate XIV.
    • Chap. XC.—Of throwing any Thing with Violence, Plate XV.
    • Chap. XCI.—On the Motion of driving any Thing into or drawing it out of the Ground.
    • Chap. XCII.—Of forcible Motions, Plate XVI.
    • Chap. XCIII.—The Action of Jumping.
    • Chap. XCIV.—Of the three Motions in jumping upwards.
    • Chap. XCV.—Of the easy Motions of Members.
    • Chap. XCVI.—The greatest Twist which a Man can make, in turning to look at himself behind. Plate XVII.
    • Chap. XCVII.—Of turning the Leg without the Thigh.
    • Chap. XCVIII.—Postures of Figures.
    • Chap. XCIX.—Of the Gracefulness of the Members.
    • Chap. C.—That it is impossible for any Memory to retain the Aspects and Changes of the Members.
    • Chap. CI.—The Motions of Figures.
    • Chap. CII.—Of common Motions.
    • Chap. CIII.—Of simple Motions.
    • Chap. CIV.—Complex Motion.
    • Chap. CV.—Motions appropriated to the Subject.
    • Chap. CVI.—Appropriate Motions.
    • Chap. CVII.—Of the Postures of Women and young People.
    • Chap. CVIII.—Of the Postures of Children.
    • Chap. CIX.—Of the Motion of the Members.
    • Chap. CX.—Of mental Motions.
    • Chap. CXI.—Effect of the Mind upon the Motions of the Body, occasioned by some outward Object.
    • LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
      • Chap. CXII.—Of those who apply themselves to the Practice, without having learnt the Theory of the Art.
      • Chap. CXIII.—Precepts in Painting.
      • Chap. CXIV.—Of the Boundaries of Objects called Outlines or Contours.
      • Chap. CXV.—Of linear Perspective.
      • Chap. CXVI.—What Parts of Objects disappear first by Distance.
      • Chap. CXVII.—Of remote Objects.
      • Chap. CXVIII.—Of the Point of Sight.
      • Chap. CXIX.—A Picture is to be viewed from one Point only.
      • Chap. CXX.—Of the Dimensions of the first Figure in an historical Painting.
      • Chap. CXXI.—Of Objects that are lost to the Sight in Proportion to their Distance.
      • Chap. CXXII.—Errors not so easily seen in small Objects as in large ones.
      • Chap. CXXIII.—Historical Subjects one above another on the same Wall to be avoided.
      • Chap. CXXIV.—Why Objects in Painting can never detach, as natural Objects do.
      • Chap. CXXV.—How to give the proper Dimension to Objects in Painting.
      • Chap. CXXVI.—How to draw accurately any particular Spot.
      • Chap. CXXVII.—Disproportion to be avoided, even in the accessory Parts.
    • Chap. CXII.—Of those who apply themselves to the Practice, without having learnt the Theory of the Art.
    • Chap. CXIII.—Precepts in Painting.
    • Chap. CXIV.—Of the Boundaries of Objects called Outlines or Contours.
    • Chap. CXV.—Of linear Perspective.
    • Chap. CXVI.—What Parts of Objects disappear first by Distance.
    • Chap. CXVII.—Of remote Objects.
    • Chap. CXVIII.—Of the Point of Sight.
    • Chap. CXIX.—A Picture is to be viewed from one Point only.
    • Chap. CXX.—Of the Dimensions of the first Figure in an historical Painting.
    • Chap. CXXI.—Of Objects that are lost to the Sight in Proportion to their Distance.
    • Chap. CXXII.—Errors not so easily seen in small Objects as in large ones.
    • Chap. CXXIII.—Historical Subjects one above another on the same Wall to be avoided.
    • Chap. CXXIV.—Why Objects in Painting can never detach, as natural Objects do.
    • Chap. CXXV.—How to give the proper Dimension to Objects in Painting.
    • Chap. CXXVI.—How to draw accurately any particular Spot.
    • Chap. CXXVII.—Disproportion to be avoided, even in the accessory Parts.
  • INVENTION, or COMPOSITION.
    • Chap. CXXVIII.—Precept for avoiding a bad Choice in the Style or Proportion of Figures.
      • Chap. CXXIX.—Variety in Figures.
      • Chap. CXXX.—How a Painter ought to proceed in his Studies.
      • Chap. CXXXI.—Of sketching Histories and Figures.
      • Chap. CXXXII.—How to study Composition.
      • Chap. CXXXIII.—Of the Attitudes of Men.
      • Chap. CXXXIV.—Variety of Positions.
      • Chap. CXXXV.—Of Studies from Nature for History.
      • Chap. CXXXVI.—Of the Variety of Figures in History Painting.
      • Chap. CXXXVII.—Of Variety in History.
      • Chap. CXXXVIII.—Of the Age of Figures.
      • Chap. CXXXIX.—Of Variety of Faces.
      • Chap. CXL.—A Fault in Painters.
      • Chap. CXLI.—How you may learn to compose Groups for History Painting.
      • Chap. CXLII.—How to study the Motions of the human Body.
      • Chap. CXLIII.—Of Dresses, and of Draperies and Folds.
      • Chap. CXLIV.—Of the Nature of Folds in Draperies.
