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A Short History of the World

By H. G. (Herbert George) Wells
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Table of Contents
  • A SHORT
  • HISTORY OF THE WORLD
    • BY
      • H. G. WELLS
      • New York THE MACMILLAN & COMPANY 1922
    • H. G. WELLS
    • New York THE MACMILLAN & COMPANY 1922
    • CONTENTS
    • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
    • A SHORT HISTORY OF THE WORLD
      • I
        • THE WORLD IN SPACE
        • “LUMINOUS SPIRAL CLOUDS OF MATTER” (Nebula photographed 1910) Photo: G. W. Ritchey
        • THE NEBULA SEEN EDGE-ON Note the central core which, through millions of years, is cooling to solidity Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • THE WORLD IN SPACE
      • “LUMINOUS SPIRAL CLOUDS OF MATTER” (Nebula photographed 1910) Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • THE NEBULA SEEN EDGE-ON Note the central core which, through millions of years, is cooling to solidity Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • II
        • THE WORLD IN TIME
        • THE GREAT SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
        • A DARK NEBULA
        • ANOTHER SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
        • LANDSCAPE BEFORE LIFE
      • THE WORLD IN TIME
      • THE GREAT SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • A DARK NEBULA
      • ANOTHER SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • LANDSCAPE BEFORE LIFE
      • III
        • THE BEGINNINGS OF LIFE
        • MARINE LIFE IN THE CAMBRIAN PERIOD
        • FOSSIL TRILOBITE (SLIGHTLY MAGNIFIED) Photo: John J. Ward, F.E.S.
        • EARLY PALÆOLITHIC FOSSILS OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF LINGULA Species of this most ancient genus of shellfish still live to-day (In Natural History Museum, London)
        • FOSSILIZED FOOTPRINTS OF A LABYRINTHODONT CHEIROTHERIUM (In Natural History Museum, London)
      • THE BEGINNINGS OF LIFE
      • MARINE LIFE IN THE CAMBRIAN PERIOD
      • FOSSIL TRILOBITE (SLIGHTLY MAGNIFIED) Photo: John J. Ward, F.E.S.
      • EARLY PALÆOLITHIC FOSSILS OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF LINGULA Species of this most ancient genus of shellfish still live to-day (In Natural History Museum, London)
      • FOSSILIZED FOOTPRINTS OF A LABYRINTHODONT CHEIROTHERIUM (In Natural History Museum, London)
      • IV
        • THE AGE OF FISHES
        • SPECIMEN OF THE PTERICHTHYS MILLERI OR SEA SCORPION SHOWING BODY ARMOUR
        • FOSSIL OF THE CLADOSELACHE, A DEVONIAN SHARK Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • SHARKS AND GANOIDS OF THE DEVONIAN PERIOD By Alice Woodward
      • THE AGE OF FISHES
      • SPECIMEN OF THE PTERICHTHYS MILLERI OR SEA SCORPION SHOWING BODY ARMOUR
      • FOSSIL OF THE CLADOSELACHE, A DEVONIAN SHARK Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • SHARKS AND GANOIDS OF THE DEVONIAN PERIOD By Alice Woodward
      • V
        • THE AGE OF THE COAL SWAMPS
        • A CARBONIFEROUS SWAMP A Coal Seam in the Making
        • SKULL OF A LABYRINTHODONT, CAPITOSAURUS Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • SKELETON OF A LABYRINTHODONT: THE ERYOPS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • THE AGE OF THE COAL SWAMPS
      • A CARBONIFEROUS SWAMP A Coal Seam in the Making
      • SKULL OF A LABYRINTHODONT, CAPITOSAURUS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • SKELETON OF A LABYRINTHODONT: THE ERYOPS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • VI
        • THE AGE OF REPTILES
        • A FOSSIL ICHTHYOSAURUS, A MESOZOIC FISH-LIZARD Found in the Lower Lias in Somersetshire Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • A PTERODACTYL Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • A BIG SWAMP-INHABITING DINOSAUR, THE DIPLODOCUS, OVER EIGHTY FEET FROM SNOUT TO TAIL-TIP Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • THE AGE OF REPTILES
      • A FOSSIL ICHTHYOSAURUS, A MESOZOIC FISH-LIZARD Found in the Lower Lias in Somersetshire Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • A PTERODACTYL Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • A BIG SWAMP-INHABITING DINOSAUR, THE DIPLODOCUS, OVER EIGHTY FEET FROM SNOUT TO TAIL-TIP Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • VII
        • THE FIRST BIRDS AND THE FIRST MAMMALS
        • FOSSIL OF THE ARCHEOPTERYX; ONE OF THE EARLIEST BIRDS Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • HESPERORNIS IN ITS NATIVE SEAS
        • THE KI-WI, APTERYX, STILL FOUND IN NEW ZEALAND Photo: Autotype Fine Art Co.
        • SLAB OF LOWER PLIOCENE MARL Discovered in Greece; it is rich in fossilized bones of early mammals
      • THE FIRST BIRDS AND THE FIRST MAMMALS
      • FOSSIL OF THE ARCHEOPTERYX; ONE OF THE EARLIEST BIRDS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • HESPERORNIS IN ITS NATIVE SEAS
      • THE KI-WI, APTERYX, STILL FOUND IN NEW ZEALAND Photo: Autotype Fine Art Co.
      • SLAB OF LOWER PLIOCENE MARL Discovered in Greece; it is rich in fossilized bones of early mammals
      • VIII
        • THE AGE OF MAMMALS
        • A MAMMAL OF THE EARLY CAINOZOIC PERIOD The Titanotherum (Brontops) Robustum
        • STENOMYLUS HITCHCOCKI—A GIRAFFE-CAMEL Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • SKELETON OF PROTOHIPPUS VENTICOLUS--EARLY HORSE Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • COMPARATIVE SIZES OF BRAINS OF RHINOCEROS AND DINOCERAS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • THE AGE OF MAMMALS
      • A MAMMAL OF THE EARLY CAINOZOIC PERIOD The Titanotherum (Brontops) Robustum
      • STENOMYLUS HITCHCOCKI—A GIRAFFE-CAMEL Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • SKELETON OF PROTOHIPPUS VENTICOLUS--EARLY HORSE Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • COMPARATIVE SIZES OF BRAINS OF RHINOCEROS AND DINOCERAS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • IX
        • MONKEYS, APES AND SUB-MEN
        • A MAMMOTH
        • FLINT IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN PILTDOWN REGION Nat. Hist. Mus.
        • A THEORETICAL RESTORATION OF THE PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS BY PROF. RUTOT
        • THE HEIDELBERG MAN The Heidelberg Man, as modelled under the supervision of Prof. Rutot
        • THE PILTDOWN SKULL, AS RECONSTRUCTED FROM ORIGINAL FRAGMENT Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • MONKEYS, APES AND SUB-MEN
      • A MAMMOTH
      • FLINT IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN PILTDOWN REGION Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • A THEORETICAL RESTORATION OF THE PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS BY PROF. RUTOT
      • THE HEIDELBERG MAN The Heidelberg Man, as modelled under the supervision of Prof. Rutot
      • THE PILTDOWN SKULL, AS RECONSTRUCTED FROM ORIGINAL FRAGMENT Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • X
        • THE NEANDERTHALER AND THE RHODESIAN MAN
        • THE NEANDERTHALER, ACCORDING TO PROF. RUTOT
        • COMPARISON OF (1) MODERN SKULL AND (2) RHODESIAN SKULL Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • THE NEANDERTHALER AND THE RHODESIAN MAN
      • THE NEANDERTHALER, ACCORDING TO PROF. RUTOT
      • COMPARISON OF (1) MODERN SKULL AND (2) RHODESIAN SKULL Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • XI
        • THE FIRST TRUE MEN
        • ONE OF THE MARVELLOUS CAVE PAINTINGS OF ALTAMIRA, NORTH SPAIN The Walls of the Caves are covered in these representations of Bulls, etc., painted in the soft tones of red shaded to black. They may be fifteen or twenty thousand years old
        • BONE CARVINGS OF THE PALÆOLITHIC PERIOD (1 and 2) Mammoth tusk carved to shape of Reindeer, (3) Dagger Handle representing Mammoth, and (4) Bone engraved with Horses’ Heads Brit. Mus.
        • THE RUTOT BUST OF A CRO-MAGNON MAN
        • Among the most recent discoveries of Palæolithic Art are these specimens found in 1920 in Spain. They are probably ten or twelve thousand years old
      • THE FIRST TRUE MEN
      • ONE OF THE MARVELLOUS CAVE PAINTINGS OF ALTAMIRA, NORTH SPAIN The Walls of the Caves are covered in these representations of Bulls, etc., painted in the soft tones of red shaded to black. They may be fifteen or twenty thousand years old
      • BONE CARVINGS OF THE PALÆOLITHIC PERIOD (1 and 2) Mammoth tusk carved to shape of Reindeer, (3) Dagger Handle representing Mammoth, and (4) Bone engraved with Horses’ Heads Brit. Mus.
      • THE RUTOT BUST OF A CRO-MAGNON MAN
      • Among the most recent discoveries of Palæolithic Art are these specimens found in 1920 in Spain. They are probably ten or twelve thousand years old
      • XII
        • PRIMITIVE THOUGHT
        • RELICS OF THE STONE AGE Chert implements from Somaliland. In general form they are similar to those found in Western and Northern Europe Brit. Mus.
        • WIDESPREAD SIMILARITY OF MEN OF THE STONE AGE On the left is a flint implement excavated in Gray’s Inn Lane, London; on the right one of similar form chipped by primitive men of Somaliland Brit. Mus.