      • Chap. CXLV.—How the Folds of Draperies ought to be represented, Plate XVIII.
      • Chap. CXLVI.—How the Folds in Draperies ought to be made.
      • Chap. CXLVII.—Fore-shortening of Folds, Plate XIX.
      • Chap. CXLVIII.—Of Folds.
      • Chap. CXLIX.—Of Decorum.
      • Chap. CL.—The Character of Figures in Composition.
      • Chap. CLI.—The Motion of the Muscles, when the Figures are in natural Positions.
      • Chap. CLII.—A Precept in Painting.
      • Chap. CLIII.—Of the Motion of Man, Plates XX. and XXI.
      • Chap. CLIV.—Of Attitudes, and the Motions of the Members.
      • Chap. CLV.—Of a single Figure separate from an historical Group.
      • Chap. CLVI.—On the Attitudes of the human Figure.
      • Chap. CLVII.—How to represent a Storm.
      • Chap. CLVIII.—How to compose a Battle.
      • Chap. CLIX.—The Representation of an Orator and his Audience.
      • Chap. CLX.—Of demonstrative Gestures.
      • Chap. CLXI.—Of the Attitudes of the By-standers at some remarkable Event.
      • Chap. CLXII.—How to represent Night.
      • Chap. CLXIII.—The Method of awakening the Mind to a Variety of Inventions.
      • Chap. CLXIV.—Of Composition in History.
    • Chap. CXXIX.—Variety in Figures.
    • Chap. CXXX.—How a Painter ought to proceed in his Studies.
    • Chap. CXXXI.—Of sketching Histories and Figures.
    • Chap. CXXXII.—How to study Composition.
    • Chap. CXXXIII.—Of the Attitudes of Men.
    • Chap. CXXXIV.—Variety of Positions.
    • Chap. CXXXV.—Of Studies from Nature for History.
    • Chap. CXXXVI.—Of the Variety of Figures in History Painting.
    • Chap. CXXXVII.—Of Variety in History.
    • Chap. CXXXVIII.—Of the Age of Figures.
    • Chap. CXXXIX.—Of Variety of Faces.
    • Chap. CXL.—A Fault in Painters.
    • Chap. CXLI.—How you may learn to compose Groups for History Painting.
    • Chap. CXLII.—How to study the Motions of the human Body.
    • Chap. CXLIII.—Of Dresses, and of Draperies and Folds.
    • Chap. CXLIV.—Of the Nature of Folds in Draperies.
    • Chap. CXLV.—How the Folds of Draperies ought to be represented, Plate XVIII.
    • Chap. CXLVI.—How the Folds in Draperies ought to be made.
    • Chap. CXLVII.—Fore-shortening of Folds, Plate XIX.
    • Chap. CXLVIII.—Of Folds.
    • Chap. CXLIX.—Of Decorum.
    • Chap. CL.—The Character of Figures in Composition.
    • Chap. CLI.—The Motion of the Muscles, when the Figures are in natural Positions.
    • Chap. CLII.—A Precept in Painting.
    • Chap. CLIII.—Of the Motion of Man, Plates XX. and XXI.
    • Chap. CLIV.—Of Attitudes, and the Motions of the Members.
    • Chap. CLV.—Of a single Figure separate from an historical Group.
    • Chap. CLVI.—On the Attitudes of the human Figure.
    • Chap. CLVII.—How to represent a Storm.
    • Chap. CLVIII.—How to compose a Battle.
    • Chap. CLIX.—The Representation of an Orator and his Audience.
    • Chap. CLX.—Of demonstrative Gestures.
    • Chap. CLXI.—Of the Attitudes of the By-standers at some remarkable Event.
    • Chap. CLXII.—How to represent Night.
    • Chap. CLXIII.—The Method of awakening the Mind to a Variety of Inventions.
    • Chap. CLXIV.—Of Composition in History.
    • EXPRESSION and CHARACTER.
      • Chap. CLXV.—Of expressive Motions.
      • Chap. CLXVI.—How to paint Children.
      • Chap. CLXVII.—How to represent old Men.
      • Chap. CLXVIII.—How to paint old Women.
      • Chap. CLXIX.—How to paint Women.
      • Chap. CLXX.—Of the Variety of Faces.
      • Chap.CLXXI.—The Parts of the Face, and their Motions.
      • Chap. CLXXII.—Laughing and Weeping.
      • Chap. CLXXIII.—Of Anger.
      • Chap. CLXXIV.—Despair.
    • Chap. CLXV.—Of expressive Motions.
    • Chap. CLXVI.—How to paint Children.
    • Chap. CLXVII.—How to represent old Men.
    • Chap. CLXVIII.—How to paint old Women.
    • Chap. CLXIX.—How to paint Women.
    • Chap. CLXX.—Of the Variety of Faces.
    • Chap.CLXXI.—The Parts of the Face, and their Motions.
    • Chap. CLXXII.—Laughing and Weeping.
    • Chap. CLXXIII.—Of Anger.
    • Chap. CLXXIV.—Despair.
  • LIGHT and SHADOW.
    • Chap. CLXXV.—The Course of Study to be pursued.