      • PRIMITIVE THOUGHT
      • RELICS OF THE STONE AGE Chert implements from Somaliland. In general form they are similar to those found in Western and Northern Europe Brit. Mus.
      • WIDESPREAD SIMILARITY OF MEN OF THE STONE AGE On the left is a flint implement excavated in Gray’s Inn Lane, London; on the right one of similar form chipped by primitive men of Somaliland Brit. Mus.
      • XIII
        • THE BEGINNINGS OF CULTIVATION
        • NEOLITHIC FLINT IMPLEMENTS Brit. Mus.
        • NEOLITHICISM OF TO-DAY Spearheads, exactly as in the true Neolithic days, but made recently by Australian Natives, (1) Made from a telegraph insulator; (2) from a piece of broken bottle glass. Brit. Mus.
        • SPECIMEN OF NEOLITHIC POTTERY Dug up at Mortlake from the Thames Bed Brit. Mus.
      • THE BEGINNINGS OF CULTIVATION
      • NEOLITHIC FLINT IMPLEMENTS Brit. Mus.
      • NEOLITHICISM OF TO-DAY Spearheads, exactly as in the true Neolithic days, but made recently by Australian Natives, (1) Made from a telegraph insulator; (2) from a piece of broken bottle glass. Brit. Mus.
      • SPECIMEN OF NEOLITHIC POTTERY Dug up at Mortlake from the Thames Bed Brit. Mus.
      • XIV
        • PRIMITIVE NEOLITHIC CIVILIZATIONS
        • A MAYA STELE Showing a worshipper and a Serpent God. Note the grotesque faces in the writing Brit. Mus.
        • NEOLITHIC WARRIOR Modelled from drawing by Prof. Rutot
      • PRIMITIVE NEOLITHIC CIVILIZATIONS
      • A MAYA STELE Showing a worshipper and a Serpent God. Note the grotesque faces in the writing Brit. Mus.
      • NEOLITHIC WARRIOR Modelled from drawing by Prof. Rutot
      • XV
        • SUMERIA, EARLY EGYPT AND WRITING
        • BRICK OF HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON ABOUT 2200 B.C. Note the cuneiform characters of the inscription, which records the building of a temple to a Sun God
        • EBONY CYLINDER SEALS OF FIRST EGYPTIAN DYNASTY Recovered from the Tombs at Abydos in 1921 by the British School of Archæology. They give evidence of early form of block printing
        • THE SAKHARA PYRAMIDS The Pyramid to the right, the step Pyramid, is the oldest stone building in the world Photo: F. Boyer
        • VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT OF THE GREAT PYRAMID OF CHEOPS Showing how these great monuments dominate the plain Photo: D. McLeish
        • THE TEMPLE OF HATHOR AT DENDEREH Photo: D. McLeish
      • SUMERIA, EARLY EGYPT AND WRITING
      • BRICK OF HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON ABOUT 2200 B.C. Note the cuneiform characters of the inscription, which records the building of a temple to a Sun God
      • EBONY CYLINDER SEALS OF FIRST EGYPTIAN DYNASTY Recovered from the Tombs at Abydos in 1921 by the British School of Archæology. They give evidence of early form of block printing
      • THE SAKHARA PYRAMIDS The Pyramid to the right, the step Pyramid, is the oldest stone building in the world Photo: F. Boyer
      • VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT OF THE GREAT PYRAMID OF CHEOPS Showing how these great monuments dominate the plain Photo: D. McLeish
      • THE TEMPLE OF HATHOR AT DENDEREH Photo: D. McLeish
      • XVI
        • PRIMITIVE NOMADIC PEOPLES
        • POTTERY AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE LAKE DWELLERS Brit. Mus.
        • A CONTEMPORARY LAKE VILLAGE These Borneo dwellings are practically counterparts of the homes of European neolithic communities 6000 B.C.
        • NOMADS IN EGYPT Egyptian wall painting in a tomb near ancient Beni Hassan, middle Egypt. It depicts the arrival of a tribe of Semitic Nomads in Egypt about the year of 1895 B.C.
        • FLINT KNIVES OF 4500 B.C. Excavated 1922 by the British School of Archæology in Egypt from First Dynasty Tombs
        • EGYPT PEASANTS GOING TO WORK From an ancient and curiously painted model in the British Museum
        • STELE GLORIFYING KING NARAM SIN, OF AKKAD This monarch, son of Sargon I, was a great architecht as well as a famous conqueror. Discovered in 1898 among the ruins of Susa, Persia
      • PRIMITIVE NOMADIC PEOPLES
      • POTTERY AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE LAKE DWELLERS Brit. Mus.
      • A CONTEMPORARY LAKE VILLAGE These Borneo dwellings are practically counterparts of the homes of European neolithic communities 6000 B.C.
      • NOMADS IN EGYPT Egyptian wall painting in a tomb near ancient Beni Hassan, middle Egypt. It depicts the arrival of a tribe of Semitic Nomads in Egypt about the year of 1895 B.C.
      • FLINT KNIVES OF 4500 B.C. Excavated 1922 by the British School of Archæology in Egypt from First Dynasty Tombs
      • EGYPT PEASANTS GOING TO WORK From an ancient and curiously painted model in the British Museum
      • STELE GLORIFYING KING NARAM SIN, OF AKKAD This monarch, son of Sargon I, was a great architecht as well as a famous conqueror. Discovered in 1898 among the ruins of Susa, Persia
      • XVII
        • THE FIRST SEAGOING PEOPLES
        • THE TREASURE HOUSE AT MYCENÆ Photo: Fred Boissonnas
        • THE PALACE AT CNOSSOS The painted walls of the Throne Room Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE FIRST SEAGOING PEOPLES
      • THE TREASURE HOUSE AT MYCENÆ Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE PALACE AT CNOSSOS The painted walls of the Throne Room Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • XVIII
        • EGYPT, BABYLON AND ASSYRIA
        • TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL Showing the statues of Rameses II at entrance
        • AVENUE OF SPHINXES Leading from the Nile to the great Temple of Karnak Photo: D. McLeish
        • THE GREAT HYPOSTYLE HALL AT KARNAK Photo: D. McLeish
        • FRIEZE SHOWING EGYPTIAN FEMALE SLAVES CARRYING LUXURIOUS FOODS Photo: Jacques Boyer
        • THE TEMPLE OF HORUS AT EDFU
      • EGYPT, BABYLON AND ASSYRIA
      • TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL Showing the statues of Rameses II at entrance
      • AVENUE OF SPHINXES Leading from the Nile to the great Temple of Karnak Photo: D. McLeish
      • THE GREAT HYPOSTYLE HALL AT KARNAK Photo: D. McLeish
      • FRIEZE SHOWING EGYPTIAN FEMALE SLAVES CARRYING LUXURIOUS FOODS Photo: Jacques Boyer
      • THE TEMPLE OF HORUS AT EDFU
      • XIX
        • THE PRIMITIVE ARYANS
        • A BEAUTIFUL ARCHAIC AMPHORA Compare the horses and other animals with the Altamira drawing on p. 54, and also with the Greek frieze, p. 140
        • THE MOUND OF NIPPUR The site of a city which recent excavations have proved to date from at least as early as 5000 B.C., and probably 1000 years earlier Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • THE PRIMITIVE ARYANS
      • A BEAUTIFUL ARCHAIC AMPHORA Compare the horses and other animals with the Altamira drawing on p. 54, and also with the Greek frieze, p. 140
      • THE MOUND OF NIPPUR The site of a city which recent excavations have proved to date from at least as early as 5000 B.C., and probably 1000 years earlier Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • XX
        • THE LAST BABYLONIAN EMPIRE AND THE EMPIRE OF DARIUS I
        • PERSIAN MONARCH From the ruins of Persepolis Photo: Miss F. Biggs
        • THE RUINS OF PERSEPOLIS The capital city of the Persian Empire; burnt by Alexander the Great Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
        • THE GREAT PORCH OF XERXES, AT PERSEPOLIS Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
      • THE LAST BABYLONIAN EMPIRE AND THE EMPIRE OF DARIUS I
      • PERSIAN MONARCH From the ruins of Persepolis Photo: Miss F. Biggs
      • THE RUINS OF PERSEPOLIS The capital city of the Persian Empire; burnt by Alexander the Great Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
      • THE GREAT PORCH OF XERXES, AT PERSEPOLIS Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
      • XXI
        • THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE JEWS
        • THE MOUND AT BABYLON Beneath which are the remains of a great palace of Nebuchadnezzar Photo: Underwood & Underwood
        • THE ISHTAR GATEWAY, BABYLON The bulls are in richly coloured enamel on baked brick Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE JEWS
      • THE MOUND AT BABYLON Beneath which are the remains of a great palace of Nebuchadnezzar Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • THE ISHTAR GATEWAY, BABYLON The bulls are in richly coloured enamel on baked brick Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • XXII
        • PRIESTS AND PROPHETS IN JUDEA
        • THE BLACK OBELISK OF SHALMANESER II This obelisk (in the British Museum) of the King of Assyria mentions, in cuneiform, “Jehu the son of Omri.” Panel showing Jewish captives bringing tribute
        • ANOTHER PANEL OF THE BLACK OBELISK Captive Princes making obeisance to Shalmaneser II
      • PRIESTS AND PROPHETS IN JUDEA
      • THE BLACK OBELISK OF SHALMANESER II This obelisk (in the British Museum) of the King of Assyria mentions, in cuneiform, “Jehu the son of Omri.” Panel showing Jewish captives bringing tribute
      • ANOTHER PANEL OF THE BLACK OBELISK Captive Princes making obeisance to Shalmaneser II
      • XXIII
        • THE GREEKS
        • STATUE OF MELEAGER Note the progress in plastic power from the earlier wooden statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
        • RUINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA Photo: Fred Boissonnas
        • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON), PÆSTUM, SICILY Photo: Alinari
      • THE GREEKS
      • STATUE OF MELEAGER Note the progress in plastic power from the earlier wooden statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • RUINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON), PÆSTUM, SICILY Photo: Alinari
      • XXIV
        • THE WARS OF THE GREEKS AND PERSIANS
        • FINE PIECE OF ATHENIAN POTTERY Showing Greek merchant vesselswith sails and oars statue on left Brit. Mus.
        • ALL THAT REMAINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF CORINTH Photo: Fred Boissonnas
        • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON) AT CAPE SUNIUM Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE WARS OF THE GREEKS AND PERSIANS
      • FINE PIECE OF ATHENIAN POTTERY Showing Greek merchant vesselswith sails and oars statue on left Brit. Mus.
      • ALL THAT REMAINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF CORINTH Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON) AT CAPE SUNIUM Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • XXV
        • THE SPLENDOUR OF GREECE
        • PART OF THE FAMOUS FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON, ATHENS A specimen of Grecian sculpture in its finest expression. Compare the advance of art with that seen in the animals shown on p. 105 Photo: Fred Boissonnas
        • THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS The marvellous group of Temples and monuments built under the inspriration of Pericles Photo: Fred Boissonnas
        • THE THEATRE AT EPIDAUROS, GREECE A wonderfully preserved specimen showing the vast auditorium Photo: Fred Boissonnas
        • THE CARYATIDES OF THE ERECHTHEUM The ancient sanctuary on the Acropolis at Athens Photo: Fred Boissonnas
        • ATHENE OF THE PARTHENON Photo: Alinart
      • THE SPLENDOUR OF GREECE
      • PART OF THE FAMOUS FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON, ATHENS A specimen of Grecian sculpture in its finest expression. Compare the advance of art with that seen in the animals shown on p. 105 Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS The marvellous group of Temples and monuments built under the inspriration of Pericles Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE THEATRE AT EPIDAUROS, GREECE A wonderfully preserved specimen showing the vast auditorium Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE CARYATIDES OF THE ERECHTHEUM The ancient sanctuary on the Acropolis at Athens Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • ATHENE OF THE PARTHENON Photo: Alinart
      • XXVI
        • THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT
        • BUST OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (As in the British Museum)
        • ALEXANDER’S VICTORY OVER THE PERSIANS AT ISSUS (From the Pompeian Mosaic) Alexander charges in on the left, Darius is in the chariot to the right
        • THE APOLLO BELVEDERE (In the Vatican Museum)
      • THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT
      • BUST OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (As in the British Museum)
      • ALEXANDER’S VICTORY OVER THE PERSIANS AT ISSUS (From the Pompeian Mosaic) Alexander charges in on the left, Darius is in the chariot to the right
      • THE APOLLO BELVEDERE (In the Vatican Museum)
      • XXVII
        • THE MUSEUM AND LIBRARY AT ALEXANDRIA
        • ARISTOTLE From Herculaneum, probably Fourth Century B.C. Photo: Dr. Singer
        • STATUETTE OF MAITREYA: THE BUDDHA TO COME A Græco-Buddhist sculpture of the Third Century A.D. (From Malakand, N. W. Province, now in the India Museum)
        • THE DEATH OF BUDDHA Græco-Buddhist carving from Sivat Valley, N. W. Province, probably A.D. 350 India Mus.
      • THE MUSEUM AND LIBRARY AT ALEXANDRIA
      • ARISTOTLE From Herculaneum, probably Fourth Century B.C. Photo: Dr. Singer
      • STATUETTE OF MAITREYA: THE BUDDHA TO COME A Græco-Buddhist sculpture of the Third Century A.D. (From Malakand, N. W. Province, now in the India Museum)
      • THE DEATH OF BUDDHA Græco-Buddhist carving from Sivat Valley, N. W. Province, probably A.D. 350 India Mus.
      • XXVIII
        • THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA
        • TIBETAN BUDDHA Gilt Brass Casting in India Museum, showing Gautama Buddha in the “earth witness” attitude India Mus.
        • A BURMESE BUDDHA Marble Figure from Mandalay, eighteenth century work, now in the India Museum
        • THE DHAMÊKH TOWER In the Deer Park at Sarnath. Sixth Century A.D. (From a Painting in the India Museum)
      • THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA
      • TIBETAN BUDDHA Gilt Brass Casting in India Museum, showing Gautama Buddha in the “earth witness” attitude India Mus.
      • A BURMESE BUDDHA Marble Figure from Mandalay, eighteenth century work, now in the India Museum
      • THE DHAMÊKH TOWER In the Deer Park at Sarnath. Sixth Century A.D. (From a Painting in the India Museum)
      • XXIX
        • KING ASOKA
        • A LOHAN OR BUDDHIST APOSTLE (Tang Dynasty) (From the statue in the British Museum)
        • TRANSOME SHOWING THE COURT OF ASOKA India Mus.
        • ASOKA PANEL FROM BHARHUT India Mus.
        • THE PILLAR OF LIONS Capital of the Pillar (column lying on side) erected in Deer Park in the time of Asoka, where Buddha preached his first sermon (From a print in the India Museum)
      • KING ASOKA
      • A LOHAN OR BUDDHIST APOSTLE (Tang Dynasty) (From the statue in the British Museum)
      • TRANSOME SHOWING THE COURT OF ASOKA India Mus.
      • ASOKA PANEL FROM BHARHUT India Mus.
      • THE PILLAR OF LIONS Capital of the Pillar (column lying on side) erected in Deer Park in the time of Asoka, where Buddha preached his first sermon (From a print in the India Museum)
      • XXX
        • CONFUCIUS AND LAO TSE
        • CONFUCIUS Copy of stone carving in the Temple of Confucius at K’iu Fu (From the records of the Archæological Mission to North China (Chavannes))
        • THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA As it crosses the mountains in Manchuria Photo: Underwood & Underwood
        • EARLY CHINESE BRONZE BELL Inscribed in archaic characters: “made for use by the elder of Hing village in Ting district;” latter half of the Chou Dynasty, Sixth Century B.C. (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • CONFUCIUS AND LAO TSE
      • CONFUCIUS Copy of stone carving in the Temple of Confucius at K’iu Fu (From the records of the Archæological Mission to North China (Chavannes))
      • THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA As it crosses the mountains in Manchuria Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • EARLY CHINESE BRONZE BELL Inscribed in archaic characters: “made for use by the elder of Hing village in Ting district;” latter half of the Chou Dynasty, Sixth Century B.C. (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • XXXI
        • ROME COMES INTO HISTORY
        • THE DYING GAUL The statue in the National Museum, Rome, depicting a Gaul stabbing himself, after killing his wife, in the presence of his enemies Photo: Anderson
        • REMAINS OF THE ANCIENT ROMAN CISTERNS AT CARTHAGE Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • ROME COMES INTO HISTORY
      • THE DYING GAUL The statue in the National Museum, Rome, depicting a Gaul stabbing himself, after killing his wife, in the presence of his enemies Photo: Anderson
      • REMAINS OF THE ANCIENT ROMAN CISTERNS AT CARTHAGE Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • XXXII
        • ROME AND CARTHAGE
        • HANNIBAL Bust in the National Museum at Naples Photo: Mansell
      • ROME AND CARTHAGE
      • HANNIBAL Bust in the National Museum at Naples Photo: Mansell
      • XXXIII
        • THE GROWTH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
        • THE FORUM AT ROME AS IT IS TO-DAY
        • RELICS OF ROMAN RULE Ruins of Coliseum in Tunis Photo: Jacques Boyer
        • THE GREAT ROMAN ARCH AT CTESIPHON NEAR BAGDAD
        • THE COLUMN OF TRAJAN AT ROME Representing his conquests at Dacia and elsewhere
      • THE GROWTH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
      • THE FORUM AT ROME AS IT IS TO-DAY
      • RELICS OF ROMAN RULE Ruins of Coliseum in Tunis Photo: Jacques Boyer
      • THE GREAT ROMAN ARCH AT CTESIPHON NEAR BAGDAD
      • THE COLUMN OF TRAJAN AT ROME Representing his conquests at Dacia and elsewhere
      • XXXIV
        • BETWEEN ROME AND CHINA
        • A CHINESE COVERED JAR OF GREEN-GLAZED EARTHENWARE Han Dynasty (contemporary with the late Roman republic and early Empire) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
        • VASE OF BRONZE FORM, UNGLAZED STONEWARE Han Dynasty (B.C. 206 - A.D. 220) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
        • CHINESE VESSEL IN BRONZE, IN FORM OF A GOOSE Dating from before the time of Shi-Hwang-ti. Such a piece of work indicates a high level of comfort and humour (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • BETWEEN ROME AND CHINA
      • A CHINESE COVERED JAR OF GREEN-GLAZED EARTHENWARE Han Dynasty (contemporary with the late Roman republic and early Empire) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • VASE OF BRONZE FORM, UNGLAZED STONEWARE Han Dynasty (B.C. 206 - A.D. 220) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • CHINESE VESSEL IN BRONZE, IN FORM OF A GOOSE Dating from before the time of Shi-Hwang-ti. Such a piece of work indicates a high level of comfort and humour (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • XXXV
        • THE COMMON MAN’S LIFE UNDER THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
        • POMPEII “Note the ruts in roadway worn by chariot wheels.”