      • Chap. CLXXVI.—Which of the two is the most useful Knowledge, the Outlines of Figures, or that of Light and Shadow.
      • Chap. CLXXVII.—Which is the most important, the Shadows or Outlines in Painting.
      • Chap. CLXXVIII.—What is a Painter’s first Aim, and Object.
      • Chap. CLXXIX.—The Difference of Superficies, in regard to Painting.
      • Chap. CLXXX.—How a Painter may become universal.
      • Chap. CLXXXI.—Accuracy ought to be learnt before Dispatch in the Execution.
      • Chap. CLXXXII.—How the Painter is to place himself in regard to the Light, and his Model.
      • Chap. CLXXXIII.—Of the best Light.
      • Chap. CLXXXIV.—Of Drawing by Candle-light.
      • Chap. CLXXXV.—Of those Painters who draw at Home from one Light, and afterwards adapt their Studies to another Situation in the Country, and a different Light.
      • Chap. CLXXXVI.—How high the Light should be in drawing from Nature.
      • Chap. CLXXXVII.—What Light the Painter must make use of to give most Relief to his Figures.
      • Chap. CLXXXVIII.—Advice to Painters.
      • Chap. CLXXXIX.—Of Shadows.
      • Chap. CXC.—Of the Kind of Light proper for drawing from Relievos, or from Nature.
      • Chap. CXCI.—Whether the Light should be admitted in Front or sideways; and which is most pleasing and graceful.
      • Chap. CXCII.—Of the Difference of Lights according to the Situation.
      • Chap. CXCIII.—How to distribute the Light on Figures.
      • Chap. CXCIV.—Of the Beauty of Faces.
      • Chap. CXCV.—How, in drawing a Face, to give it Grace, by the Management of Light and Shade.
      • Chap. CXCVI.—How to give Grace and Relief to Faces.
      • Chap. CXCVII.—Of the Termination of Bodies upon each other.
      • Chap. CXCVIII.—Of the Back-grounds of painted Objects.
      • Chap. CXCIX.—How to detach and bring forward Figures out of their Back-ground.
      • Chap. CC.—Of proper Back-grounds.
      • Chap. CCI.—Of the general Light diffused over Figures.
      • Chap. CCII.—Of those Parts in Shadows which appear the darkest at a Distance.
      • Chap. CCIII.—Of the Eye viewing the Folds of Draperies surrounding a Figure.
      • Chap. CCIV.—Of the Relief of Figures remote from the Eye.
      • Chap. CCV.—Of Outlines of Objects on the Side towards the Light.
      • Chap. CCVI.—How to make Objects detach from their Ground, that is to say, from the Surface on which they are painted.
    • Chap. CLXXVI.—Which of the two is the most useful Knowledge, the Outlines of Figures, or that of Light and Shadow.
    • Chap. CLXXVII.—Which is the most important, the Shadows or Outlines in Painting.
    • Chap. CLXXVIII.—What is a Painter’s first Aim, and Object.
    • Chap. CLXXIX.—The Difference of Superficies, in regard to Painting.
    • Chap. CLXXX.—How a Painter may become universal.
    • Chap. CLXXXI.—Accuracy ought to be learnt before Dispatch in the Execution.
    • Chap. CLXXXII.—How the Painter is to place himself in regard to the Light, and his Model.
    • Chap. CLXXXIII.—Of the best Light.
    • Chap. CLXXXIV.—Of Drawing by Candle-light.
    • Chap. CLXXXV.—Of those Painters who draw at Home from one Light, and afterwards adapt their Studies to another Situation in the Country, and a different Light.
    • Chap. CLXXXVI.—How high the Light should be in drawing from Nature.
    • Chap. CLXXXVII.—What Light the Painter must make use of to give most Relief to his Figures.
    • Chap. CLXXXVIII.—Advice to Painters.
    • Chap. CLXXXIX.—Of Shadows.
    • Chap. CXC.—Of the Kind of Light proper for drawing from Relievos, or from Nature.
    • Chap. CXCI.—Whether the Light should be admitted in Front or sideways; and which is most pleasing and graceful.
    • Chap. CXCII.—Of the Difference of Lights according to the Situation.
    • Chap. CXCIII.—How to distribute the Light on Figures.
    • Chap. CXCIV.—Of the Beauty of Faces.
    • Chap. CXCV.—How, in drawing a Face, to give it Grace, by the Management of Light and Shade.
    • Chap. CXCVI.—How to give Grace and Relief to Faces.
    • Chap. CXCVII.—Of the Termination of Bodies upon each other.
    • Chap. CXCVIII.—Of the Back-grounds of painted Objects.
    • Chap. CXCIX.—How to detach and bring forward Figures out of their Back-ground.
    • Chap. CC.—Of proper Back-grounds.
    • Chap. CCI.—Of the general Light diffused over Figures.
    • Chap. CCII.—Of those Parts in Shadows which appear the darkest at a Distance.
    • Chap. CCIII.—Of the Eye viewing the Folds of Draperies surrounding a Figure.
    • Chap. CCIV.—Of the Relief of Figures remote from the Eye.
    • Chap. CCV.—Of Outlines of Objects on the Side towards the Light.