        • THE COLISEUM, ROME Photo: Underwood & Underwood
        • INTERIOR OF THE COLISEUM AT IT APPEARS TO-DAY
      • THE COMMON MAN’S LIFE UNDER THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
      • POMPEII “Note the ruts in roadway worn by chariot wheels.”
      • THE COLISEUM, ROME Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • INTERIOR OF THE COLISEUM AT IT APPEARS TO-DAY
      • XXXVI
        • RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTS UNDER THE ROMAN EMPIRE
        • MITHRAS SACRIFICING A BULL, ROMAN (In the British Museum)
        • ISIS AND HORUS
        • BUST OF THE EMPEROR COMMODUS, A.D. 180-192 Represented as the God Mithras, Roman, Circa A.D. 190 (In the British Museum)
      • RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTS UNDER THE ROMAN EMPIRE
      • MITHRAS SACRIFICING A BULL, ROMAN (In the British Museum)
      • ISIS AND HORUS
      • BUST OF THE EMPEROR COMMODUS, A.D. 180-192 Represented as the God Mithras, Roman, Circa A.D. 190 (In the British Museum)
      • XXXVII
        • THE TEACHING OF JESUS
        • EARLY IDEAL PORTRAIT, IN GILDED GLASS, OF JESUS CHRIST IN WHICH THE TRADITIONAL BEARD IS NOT SHOWN
        • THE ROAD FROM NAZARETH TO TIBERIAS Photo: Fannaway
        • DAVID’S TOWER AND WALL OF JERUSALEM Photo: Fannaway
        • A STREET IN JERUSALEM Along such a thoroughfare Christ carried his cross to the place of execution Photo: Fannaway
      • THE TEACHING OF JESUS
      • EARLY IDEAL PORTRAIT, IN GILDED GLASS, OF JESUS CHRIST IN WHICH THE TRADITIONAL BEARD IS NOT SHOWN
      • THE ROAD FROM NAZARETH TO TIBERIAS Photo: Fannaway
      • DAVID’S TOWER AND WALL OF JERUSALEM Photo: Fannaway
      • A STREET IN JERUSALEM Along such a thoroughfare Christ carried his cross to the place of execution Photo: Fannaway
      • XXXVIII
        • THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINAL CHRISTIANITY
        • MOSAIC OF SS. PETER AND PAUL POINTING TO A THRONE, ON GOLD BACKGROUND From the Ninth Century original, in the Church of Sta. Prassede, Rome (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
        • THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST (Sixth Century Ivory Panel in the British Museum)
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINAL CHRISTIANITY
      • MOSAIC OF SS. PETER AND PAUL POINTING TO A THRONE, ON GOLD BACKGROUND From the Ninth Century original, in the Church of Sta. Prassede, Rome (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST (Sixth Century Ivory Panel in the British Museum)
      • XXXIX
        • THE BARBARIANS BREAK THE EMPIRE INTO EAST AND WEST
        • CONSTANTINE’S PILLAR, CONSTANTINOPLE Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
        • BASE OF THE “OBELISK OF THEODOSIUS,” CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Thothmes, taken from Egypt to Constantinople by Theodosius and placed upon the pedestal her shown; an interesting example of early Byzantine art. The complete obelisk is seen on page 239. Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • THE BARBARIANS BREAK THE EMPIRE INTO EAST AND WEST
      • CONSTANTINE’S PILLAR, CONSTANTINOPLE Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • BASE OF THE “OBELISK OF THEODOSIUS,” CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Thothmes, taken from Egypt to Constantinople by Theodosius and placed upon the pedestal her shown; an interesting example of early Byzantine art. The complete obelisk is seen on page 239. Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • XL
        • THE HUNS AND THE END OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE
        • HEAD OF BARBARIAN CHIEF (In the British Museum)
      • THE HUNS AND THE END OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE
      • HEAD OF BARBARIAN CHIEF (In the British Museum)
      • XLI
        • THE BYZANTINE AND SASSANID EMPIRES
        • THE CHURCH (NOW A MOSQUE) OF S. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Theodosius in in the foreground statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
        • THE MAGNIFICENT ROOF-WORK IN S. SOPHIA Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
        • THE RAVENNA PANEL, DEPICTING JUSTINIAN AND HIS COURT Photo: Alinari
        • THE ROCK HEWN TEMPLE AT PETRA Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • THE BYZANTINE AND SASSANID EMPIRES
      • THE CHURCH (NOW A MOSQUE) OF S. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Theodosius in in the foreground statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • THE MAGNIFICENT ROOF-WORK IN S. SOPHIA Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • THE RAVENNA PANEL, DEPICTING JUSTINIAN AND HIS COURT Photo: Alinari
      • THE ROCK HEWN TEMPLE AT PETRA Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • XLII
        • THE DYNASTIES OF SUY AND TANG IN CHINA
        • CHINESE EARTHENWARE ART OF THE TANG DYNASTY, 616-906 Specimens in glazed earthenware, in brown, green and buff, discovered in tombs in China (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • THE DYNASTIES OF SUY AND TANG IN CHINA
      • CHINESE EARTHENWARE ART OF THE TANG DYNASTY, 616-906 Specimens in glazed earthenware, in brown, green and buff, discovered in tombs in China (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • XLIII
        • MUHAMMAD AND ISLAM
        • AT PRAYER IN THE DESERT Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
        • LOOKING ACROSS THE SEA OF SAND Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • MUHAMMAD AND ISLAM
      • AT PRAYER IN THE DESERT Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • LOOKING ACROSS THE SEA OF SAND Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • XLIV
        • THE GREAT DAYS OF THE ARABS
        • JERUSALEM, SHOWING THE MOSQUE OF OMAR Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
        • VIEW OF CAIRO MOSQUES Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • THE GREAT DAYS OF THE ARABS
      • JERUSALEM, SHOWING THE MOSQUE OF OMAR Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • VIEW OF CAIRO MOSQUES Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • XLV
        • THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATIN CHRISTENDOM
        • STATUE OF CHARLEMAGNE IN FRONT OF NOTRE DAME, PARIS The figure is entirely imaginary and romantic. There is no contemporary portrait of Charlemagne Photo: Rischgitz
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATIN CHRISTENDOM
      • STATUE OF CHARLEMAGNE IN FRONT OF NOTRE DAME, PARIS The figure is entirely imaginary and romantic. There is no contemporary portrait of Charlemagne Photo: Rischgitz
      • XLVI
        • THE CRUSADES AND THE AGE OF PAPAL DOMINION
        • CRUSADER TOMBS IN EXETER CATHEDRAL Photo: Mansell
        • VIEW OF CAIRO Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
        • THE HORSES OF S. MARK, VENICE Originally on the arch of Trajan at Constantinople, the Doge Dandalo V took them after the Fourth Crusade, to Venice, whence Napoleon I removed them to Paris, but in 1815 they were returned to Venice. During the Great War of 1914-18 they were hidden away for fear of air raids. Photo: D. McLeish
        • A COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • THE CRUSADES AND THE AGE OF PAPAL DOMINION
      • CRUSADER TOMBS IN EXETER CATHEDRAL Photo: Mansell
      • VIEW OF CAIRO Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • THE HORSES OF S. MARK, VENICE Originally on the arch of Trajan at Constantinople, the Doge Dandalo V took them after the Fourth Crusade, to Venice, whence Napoleon I removed them to Paris, but in 1815 they were returned to Venice. During the Great War of 1914-18 they were hidden away for fear of air raids. Photo: D. McLeish
      • A COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • XLVII
        • RECALCITRANT PRINCES AND THE GREAT SCHISM
        • MILAN CATHEDRALA COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA View showing the exquisite carvings characteristic of the 98 spires of the edifice
        • A TYPICAL CRUSADER: DON RODRIGO DE CARDENAS From the Church of S. Pedro at Ocana, Spain (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
        • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
        • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY This series is from casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum of the original brass statuettes in the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam
      • RECALCITRANT PRINCES AND THE GREAT SCHISM
      • MILAN CATHEDRALA COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA View showing the exquisite carvings characteristic of the 98 spires of the edifice
      • A TYPICAL CRUSADER: DON RODRIGO DE CARDENAS From the Church of S. Pedro at Ocana, Spain (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
      • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY This series is from casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum of the original brass statuettes in the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam
      • XLVIII
        • THE MONGOL CONQUESTS
        • TARTAR HORSEMEN (From a Chinese Print in the British Museum)
      • THE MONGOL CONQUESTS
      • TARTAR HORSEMEN (From a Chinese Print in the British Museum)
      • XLIX
        • THE INTELLECTUAL REVIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS
        • AN EARLY PRINTING PRESS (From an old print)
        • ANCIENT BRONZE FIGURE FROM BENIN, W. AFRICA Note evidence in attire of knowledge of early European explorers (In the British Museum)
        • ANOTHER ANCIENT NEGRO BRONZE OF A EUROPEAN (In the British Museum)
        • EARLY ITALIAN ENGRAVING OF A SAILING SHIP (In the British Museum)
      • THE INTELLECTUAL REVIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS
      • AN EARLY PRINTING PRESS (From an old print)
      • ANCIENT BRONZE FIGURE FROM BENIN, W. AFRICA Note evidence in attire of knowledge of early European explorers (In the British Museum)
      • ANOTHER ANCIENT NEGRO BRONZE OF A EUROPEAN (In the British Museum)
      • EARLY ITALIAN ENGRAVING OF A SAILING SHIP (In the British Museum)
      • L
        • THE REFORMATION OF THE LATIN CHURCH
        • PORTRAIT OF LUTHER (From an early German engraving in the British Museum)
        • A MAJOLICA DISH PAINED IN COLOURS An allegory of the Church triumphant over heretics and infidels. Italian (Urbino), dated 1543 (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • THE REFORMATION OF THE LATIN CHURCH
      • PORTRAIT OF LUTHER (From an early German engraving in the British Museum)
      • A MAJOLICA DISH PAINED IN COLOURS An allegory of the Church triumphant over heretics and infidels. Italian (Urbino), dated 1543 (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • LI
        • THE EMPEROR CHARLES V
        • THE CHARLES V PORTRAIT BY TITIAN (In the Gallery del Prado, Madrid) Photo: Anderson
        • INTERIOR OF ST. PETER’S, ROME, SHOWING THE HIGH ALTAR Photo: Alinari
      • THE EMPEROR CHARLES V
      • THE CHARLES V PORTRAIT BY TITIAN (In the Gallery del Prado, Madrid) Photo: Anderson
      • INTERIOR OF ST. PETER’S, ROME, SHOWING THE HIGH ALTAR Photo: Alinari
      • LII
        • THE AGE OF POLITICAL EXPERIMENTS; OF GRAND MONARCHY AND PARLIAMENTS AND REPUBLICANISM IN EUROPE
        • CROMWELL DISSOLVES THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND SO BECOMES AUTOCRAT OF THE ENGLISH REPUBLIC (From a contemporary satirical print in the British Museum)
        • THE COURT AT VERSAILLES (From the print after Watteau in the British Museum)
        • THE SACK OF A VILLAGE DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (From Callot’s “Miseres de la Guerre”)
      • THE AGE OF POLITICAL EXPERIMENTS; OF GRAND MONARCHY AND PARLIAMENTS AND REPUBLICANISM IN EUROPE
      • CROMWELL DISSOLVES THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND SO BECOMES AUTOCRAT OF THE ENGLISH REPUBLIC (From a contemporary satirical print in the British Museum)
      • THE COURT AT VERSAILLES (From the print after Watteau in the British Museum)
      • THE SACK OF A VILLAGE DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (From Callot’s “Miseres de la Guerre”)
      • LIII
        • THE NEW EMPIRES OF THE EUROPEANS IN ASIA AND OVERSEAS
        • EUROPEANS TIGER HUNTING IN INDIA (From the engraving of the picture by Zoffany in the British Museum)
        • THE LAST EFFORT AND FALL OF TIPPOO SULTAN (From the engraving of the picture by Singleton in the British Museum)
      • THE NEW EMPIRES OF THE EUROPEANS IN ASIA AND OVERSEAS
      • EUROPEANS TIGER HUNTING IN INDIA (From the engraving of the picture by Zoffany in the British Museum)
      • THE LAST EFFORT AND FALL OF TIPPOO SULTAN (From the engraving of the picture by Singleton in the British Museum)
      • LIV
        • THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
        • GEORGE WASHINGTON (From a painting by Gilbert Stuart)
        • THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, NEAR BOSTON (From the engraving of the picture by John Trumbull in the British Museum)
      • THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
      • GEORGE WASHINGTON (From a painting by Gilbert Stuart)
      • THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, NEAR BOSTON (From the engraving of the picture by John Trumbull in the British Museum)
      • LV
        • THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE RESTORATION OF MONARCHY IN FRANCE
        • THE TRIAL OF LOUIS XVI (From a print in the British Museum)
        • THE EXECUTION OF MARIE ANTOINETTE, QUEEN OF FRANCE, OCTOBER 16, 1793 (From a print in the British Museum)
      • THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE RESTORATION OF MONARCHY IN FRANCE
      • THE TRIAL OF LOUIS XVI (From a print in the British Museum)
      • THE EXECUTION OF MARIE ANTOINETTE, QUEEN OF FRANCE, OCTOBER 16, 1793 (From a print in the British Museum)
      • LVI
        • THE UNEASY PEACE IN EUROPE THAT FOLLOWED THE FALL OF NAPOLEON
        • PORTRAIT OF NAPOLEON (CORONATION) (From a print in the British Museum)
      • THE UNEASY PEACE IN EUROPE THAT FOLLOWED THE FALL OF NAPOLEON
      • PORTRAIT OF NAPOLEON (CORONATION) (From a print in the British Museum)
      • LVII
        • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL KNOWLEDGE
        • EARLY ROLLING STOCK ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY IN THE FIRST DAYS OF THE RAILWAY
        • EARLY TRAVELLING ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY, 1833
        • THE STEAMBOAT: CLERMONT, 1807, U.S.A.
        • EIGHTEENTH CENTURY SPINNING WHEEL In the Ipswich Museum
        • MODEL OF ARKWRIGHT’S SPINNING JENNY, 1769 From the specifications in the Patent Office
        • AN EARLY WEAVING MACHINE From an engraving by W. Hincks in the British Museum
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL KNOWLEDGE
      • EARLY ROLLING STOCK ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY IN THE FIRST DAYS OF THE RAILWAY
      • EARLY TRAVELLING ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY, 1833
      • THE STEAMBOAT: CLERMONT, 1807, U.S.A.
      • EIGHTEENTH CENTURY SPINNING WHEEL In the Ipswich Museum
      • MODEL OF ARKWRIGHT’S SPINNING JENNY, 1769 From the specifications in the Patent Office
      • AN EARLY WEAVING MACHINE From an engraving by W. Hincks in the British Museum
      • LVIII
        • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
        • INCIDENT IN THE DAYS OF THE SLAVE TRADE From a print after Morland in the British Museum
        • EARLY FACTORY, IN COLEBROOKDALE From a print the British Museum
      • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
      • INCIDENT IN THE DAYS OF THE SLAVE TRADE From a print after Morland in the British Museum
      • EARLY FACTORY, IN COLEBROOKDALE From a print the British Museum
      • LIX
        • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN POLITICAL AND SOCIAL IDEAS
        • CARL MARX Photo: Linde & Co.
        • SCIENCE IN THE COAL MINE Portable Electric Loading Conveyor Photo: Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, Columbus, Ohio
        • CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAIL OF THE FORTH BRIDGE Photo: Baker & Hurtzig
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN POLITICAL AND SOCIAL IDEAS
      • CARL MARX Photo: Linde & Co.
      • SCIENCE IN THE COAL MINE Portable Electric Loading Conveyor Photo: Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, Columbus, Ohio
      • CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAIL OF THE FORTH BRIDGE Photo: Baker & Hurtzig
      • LX
        • THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES
        • ONE OF THE FIRST AMERICAN RIVER STEAMERS
        • ABRAHAM LINCOLN
      • THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES
      • ONE OF THE FIRST AMERICAN RIVER STEAMERS
      • ABRAHAM LINCOLN
      • LXI
        • THE RISE OF GERMANY TO PREDOMINANCE IN EUROPE
      • THE RISE OF GERMANY TO PREDOMINANCE IN EUROPE
      • LXII
        • THE NEW OVERSEAS EMPIRES OF STEAMSHIP AND RAILWAY
        • RAILWAY BRIDGE OVER THE GORGE, VICTORIA FALLS, OF THE ZAMBESI, SOUTHERN RHODESIA Photo: British South African Co.
      • THE NEW OVERSEAS EMPIRES OF STEAMSHIP AND RAILWAY
      • RAILWAY BRIDGE OVER THE GORGE, VICTORIA FALLS, OF THE ZAMBESI, SOUTHERN RHODESIA Photo: British South African Co.
      • LXIII
        • EUROPEAN AGGRESSION IN ASIA AND THE RISE OF JAPAN
        • JAPANESE SOLDIER ON THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
        • A STREET IN TOKIO
      • EUROPEAN AGGRESSION IN ASIA AND THE RISE OF JAPAN
      • JAPANESE SOLDIER ON THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • A STREET IN TOKIO
      • LXIV
        • THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN 1914
        • GIBRALTAR Photo: C. Sinclair
        • STREET IN HONG KONG Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN 1914
      • GIBRALTAR Photo: C. Sinclair
      • STREET IN HONG KONG Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • LXV
        • THE AGE OF ARMAMENT IN EUROPE, AND THE GREAT WAR OF 1914-18
        • BRITISH TANK IN THE BATTLE OF THE MENIN ROAD The crew came out for a breath of fresh air during a lull Photo: British Official
        • THE RUINS OF YPRES (ONCE A DELIGHTFUL OLD FLEMISH TOWN) To show the complete destructiveness of modern war Photo: Topical
        • THE DEVASTATION OF MODERN WAR Wire entanglements in the foreground Photo: Photopress
      • THE AGE OF ARMAMENT IN EUROPE, AND THE GREAT WAR OF 1914-18
      • BRITISH TANK IN THE BATTLE OF THE MENIN ROAD The crew came out for a breath of fresh air during a lull Photo: British Official
      • THE RUINS OF YPRES (ONCE A DELIGHTFUL OLD FLEMISH TOWN) To show the complete destructiveness of modern war Photo: Topical
      • THE DEVASTATION OF MODERN WAR Wire entanglements in the foreground Photo: Photopress
      • LXVI
        • THE REVOLUTION AND FAMINE IN RUSSIA
        • A VIEW IN PETERSBURG UNDER BOLSHEVIK RULE A wooden house has been demolished for firewood By courtesy of Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton
      • THE REVOLUTION AND FAMINE IN RUSSIA
      • A VIEW IN PETERSBURG UNDER BOLSHEVIK RULE A wooden house has been demolished for firewood By courtesy of Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton
      • LXVII
        • THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE WORLD
        • PASSENGER AEROPLANE FLYING OVER NORTHOLT (Photo taken by another ’plane by the Central Aerophoto Co.)
        • A PEACEFUL GARDEN IN ENGLAND Given wisdom, all mankind might live in such gardens
      • THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE WORLD
      • PASSENGER AEROPLANE FLYING OVER NORTHOLT (Photo taken by another ’plane by the Central Aerophoto Co.)
      • A PEACEFUL GARDEN IN ENGLAND Given wisdom, all mankind might live in such gardens
      • CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE
      • INDEX
    • I
      • THE WORLD IN SPACE
      • “LUMINOUS SPIRAL CLOUDS OF MATTER” (Nebula photographed 1910) Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • THE NEBULA SEEN EDGE-ON Note the central core which, through millions of years, is cooling to solidity Photo: G. W. Ritchey
    • THE WORLD IN SPACE
    • “LUMINOUS SPIRAL CLOUDS OF MATTER” (Nebula photographed 1910) Photo: G. W. Ritchey
    • THE NEBULA SEEN EDGE-ON Note the central core which, through millions of years, is cooling to solidity Photo: G. W. Ritchey
    • II
      • THE WORLD IN TIME
      • THE GREAT SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • A DARK NEBULA
      • ANOTHER SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
      • LANDSCAPE BEFORE LIFE
    • THE WORLD IN TIME
    • THE GREAT SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
    • A DARK NEBULA
    • ANOTHER SPIRAL NEBULA Photo: G. W. Ritchey
    • LANDSCAPE BEFORE LIFE
    • III
      • THE BEGINNINGS OF LIFE
      • MARINE LIFE IN THE CAMBRIAN PERIOD
      • FOSSIL TRILOBITE (SLIGHTLY MAGNIFIED) Photo: John J. Ward, F.E.S.
      • EARLY PALÆOLITHIC FOSSILS OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF LINGULA Species of this most ancient genus of shellfish still live to-day (In Natural History Museum, London)
      • FOSSILIZED FOOTPRINTS OF A LABYRINTHODONT CHEIROTHERIUM (In Natural History Museum, London)
    • THE BEGINNINGS OF LIFE
    • MARINE LIFE IN THE CAMBRIAN PERIOD
    • FOSSIL TRILOBITE (SLIGHTLY MAGNIFIED) Photo: John J. Ward, F.E.S.
    • EARLY PALÆOLITHIC FOSSILS OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF LINGULA Species of this most ancient genus of shellfish still live to-day (In Natural History Museum, London)
    • FOSSILIZED FOOTPRINTS OF A LABYRINTHODONT CHEIROTHERIUM (In Natural History Museum, London)
    • IV
      • THE AGE OF FISHES
      • SPECIMEN OF THE PTERICHTHYS MILLERI OR SEA SCORPION SHOWING BODY ARMOUR
      • FOSSIL OF THE CLADOSELACHE, A DEVONIAN SHARK Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • SHARKS AND GANOIDS OF THE DEVONIAN PERIOD By Alice Woodward
    • THE AGE OF FISHES
    • SPECIMEN OF THE PTERICHTHYS MILLERI OR SEA SCORPION SHOWING BODY ARMOUR
    • FOSSIL OF THE CLADOSELACHE, A DEVONIAN SHARK Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • SHARKS AND GANOIDS OF THE DEVONIAN PERIOD By Alice Woodward
    • V
      • THE AGE OF THE COAL SWAMPS
      • A CARBONIFEROUS SWAMP A Coal Seam in the Making
      • SKULL OF A LABYRINTHODONT, CAPITOSAURUS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • SKELETON OF A LABYRINTHODONT: THE ERYOPS Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • THE AGE OF THE COAL SWAMPS
    • A CARBONIFEROUS SWAMP A Coal Seam in the Making
    • SKULL OF A LABYRINTHODONT, CAPITOSAURUS Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • SKELETON OF A LABYRINTHODONT: THE ERYOPS Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • VI
      • THE AGE OF REPTILES
      • A FOSSIL ICHTHYOSAURUS, A MESOZOIC FISH-LIZARD Found in the Lower Lias in Somersetshire Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • A PTERODACTYL Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • A BIG SWAMP-INHABITING DINOSAUR, THE DIPLODOCUS, OVER EIGHTY FEET FROM SNOUT TO TAIL-TIP Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • THE AGE OF REPTILES
    • A FOSSIL ICHTHYOSAURUS, A MESOZOIC FISH-LIZARD Found in the Lower Lias in Somersetshire Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • A PTERODACTYL Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • A BIG SWAMP-INHABITING DINOSAUR, THE DIPLODOCUS, OVER EIGHTY FEET FROM SNOUT TO TAIL-TIP Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • VII
      • THE FIRST BIRDS AND THE FIRST MAMMALS
      • FOSSIL OF THE ARCHEOPTERYX; ONE OF THE EARLIEST BIRDS Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • HESPERORNIS IN ITS NATIVE SEAS
      • THE KI-WI, APTERYX, STILL FOUND IN NEW ZEALAND Photo: Autotype Fine Art Co.
      • SLAB OF LOWER PLIOCENE MARL Discovered in Greece; it is rich in fossilized bones of early mammals
    • THE FIRST BIRDS AND THE FIRST MAMMALS
    • FOSSIL OF THE ARCHEOPTERYX; ONE OF THE EARLIEST BIRDS Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • HESPERORNIS IN ITS NATIVE SEAS
    • THE KI-WI, APTERYX, STILL FOUND IN NEW ZEALAND Photo: Autotype Fine Art Co.
    • SLAB OF LOWER PLIOCENE MARL Discovered in Greece; it is rich in fossilized bones of early mammals
    • VIII
      • THE AGE OF MAMMALS
      • A MAMMAL OF THE EARLY CAINOZOIC PERIOD The Titanotherum (Brontops) Robustum
      • STENOMYLUS HITCHCOCKI—A GIRAFFE-CAMEL Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • SKELETON OF PROTOHIPPUS VENTICOLUS--EARLY HORSE Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • COMPARATIVE SIZES OF BRAINS OF RHINOCEROS AND DINOCERAS Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • THE AGE OF MAMMALS
    • A MAMMAL OF THE EARLY CAINOZOIC PERIOD The Titanotherum (Brontops) Robustum
    • STENOMYLUS HITCHCOCKI—A GIRAFFE-CAMEL Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • SKELETON OF PROTOHIPPUS VENTICOLUS--EARLY HORSE Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • COMPARATIVE SIZES OF BRAINS OF RHINOCEROS AND DINOCERAS Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • IX
      • MONKEYS, APES AND SUB-MEN
      • A MAMMOTH
      • FLINT IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN PILTDOWN REGION Nat. Hist. Mus.
      • A THEORETICAL RESTORATION OF THE PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS BY PROF. RUTOT
      • THE HEIDELBERG MAN The Heidelberg Man, as modelled under the supervision of Prof. Rutot
      • THE PILTDOWN SKULL, AS RECONSTRUCTED FROM ORIGINAL FRAGMENT Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • MONKEYS, APES AND SUB-MEN
    • A MAMMOTH
    • FLINT IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN PILTDOWN REGION Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • A THEORETICAL RESTORATION OF THE PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS BY PROF. RUTOT
    • THE HEIDELBERG MAN The Heidelberg Man, as modelled under the supervision of Prof. Rutot
    • THE PILTDOWN SKULL, AS RECONSTRUCTED FROM ORIGINAL FRAGMENT Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • X
      • THE NEANDERTHALER AND THE RHODESIAN MAN
      • THE NEANDERTHALER, ACCORDING TO PROF. RUTOT
      • COMPARISON OF (1) MODERN SKULL AND (2) RHODESIAN SKULL Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • THE NEANDERTHALER AND THE RHODESIAN MAN
    • THE NEANDERTHALER, ACCORDING TO PROF. RUTOT
    • COMPARISON OF (1) MODERN SKULL AND (2) RHODESIAN SKULL Nat. Hist. Mus.
    • XI
      • THE FIRST TRUE MEN
      • ONE OF THE MARVELLOUS CAVE PAINTINGS OF ALTAMIRA, NORTH SPAIN The Walls of the Caves are covered in these representations of Bulls, etc., painted in the soft tones of red shaded to black. They may be fifteen or twenty thousand years old
      • BONE CARVINGS OF THE PALÆOLITHIC PERIOD (1 and 2) Mammoth tusk carved to shape of Reindeer, (3) Dagger Handle representing Mammoth, and (4) Bone engraved with Horses’ Heads Brit. Mus.
      • THE RUTOT BUST OF A CRO-MAGNON MAN
      • Among the most recent discoveries of Palæolithic Art are these specimens found in 1920 in Spain. They are probably ten or twelve thousand years old
    • THE FIRST TRUE MEN
    • ONE OF THE MARVELLOUS CAVE PAINTINGS OF ALTAMIRA, NORTH SPAIN The Walls of the Caves are covered in these representations of Bulls, etc., painted in the soft tones of red shaded to black. They may be fifteen or twenty thousand years old
    • BONE CARVINGS OF THE PALÆOLITHIC PERIOD (1 and 2) Mammoth tusk carved to shape of Reindeer, (3) Dagger Handle representing Mammoth, and (4) Bone engraved with Horses’ Heads Brit. Mus.