    • Chap. CCVI.—How to make Objects detach from their Ground, that is to say, from the Surface on which they are painted.
    • CONTRASTE AND EFFECT.
      • Chap. CCVII.—A Precept.
      • Chap. CCVIII.—Of the Interposition of transparent Bodies between the Eye and the Object.
      • Chap. CCIX.—Of proper Back-grounds for Figures.
      • Chap. CCX.—Of Back-grounds.
    • Chap. CCVII.—A Precept.
    • Chap. CCVIII.—Of the Interposition of transparent Bodies between the Eye and the Object.
    • Chap. CCIX.—Of proper Back-grounds for Figures.
    • Chap. CCX.—Of Back-grounds.
    • REFLEXES.
      • Chap. CCXI.—Of Objects placed on a light Ground, and why such a Practice is useful in Painting.
      • Chap. CCXII.—Of the different Effects of White, according to the Difference of Back-grounds.
      • Chap. CCXIII.—Of Reverberation.
      • Chap. CCXIV.—Where there cannot be any Reverberation of Light.
      • Chap. CCXV.—In what Part the Reflexes have more or less Brightness.
      • Chap. CCXVI.—Of the reflected Lights which surround the Shadows.
      • Chap. CCXVII.—Where Reflexes are to be most apparent.
      • Chap. CCXVIII.—What Part of a Reflex is to be the lightest.
      • Chap. CCXIX.—Of the Termination of Reflexes on their Grounds.
      • Chap. CCXX.—Of double and treble Reflexions of Light.
      • Chap. CCXXI.—Reflexes in the Water, and particularly those of the Air.
    • Chap. CCXI.—Of Objects placed on a light Ground, and why such a Practice is useful in Painting.
    • Chap. CCXII.—Of the different Effects of White, according to the Difference of Back-grounds.
    • Chap. CCXIII.—Of Reverberation.
    • Chap. CCXIV.—Where there cannot be any Reverberation of Light.
    • Chap. CCXV.—In what Part the Reflexes have more or less Brightness.
    • Chap. CCXVI.—Of the reflected Lights which surround the Shadows.
    • Chap. CCXVII.—Where Reflexes are to be most apparent.
    • Chap. CCXVIII.—What Part of a Reflex is to be the lightest.
    • Chap. CCXIX.—Of the Termination of Reflexes on their Grounds.
    • Chap. CCXX.—Of double and treble Reflexions of Light.
    • Chap. CCXXI.—Reflexes in the Water, and particularly those of the Air.
  • COLOURS and COLOURING.
    • COLOURS.
      • Chap. CCXXII.—What Surface is best calculated to receive most Colours.
      • Chap. CCXXIII.—What Surface will shew most perfectly its true Colour.
      • Chap. CCXXIV.—On what Surfaces the true Colour is least apparent.
      • Chap. CCXXV.—What Surfaces shew most of their true and genuine Colour.
      • Chap. CCXXVI.—Of the Mixture of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXXVII.—Of the Colours produced by the Mixture of other Colours, called secondary Colours.
      • Chap. CCXXVIII.—Of Verdegris.
      • Chap. CCXXIX.—How to increase the Beauty of Verdegris.
      • Chap. CCXXX.—How to paint a Picture that will last almost for ever.
      • Chap. CCXXXI.—The Mode of painting on Canvass, or Linen Cloth [54].
      • Chap. CCXXXII.—Of lively and beautiful Colours.
      • Chap. CCXXXIII.—Of transparent Colours.
      • Chap. CCXXXIV.—In what Part a Colour will appear in its greatest Beauty.
      • Chap. CCXXXV.—How any Colour without Gloss, is more beautiful in the Lights than in the Shades.
      • Chap. CCXXXVI.—Of the Appearance of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXXXVII.—What Part of a Colour is to be the most beautiful.
      • Chap. CCXXXVIII.—That the Beauty of a Colour is to be found in the Lights.
      • Chap. CCXXXIX.—Of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXL.—No Object appears in its true Colour, unless the Light which strikes upon it be of the same Colour.
      • Chap. CCXLI.—Of the Colour of Shadows.
      • Chap. CCXLII.—Of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXLIII.—Whether it be possible for all Colours to appear alike by means of the same Shadow.
      • Chap. CCXLIV.—Why White is not reckoned among the Colours.
      • Chap. CCXLV.—Of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXLVI.—Of the Colouring of remote Objects.
      • Chap. CCXLVII.—The Surface of all opake Bodies participates of the Colour of the surrounding Objects.
      • Chap. CCXLVIII.—General Remarks on Colours.
    • Chap. CCXXII.—What Surface is best calculated to receive most Colours.
    • Chap. CCXXIII.—What Surface will shew most perfectly its true Colour.
    • Chap. CCXXIV.—On what Surfaces the true Colour is least apparent.
    • Chap. CCXXV.—What Surfaces shew most of their true and genuine Colour.
    • Chap. CCXXVI.—Of the Mixture of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXXVII.—Of the Colours produced by the Mixture of other Colours, called secondary Colours.
    • Chap. CCXXVIII.—Of Verdegris.
    • Chap. CCXXIX.—How to increase the Beauty of Verdegris.
    • Chap. CCXXX.—How to paint a Picture that will last almost for ever.
    • Chap. CCXXXI.—The Mode of painting on Canvass, or Linen Cloth [54].
    • Chap. CCXXXII.—Of lively and beautiful Colours.
    • Chap. CCXXXIII.—Of transparent Colours.
    • Chap. CCXXXIV.—In what Part a Colour will appear in its greatest Beauty.
    • Chap. CCXXXV.—How any Colour without Gloss, is more beautiful in the Lights than in the Shades.
    • Chap. CCXXXVI.—Of the Appearance of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXXXVII.—What Part of a Colour is to be the most beautiful.
    • Chap. CCXXXVIII.—That the Beauty of a Colour is to be found in the Lights.
    • Chap. CCXXXIX.—Of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXL.—No Object appears in its true Colour, unless the Light which strikes upon it be of the same Colour.
    • Chap. CCXLI.—Of the Colour of Shadows.
    • Chap. CCXLII.—Of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXLIII.—Whether it be possible for all Colours to appear alike by means of the same Shadow.
    • Chap. CCXLIV.—Why White is not reckoned among the Colours.
    • Chap. CCXLV.—Of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXLVI.—Of the Colouring of remote Objects.
    • Chap. CCXLVII.—The Surface of all opake Bodies participates of the Colour of the surrounding Objects.
    • Chap. CCXLVIII.—General Remarks on Colours.
    • COLOURS IN REGARD TO LIGHT AND SHADOW.
      • Chap. CCXLIX.—Of the Light proper for painting Flesh Colour from Nature.
      • Chap. CCL.—Of the Painter’s Window.
      • Chap. CCLI.—The Shadows of Colours.
      • Chap. CCLII.—Of the Shadows of White.
      • Chap. CCLIII.—Which of the Colours will produce the darkest Shade.
      • Chap. CCLIV.—How to manage, when a White terminates upon another White.
      • Chap. CCLV.—On the Back-grounds of Figures.
      • Chap. CCLVI.—The Mode of composing History.
      • Chap. CCLVII.—Remarks concerning Lights and Shadows.
      • Chap. CCLVIII.—Why the Shadows of Bodies upon a white Wall are blueish towards Evening.
      • Chap. CCLIX.—Of the Colour of Faces.
      • Chap. CCLX.—A Precept relating to Painting.
      • Chap. CCLXI.—Of Colours in Shadow.
      • Chap. CCLXII.—Of the Choice of Lights.
    • Chap. CCXLIX.—Of the Light proper for painting Flesh Colour from Nature.
    • Chap. CCL.—Of the Painter’s Window.
    • Chap. CCLI.—The Shadows of Colours.
    • Chap. CCLII.—Of the Shadows of White.
    • Chap. CCLIII.—Which of the Colours will produce the darkest Shade.
    • Chap. CCLIV.—How to manage, when a White terminates upon another White.
    • Chap. CCLV.—On the Back-grounds of Figures.
    • Chap. CCLVI.—The Mode of composing History.
    • Chap. CCLVII.—Remarks concerning Lights and Shadows.
    • Chap. CCLVIII.—Why the Shadows of Bodies upon a white Wall are blueish towards Evening.
    • Chap. CCLIX.—Of the Colour of Faces.
    • Chap. CCLX.—A Precept relating to Painting.
    • Chap. CCLXI.—Of Colours in Shadow.
    • Chap. CCLXII.—Of the Choice of Lights.
    • COLOURS IN REGARD TO BACK-GROUNDS.
      • Chap. CCLXIII.—Of avoiding hard Outlines.
      • Chap. CCLXIV.—Of Outlines.
      • Chap. CCLXV.—Of Back-grounds.
      • Chap. CCLXVI.—How to detach Figures from the Ground.
      • Chap. CCLXVII.—Of Uniformity and Variety of Colours upon plain Surfaces.
      • Chap. CCLXVIII.—Of Back-grounds suitable both to Shadows and Lights.
      • Chap. CCLXIX.—The apparent Variation of Colours, occasioned by the Contraste of the Ground upon which they are placed.
    • Chap. CCLXIII.—Of avoiding hard Outlines.
    • Chap. CCLXIV.—Of Outlines.
    • Chap. CCLXV.—Of Back-grounds.
    • Chap. CCLXVI.—How to detach Figures from the Ground.
    • Chap. CCLXVII.—Of Uniformity and Variety of Colours upon plain Surfaces.
    • Chap. CCLXVIII.—Of Back-grounds suitable both to Shadows and Lights.
    • Chap. CCLXIX.—The apparent Variation of Colours, occasioned by the Contraste of the Ground upon which they are placed.
    • CONTRASTE, HARMONY, AND REFLEXES, IN REGARD TO COLOURS.
      • Chap. CCLXX.—Gradation in Painting.
      • Chap. CCLXXI.—How to assort Colours in such a Manner as that they may add Beauty to each other.
      • Chap. CCLXXII.—Of detaching the Figures.
      • Chap. CCLXXIII.—Of the Colour of Reflexes.
      • Chap. CCLXXIV.—What Body will be the most strongly tinged with the Colour of any other Object.
      • Chap. CCLXXV.—Of Reflexes.