    • THE RUTOT BUST OF A CRO-MAGNON MAN
    • Among the most recent discoveries of Palæolithic Art are these specimens found in 1920 in Spain. They are probably ten or twelve thousand years old
    • XII
      • PRIMITIVE THOUGHT
      • RELICS OF THE STONE AGE Chert implements from Somaliland. In general form they are similar to those found in Western and Northern Europe Brit. Mus.
      • WIDESPREAD SIMILARITY OF MEN OF THE STONE AGE On the left is a flint implement excavated in Gray’s Inn Lane, London; on the right one of similar form chipped by primitive men of Somaliland Brit. Mus.
    • PRIMITIVE THOUGHT
    • RELICS OF THE STONE AGE Chert implements from Somaliland. In general form they are similar to those found in Western and Northern Europe Brit. Mus.
    • WIDESPREAD SIMILARITY OF MEN OF THE STONE AGE On the left is a flint implement excavated in Gray’s Inn Lane, London; on the right one of similar form chipped by primitive men of Somaliland Brit. Mus.
    • XIII
      • THE BEGINNINGS OF CULTIVATION
      • NEOLITHIC FLINT IMPLEMENTS Brit. Mus.
      • NEOLITHICISM OF TO-DAY Spearheads, exactly as in the true Neolithic days, but made recently by Australian Natives, (1) Made from a telegraph insulator; (2) from a piece of broken bottle glass. Brit. Mus.
      • SPECIMEN OF NEOLITHIC POTTERY Dug up at Mortlake from the Thames Bed Brit. Mus.
    • THE BEGINNINGS OF CULTIVATION
    • NEOLITHIC FLINT IMPLEMENTS Brit. Mus.
    • NEOLITHICISM OF TO-DAY Spearheads, exactly as in the true Neolithic days, but made recently by Australian Natives, (1) Made from a telegraph insulator; (2) from a piece of broken bottle glass. Brit. Mus.
    • SPECIMEN OF NEOLITHIC POTTERY Dug up at Mortlake from the Thames Bed Brit. Mus.
    • XIV
      • PRIMITIVE NEOLITHIC CIVILIZATIONS
      • A MAYA STELE Showing a worshipper and a Serpent God. Note the grotesque faces in the writing Brit. Mus.
      • NEOLITHIC WARRIOR Modelled from drawing by Prof. Rutot
    • PRIMITIVE NEOLITHIC CIVILIZATIONS
    • A MAYA STELE Showing a worshipper and a Serpent God. Note the grotesque faces in the writing Brit. Mus.
    • NEOLITHIC WARRIOR Modelled from drawing by Prof. Rutot
    • XV
      • SUMERIA, EARLY EGYPT AND WRITING
      • BRICK OF HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON ABOUT 2200 B.C. Note the cuneiform characters of the inscription, which records the building of a temple to a Sun God
      • EBONY CYLINDER SEALS OF FIRST EGYPTIAN DYNASTY Recovered from the Tombs at Abydos in 1921 by the British School of Archæology. They give evidence of early form of block printing
      • THE SAKHARA PYRAMIDS The Pyramid to the right, the step Pyramid, is the oldest stone building in the world Photo: F. Boyer
      • VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT OF THE GREAT PYRAMID OF CHEOPS Showing how these great monuments dominate the plain Photo: D. McLeish
      • THE TEMPLE OF HATHOR AT DENDEREH Photo: D. McLeish
    • SUMERIA, EARLY EGYPT AND WRITING
    • BRICK OF HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON ABOUT 2200 B.C. Note the cuneiform characters of the inscription, which records the building of a temple to a Sun God
    • EBONY CYLINDER SEALS OF FIRST EGYPTIAN DYNASTY Recovered from the Tombs at Abydos in 1921 by the British School of Archæology. They give evidence of early form of block printing
    • THE SAKHARA PYRAMIDS The Pyramid to the right, the step Pyramid, is the oldest stone building in the world Photo: F. Boyer
    • VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT OF THE GREAT PYRAMID OF CHEOPS Showing how these great monuments dominate the plain Photo: D. McLeish
    • THE TEMPLE OF HATHOR AT DENDEREH Photo: D. McLeish
    • XVI
      • PRIMITIVE NOMADIC PEOPLES
      • POTTERY AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE LAKE DWELLERS Brit. Mus.
      • A CONTEMPORARY LAKE VILLAGE These Borneo dwellings are practically counterparts of the homes of European neolithic communities 6000 B.C.
      • NOMADS IN EGYPT Egyptian wall painting in a tomb near ancient Beni Hassan, middle Egypt. It depicts the arrival of a tribe of Semitic Nomads in Egypt about the year of 1895 B.C.
      • FLINT KNIVES OF 4500 B.C. Excavated 1922 by the British School of Archæology in Egypt from First Dynasty Tombs
      • EGYPT PEASANTS GOING TO WORK From an ancient and curiously painted model in the British Museum
      • STELE GLORIFYING KING NARAM SIN, OF AKKAD This monarch, son of Sargon I, was a great architecht as well as a famous conqueror. Discovered in 1898 among the ruins of Susa, Persia
    • PRIMITIVE NOMADIC PEOPLES
    • POTTERY AND IMPLEMENTS OF THE LAKE DWELLERS Brit. Mus.
    • A CONTEMPORARY LAKE VILLAGE These Borneo dwellings are practically counterparts of the homes of European neolithic communities 6000 B.C.
    • NOMADS IN EGYPT Egyptian wall painting in a tomb near ancient Beni Hassan, middle Egypt. It depicts the arrival of a tribe of Semitic Nomads in Egypt about the year of 1895 B.C.
    • FLINT KNIVES OF 4500 B.C. Excavated 1922 by the British School of Archæology in Egypt from First Dynasty Tombs
    • EGYPT PEASANTS GOING TO WORK From an ancient and curiously painted model in the British Museum
    • STELE GLORIFYING KING NARAM SIN, OF AKKAD This monarch, son of Sargon I, was a great architecht as well as a famous conqueror. Discovered in 1898 among the ruins of Susa, Persia
    • XVII
      • THE FIRST SEAGOING PEOPLES
      • THE TREASURE HOUSE AT MYCENÆ Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE PALACE AT CNOSSOS The painted walls of the Throne Room Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE FIRST SEAGOING PEOPLES
    • THE TREASURE HOUSE AT MYCENÆ Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE PALACE AT CNOSSOS The painted walls of the Throne Room Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • XVIII
      • EGYPT, BABYLON AND ASSYRIA
      • TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL Showing the statues of Rameses II at entrance
      • AVENUE OF SPHINXES Leading from the Nile to the great Temple of Karnak Photo: D. McLeish
      • THE GREAT HYPOSTYLE HALL AT KARNAK Photo: D. McLeish
      • FRIEZE SHOWING EGYPTIAN FEMALE SLAVES CARRYING LUXURIOUS FOODS Photo: Jacques Boyer
      • THE TEMPLE OF HORUS AT EDFU
    • EGYPT, BABYLON AND ASSYRIA
    • TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL Showing the statues of Rameses II at entrance
    • AVENUE OF SPHINXES Leading from the Nile to the great Temple of Karnak Photo: D. McLeish
    • THE GREAT HYPOSTYLE HALL AT KARNAK Photo: D. McLeish
    • FRIEZE SHOWING EGYPTIAN FEMALE SLAVES CARRYING LUXURIOUS FOODS Photo: Jacques Boyer
    • THE TEMPLE OF HORUS AT EDFU
    • XIX
      • THE PRIMITIVE ARYANS
      • A BEAUTIFUL ARCHAIC AMPHORA Compare the horses and other animals with the Altamira drawing on p. 54, and also with the Greek frieze, p. 140
      • THE MOUND OF NIPPUR The site of a city which recent excavations have proved to date from at least as early as 5000 B.C., and probably 1000 years earlier Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • THE PRIMITIVE ARYANS
    • A BEAUTIFUL ARCHAIC AMPHORA Compare the horses and other animals with the Altamira drawing on p. 54, and also with the Greek frieze, p. 140
    • THE MOUND OF NIPPUR The site of a city which recent excavations have proved to date from at least as early as 5000 B.C., and probably 1000 years earlier Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • XX
      • THE LAST BABYLONIAN EMPIRE AND THE EMPIRE OF DARIUS I
      • PERSIAN MONARCH From the ruins of Persepolis Photo: Miss F. Biggs
      • THE RUINS OF PERSEPOLIS The capital city of the Persian Empire; burnt by Alexander the Great Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
      • THE GREAT PORCH OF XERXES, AT PERSEPOLIS Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
    • THE LAST BABYLONIAN EMPIRE AND THE EMPIRE OF DARIUS I
    • PERSIAN MONARCH From the ruins of Persepolis Photo: Miss F. Biggs
    • THE RUINS OF PERSEPOLIS The capital city of the Persian Empire; burnt by Alexander the Great Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
    • THE GREAT PORCH OF XERXES, AT PERSEPOLIS Photo: Major W. F. P. Rodd
    • XXI
      • THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE JEWS
      • THE MOUND AT BABYLON Beneath which are the remains of a great palace of Nebuchadnezzar Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • THE ISHTAR GATEWAY, BABYLON The bulls are in richly coloured enamel on baked brick Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE JEWS
    • THE MOUND AT BABYLON Beneath which are the remains of a great palace of Nebuchadnezzar Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • THE ISHTAR GATEWAY, BABYLON The bulls are in richly coloured enamel on baked brick Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • XXII
      • PRIESTS AND PROPHETS IN JUDEA
      • THE BLACK OBELISK OF SHALMANESER II This obelisk (in the British Museum) of the King of Assyria mentions, in cuneiform, “Jehu the son of Omri.” Panel showing Jewish captives bringing tribute
      • ANOTHER PANEL OF THE BLACK OBELISK Captive Princes making obeisance to Shalmaneser II
    • PRIESTS AND PROPHETS IN JUDEA
    • THE BLACK OBELISK OF SHALMANESER II This obelisk (in the British Museum) of the King of Assyria mentions, in cuneiform, “Jehu the son of Omri.” Panel showing Jewish captives bringing tribute
    • ANOTHER PANEL OF THE BLACK OBELISK Captive Princes making obeisance to Shalmaneser II
    • XXIII
      • THE GREEKS
      • STATUE OF MELEAGER Note the progress in plastic power from the earlier wooden statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • RUINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON), PÆSTUM, SICILY Photo: Alinari
    • THE GREEKS
    • STATUE OF MELEAGER Note the progress in plastic power from the earlier wooden statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
    • RUINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF ZEUS AT OLYMPIA Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON), PÆSTUM, SICILY Photo: Alinari
    • XXIV
      • THE WARS OF THE GREEKS AND PERSIANS
      • FINE PIECE OF ATHENIAN POTTERY Showing Greek merchant vesselswith sails and oars statue on left Brit. Mus.