      • Chap. CCLXXVI.—Of the Surface of all shadowed Bodies.
      • Chap. CCLXXVII.—That no reflected Colour is simple, but is mixed with the Nature of the other Colours.
      • Chap. CCLXXVIII.—Of the Colour of Lights and Reflexes.
      • Chap. CCLXXIX.—Why reflected Colours seldom partake of the Colour of the Body where they meet.
      • Chap. CCLXXX.—The Reflexes of Flesh Colours.
      • Chap. CCLXXXI.—Of the Nature of Comparison.
      • Chap. CCLXXXII.—Where the Reflexes are seen.
    • Chap. CCLXX.—Gradation in Painting.
    • Chap. CCLXXI.—How to assort Colours in such a Manner as that they may add Beauty to each other.
    • Chap. CCLXXII.—Of detaching the Figures.
    • Chap. CCLXXIII.—Of the Colour of Reflexes.
    • Chap. CCLXXIV.—What Body will be the most strongly tinged with the Colour of any other Object.
    • Chap. CCLXXV.—Of Reflexes.
    • Chap. CCLXXVI.—Of the Surface of all shadowed Bodies.
    • Chap. CCLXXVII.—That no reflected Colour is simple, but is mixed with the Nature of the other Colours.
    • Chap. CCLXXVIII.—Of the Colour of Lights and Reflexes.
    • Chap. CCLXXIX.—Why reflected Colours seldom partake of the Colour of the Body where they meet.
    • Chap. CCLXXX.—The Reflexes of Flesh Colours.
    • Chap. CCLXXXI.—Of the Nature of Comparison.
    • Chap. CCLXXXII.—Where the Reflexes are seen.
    • PERSPECTIVE OF COLOURS.
      • Chap. CCLXXXIII.—A Precept of Perspective in regard to Painting.
      • Chap. CCLXXXIV.—Of the Perspective of Colours.
      • Chap. CCLXXXV.—The Cause of the Diminution of Colours.
      • Chap. CCLXXXVI.—Of the Diminution of Colours and Objects.
      • Chap. CCLXXXVII.—Of the Variety observable in Colours, according to their Distance, or Proximity.
      • Chap. CCLXXXVIII.—At what Distance Colours are entirely lost.
      • Chap. CCLXXXIX.—Of the Change observable in the same Colour, according to its Distance from the Eye.
      • Chap. CCXC.—Of the blueish Appearance of remote Objects in a Landscape.
      • Chap. CCXCI.—Of the Qualities in the Surface which first lose themselves by Distance.
      • Chap. CCXCII.—From what Cause the Azure of the Air proceeds.
      • Chap. CCXCIII.—Of the Perspective of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXCIV.—Of the Perspective of Colours in dark Places.
      • Chap. CCXCV.—Of the Perspective of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXCVI.—Of Colours.
      • Chap. CCXCVII.—How it happens that Colours do not change, though placed in different Qualities of Air.
      • Chap. CCXCVIII.—Why Colours experience no apparent Change, though placed in different Qualities of Air.
      • Chap. CCXCIX.—Contrary Opinions in regard to Objects seen afar off.
      • Chap. CCC.—Of the Colour of Objects remote from the Eye.
      • Chap. CCCI.—Of the Colour of Mountains.
      • Chap. CCCII.—Why the Colour and Shape of Objects are lost in some Situations apparently dark, though not so in Reality.
      • Chap. CCCIII.—Various Precepts in Painting.
    • Chap. CCLXXXIII.—A Precept of Perspective in regard to Painting.
    • Chap. CCLXXXIV.—Of the Perspective of Colours.
    • Chap. CCLXXXV.—The Cause of the Diminution of Colours.
    • Chap. CCLXXXVI.—Of the Diminution of Colours and Objects.
    • Chap. CCLXXXVII.—Of the Variety observable in Colours, according to their Distance, or Proximity.
    • Chap. CCLXXXVIII.—At what Distance Colours are entirely lost.
    • Chap. CCLXXXIX.—Of the Change observable in the same Colour, according to its Distance from the Eye.
    • Chap. CCXC.—Of the blueish Appearance of remote Objects in a Landscape.
    • Chap. CCXCI.—Of the Qualities in the Surface which first lose themselves by Distance.
    • Chap. CCXCII.—From what Cause the Azure of the Air proceeds.
    • Chap. CCXCIII.—Of the Perspective of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXCIV.—Of the Perspective of Colours in dark Places.
    • Chap. CCXCV.—Of the Perspective of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXCVI.—Of Colours.
    • Chap. CCXCVII.—How it happens that Colours do not change, though placed in different Qualities of Air.
    • Chap. CCXCVIII.—Why Colours experience no apparent Change, though placed in different Qualities of Air.
    • Chap. CCXCIX.—Contrary Opinions in regard to Objects seen afar off.
    • Chap. CCC.—Of the Colour of Objects remote from the Eye.
    • Chap. CCCI.—Of the Colour of Mountains.
    • Chap. CCCII.—Why the Colour and Shape of Objects are lost in some Situations apparently dark, though not so in Reality.
    • Chap. CCCIII.—Various Precepts in Painting.
    • AERIAL PERSPECTIVE.
      • Chap. CCCIV.—Aerial Perspective.
      • Chap. CCCV.—The Parts of the Smallest Objects will first disappear in Painting.
      • Chap. CCCVI.—Small Figures ought not to be too much finished.
      • Chap. CCCVII.—Why the Air is to appear whiter as it approaches nearer to the Earth.
      • Chap. CCCVIII.—How to paint the distant Part of a Landscape.
      • Chap. CCCIX.—Of precise and confused Objects.
      • Chap. CCCX.—Of distant Objects.
      • Chap. CCCXI.—Of Buildings seen in a thick Air.
      • Chap. CCCXII.—Of Towns and other Objects seen through a thick Air.
      • Chap. CCCXIII.—Of the inferior Extremities of distant Objects.
      • Chap. CCCXIV.—Which Parts of Objects disappear first by being removed farther from the Eye, and which preserve their Appearance.
      • Chap. CCCXV.—Why Objects are less distinguished in proportion as they are farther removed from the Eye.
      • Chap. CCCXVI.—Why Faces appear dark at a Distance.
      • Chap. CCCXVII.—Of Towns and other Buildings seen through a Fog in the Morning or Evening.
      • Chap. CCCXVIII.—Of the Height of Buildings seen in a Fog.
      • Chap. CCCXIX.—Why Objects which are high, appear darker at a Distance than those which are low, though the Fog be uniform, and of equal Thickness.
      • Chap. CCCXX.—Of Objects seen in a Fog.
      • Chap. CCCXXI.—Of those Objects which the Eyes perceive through a Mist or thick Air.
      • Chap. CCCXXII.—Miscellaneous Observations.
    • Chap. CCCIV.—Aerial Perspective.
    • Chap. CCCV.—The Parts of the Smallest Objects will first disappear in Painting.
    • Chap. CCCVI.—Small Figures ought not to be too much finished.
    • Chap. CCCVII.—Why the Air is to appear whiter as it approaches nearer to the Earth.
    • Chap. CCCVIII.—How to paint the distant Part of a Landscape.
    • Chap. CCCIX.—Of precise and confused Objects.
    • Chap. CCCX.—Of distant Objects.
    • Chap. CCCXI.—Of Buildings seen in a thick Air.
    • Chap. CCCXII.—Of Towns and other Objects seen through a thick Air.
    • Chap. CCCXIII.—Of the inferior Extremities of distant Objects.
    • Chap. CCCXIV.—Which Parts of Objects disappear first by being removed farther from the Eye, and which preserve their Appearance.
    • Chap. CCCXV.—Why Objects are less distinguished in proportion as they are farther removed from the Eye.
    • Chap. CCCXVI.—Why Faces appear dark at a Distance.
    • Chap. CCCXVII.—Of Towns and other Buildings seen through a Fog in the Morning or Evening.
    • Chap. CCCXVIII.—Of the Height of Buildings seen in a Fog.
    • Chap. CCCXIX.—Why Objects which are high, appear darker at a Distance than those which are low, though the Fog be uniform, and of equal Thickness.
    • Chap. CCCXX.—Of Objects seen in a Fog.
    • Chap. CCCXXI.—Of those Objects which the Eyes perceive through a Mist or thick Air.
    • Chap. CCCXXII.—Miscellaneous Observations.
  • MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS.
    • LANDSCAPE.
      • Chap. CCCXXIII.—Of Objects seen at a Distance.
      • Chap. CCCXXIV.—Of a Town seen through a thick Air.
      • Chap. CCCXXV.—How to draw a Landscape.
      • Chap. CCCXXVI.—Of the Green of the Country.
      • Chap. CCCXXVII.—What Greens will appear most of a blueish Cast.
      • Chap. CCCXXVIII.—The Colour of the Sea from different Aspects.
      • Chap. CCCXXIX.—Why the same Prospect appears larger at some Times than at others.
      • Chap. CCCXXX.—Of Smoke.
      • Chap. CCCXXXI.—In what Part Smoke is lightest.
      • Chap. CCCXXXII.—Of the Sun-beams passing through the Openings of Clouds.
      • Chap. CCCXXXIII.—Of the Beginning of Rain.
      • Chap. CCCXXXIV.—The Seasons are to be observed.
      • Chap. CCCXXXV.—The Difference of Climates to be observed.
      • Chap. CCCXXXVI.—Of Dust.
      • Chap. CCCXXXVII.—How to represent the Wind.
      • Chap. CCCXXXVIII.—Of a Wilderness.
      • Chap. CCCXXXIX.—Of the Horizon seen in the Water.
      • Chap. CCCXL.—Of the Shadow of Bridges on the Surface of the Water.
      • Chap. CCCXLI.—How a Painter ought to put in Practice the Perspective of Colours.
      • Chap. CCCXLII.—Various Precepts in Painting.
      • Chap. CCCXLIII.—The Brilliancy of a Landscape.
    • Chap. CCCXXIII.—Of Objects seen at a Distance.
    • Chap. CCCXXIV.—Of a Town seen through a thick Air.
    • Chap. CCCXXV.—How to draw a Landscape.
    • Chap. CCCXXVI.—Of the Green of the Country.
    • Chap. CCCXXVII.—What Greens will appear most of a blueish Cast.
    • Chap. CCCXXVIII.—The Colour of the Sea from different Aspects.
    • Chap. CCCXXIX.—Why the same Prospect appears larger at some Times than at others.
    • Chap. CCCXXX.—Of Smoke.
    • Chap. CCCXXXI.—In what Part Smoke is lightest.
    • Chap. CCCXXXII.—Of the Sun-beams passing through the Openings of Clouds.
    • Chap. CCCXXXIII.—Of the Beginning of Rain.
    • Chap. CCCXXXIV.—The Seasons are to be observed.
    • Chap. CCCXXXV.—The Difference of Climates to be observed.
    • Chap. CCCXXXVI.—Of Dust.
    • Chap. CCCXXXVII.—How to represent the Wind.
    • Chap. CCCXXXVIII.—Of a Wilderness.
    • Chap. CCCXXXIX.—Of the Horizon seen in the Water.
    • Chap. CCCXL.—Of the Shadow of Bridges on the Surface of the Water.
    • Chap. CCCXLI.—How a Painter ought to put in Practice the Perspective of Colours.
    • Chap. CCCXLII.—Various Precepts in Painting.
    • Chap. CCCXLIII.—The Brilliancy of a Landscape.
    • MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS.
      • Chap. CCCXLIV.—Why a painted Object does not appear so far distant as a real one, though they be conveyed to the Eye by equal Angles.
      • Chap. CCCXLV.—How to draw a Figure standing upon its Feet, to appear forty Braccia [92] high, in a Space of twenty Braccia, with proportionate Members.
      • Chap. CCCXLVI.—How to draw a Figure twenty-four Braccia high, upon a Wall twelve Braccia high. Plate XXII.
      • Chap. CCCXLVII.—Why, on measuring a Face, and then painting it of the same Size, it will appear larger than the natural one.
      • Chap. CCCXLVIII.—Why the most perfect Imitation of Nature will not appear to have the same Relief as Nature itself.
      • Chap. CCCXLIX.—Universality of Painting; a Precept.
      • Chap. CCCL.—In what Manner the Mirror is the true Master of Painters.
      • Chap. CCCLI.—Which Painting is to be esteemed the best.
      • Chap. CCCLII.—Of the Judgment to be made of a Painter’s Work.
      • Chap. CCCLIII.—How to make an imaginary Animal appear natural.
      • Chap. CCCLIV.—Painters are not to imitate one another.
      • Chap. CCCLV.—How to judge of one’s own Work.
      • Chap. CCCLVI.—Of correcting Errors which you discover.
      • Chap. CCCLVII.—The best Place for looking at a Picture.
      • Chap. CCCLVIII.—Of Judgment.
      • Chap. CCCLIX.—Of Employment anxiously wished for by Painters.
      • Chap. CCCLX.—Advice to Painters.
      • Chap. CCCLXI.—Of Statuary.
      • Chap. CCCLXII.—On the Measurement and Division of Statues into Parts.
      • Chap. CCCLXIII.—A Precept for the Painter.
      • Chap. CCCLXIV.—On the Judgment of Painters.
      • Chap. CCCLXV.—That a Man ought not to trust to himself, but ought to consult Nature.
    • Chap. CCCXLIV.—Why a painted Object does not appear so far distant as a real one, though they be conveyed to the Eye by equal Angles.
    • Chap. CCCXLV.—How to draw a Figure standing upon its Feet, to appear forty Braccia [92] high, in a Space of twenty Braccia, with proportionate Members.
    • Chap. CCCXLVI.—How to draw a Figure twenty-four Braccia high, upon a Wall twelve Braccia high. Plate XXII.
    • Chap. CCCXLVII.—Why, on measuring a Face, and then painting it of the same Size, it will appear larger than the natural one.
    • Chap. CCCXLVIII.—Why the most perfect Imitation of Nature will not appear to have the same Relief as Nature itself.
    • Chap. CCCXLIX.—Universality of Painting; a Precept.
    • Chap. CCCL.—In what Manner the Mirror is the true Master of Painters.
    • Chap. CCCLI.—Which Painting is to be esteemed the best.
    • Chap. CCCLII.—Of the Judgment to be made of a Painter’s Work.
    • Chap. CCCLIII.—How to make an imaginary Animal appear natural.
    • Chap. CCCLIV.—Painters are not to imitate one another.
    • Chap. CCCLV.—How to judge of one’s own Work.
    • Chap. CCCLVI.—Of correcting Errors which you discover.
    • Chap. CCCLVII.—The best Place for looking at a Picture.
    • Chap. CCCLVIII.—Of Judgment.
    • Chap. CCCLIX.—Of Employment anxiously wished for by Painters.
    • Chap. CCCLX.—Advice to Painters.
    • Chap. CCCLXI.—Of Statuary.
    • Chap. CCCLXII.—On the Measurement and Division of Statues into Parts.
    • Chap. CCCLXIII.—A Precept for the Painter.
    • Chap. CCCLXIV.—On the Judgment of Painters.
    • Chap. CCCLXV.—That a Man ought not to trust to himself, but ought to consult Nature.
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