      • ALL THAT REMAINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF CORINTH Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON) AT CAPE SUNIUM Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE WARS OF THE GREEKS AND PERSIANS
    • FINE PIECE OF ATHENIAN POTTERY Showing Greek merchant vesselswith sails and oars statue on left Brit. Mus.
    • ALL THAT REMAINS OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF CORINTH Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE (POSEIDON) AT CAPE SUNIUM Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • XXV
      • THE SPLENDOUR OF GREECE
      • PART OF THE FAMOUS FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON, ATHENS A specimen of Grecian sculpture in its finest expression. Compare the advance of art with that seen in the animals shown on p. 105 Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS The marvellous group of Temples and monuments built under the inspriration of Pericles Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE THEATRE AT EPIDAUROS, GREECE A wonderfully preserved specimen showing the vast auditorium Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • THE CARYATIDES OF THE ERECHTHEUM The ancient sanctuary on the Acropolis at Athens Photo: Fred Boissonnas
      • ATHENE OF THE PARTHENON Photo: Alinart
    • THE SPLENDOUR OF GREECE
    • PART OF THE FAMOUS FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON, ATHENS A specimen of Grecian sculpture in its finest expression. Compare the advance of art with that seen in the animals shown on p. 105 Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS The marvellous group of Temples and monuments built under the inspriration of Pericles Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE THEATRE AT EPIDAUROS, GREECE A wonderfully preserved specimen showing the vast auditorium Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • THE CARYATIDES OF THE ERECHTHEUM The ancient sanctuary on the Acropolis at Athens Photo: Fred Boissonnas
    • ATHENE OF THE PARTHENON Photo: Alinart
    • XXVI
      • THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT
      • BUST OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (As in the British Museum)
      • ALEXANDER’S VICTORY OVER THE PERSIANS AT ISSUS (From the Pompeian Mosaic) Alexander charges in on the left, Darius is in the chariot to the right
      • THE APOLLO BELVEDERE (In the Vatican Museum)
    • THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT
    • BUST OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (As in the British Museum)
    • ALEXANDER’S VICTORY OVER THE PERSIANS AT ISSUS (From the Pompeian Mosaic) Alexander charges in on the left, Darius is in the chariot to the right
    • THE APOLLO BELVEDERE (In the Vatican Museum)
    • XXVII
      • THE MUSEUM AND LIBRARY AT ALEXANDRIA
      • ARISTOTLE From Herculaneum, probably Fourth Century B.C. Photo: Dr. Singer
      • STATUETTE OF MAITREYA: THE BUDDHA TO COME A Græco-Buddhist sculpture of the Third Century A.D. (From Malakand, N. W. Province, now in the India Museum)
      • THE DEATH OF BUDDHA Græco-Buddhist carving from Sivat Valley, N. W. Province, probably A.D. 350 India Mus.
    • THE MUSEUM AND LIBRARY AT ALEXANDRIA
    • ARISTOTLE From Herculaneum, probably Fourth Century B.C. Photo: Dr. Singer
    • STATUETTE OF MAITREYA: THE BUDDHA TO COME A Græco-Buddhist sculpture of the Third Century A.D. (From Malakand, N. W. Province, now in the India Museum)
    • THE DEATH OF BUDDHA Græco-Buddhist carving from Sivat Valley, N. W. Province, probably A.D. 350 India Mus.
    • XXVIII
      • THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA
      • TIBETAN BUDDHA Gilt Brass Casting in India Museum, showing Gautama Buddha in the “earth witness” attitude India Mus.
      • A BURMESE BUDDHA Marble Figure from Mandalay, eighteenth century work, now in the India Museum
      • THE DHAMÊKH TOWER In the Deer Park at Sarnath. Sixth Century A.D. (From a Painting in the India Museum)
    • THE LIFE OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA
    • TIBETAN BUDDHA Gilt Brass Casting in India Museum, showing Gautama Buddha in the “earth witness” attitude India Mus.
    • A BURMESE BUDDHA Marble Figure from Mandalay, eighteenth century work, now in the India Museum
    • THE DHAMÊKH TOWER In the Deer Park at Sarnath. Sixth Century A.D. (From a Painting in the India Museum)
    • XXIX
      • KING ASOKA
      • A LOHAN OR BUDDHIST APOSTLE (Tang Dynasty) (From the statue in the British Museum)
      • TRANSOME SHOWING THE COURT OF ASOKA India Mus.
      • ASOKA PANEL FROM BHARHUT India Mus.
      • THE PILLAR OF LIONS Capital of the Pillar (column lying on side) erected in Deer Park in the time of Asoka, where Buddha preached his first sermon (From a print in the India Museum)
    • KING ASOKA
    • A LOHAN OR BUDDHIST APOSTLE (Tang Dynasty) (From the statue in the British Museum)
    • TRANSOME SHOWING THE COURT OF ASOKA India Mus.
    • ASOKA PANEL FROM BHARHUT India Mus.
    • THE PILLAR OF LIONS Capital of the Pillar (column lying on side) erected in Deer Park in the time of Asoka, where Buddha preached his first sermon (From a print in the India Museum)
    • XXX
      • CONFUCIUS AND LAO TSE
      • CONFUCIUS Copy of stone carving in the Temple of Confucius at K’iu Fu (From the records of the Archæological Mission to North China (Chavannes))
      • THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA As it crosses the mountains in Manchuria Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • EARLY CHINESE BRONZE BELL Inscribed in archaic characters: “made for use by the elder of Hing village in Ting district;” latter half of the Chou Dynasty, Sixth Century B.C. (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • CONFUCIUS AND LAO TSE
    • CONFUCIUS Copy of stone carving in the Temple of Confucius at K’iu Fu (From the records of the Archæological Mission to North China (Chavannes))
    • THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA As it crosses the mountains in Manchuria Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • EARLY CHINESE BRONZE BELL Inscribed in archaic characters: “made for use by the elder of Hing village in Ting district;” latter half of the Chou Dynasty, Sixth Century B.C. (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • XXXI
      • ROME COMES INTO HISTORY
      • THE DYING GAUL The statue in the National Museum, Rome, depicting a Gaul stabbing himself, after killing his wife, in the presence of his enemies Photo: Anderson
      • REMAINS OF THE ANCIENT ROMAN CISTERNS AT CARTHAGE Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • ROME COMES INTO HISTORY
    • THE DYING GAUL The statue in the National Museum, Rome, depicting a Gaul stabbing himself, after killing his wife, in the presence of his enemies Photo: Anderson
    • REMAINS OF THE ANCIENT ROMAN CISTERNS AT CARTHAGE Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • XXXII
      • ROME AND CARTHAGE
      • HANNIBAL Bust in the National Museum at Naples Photo: Mansell
    • ROME AND CARTHAGE
    • HANNIBAL Bust in the National Museum at Naples Photo: Mansell
    • XXXIII
      • THE GROWTH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
      • THE FORUM AT ROME AS IT IS TO-DAY
      • RELICS OF ROMAN RULE Ruins of Coliseum in Tunis Photo: Jacques Boyer
      • THE GREAT ROMAN ARCH AT CTESIPHON NEAR BAGDAD
      • THE COLUMN OF TRAJAN AT ROME Representing his conquests at Dacia and elsewhere
    • THE GROWTH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    • THE FORUM AT ROME AS IT IS TO-DAY
    • RELICS OF ROMAN RULE Ruins of Coliseum in Tunis Photo: Jacques Boyer
    • THE GREAT ROMAN ARCH AT CTESIPHON NEAR BAGDAD
    • THE COLUMN OF TRAJAN AT ROME Representing his conquests at Dacia and elsewhere
    • XXXIV
      • BETWEEN ROME AND CHINA
      • A CHINESE COVERED JAR OF GREEN-GLAZED EARTHENWARE Han Dynasty (contemporary with the late Roman republic and early Empire) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • VASE OF BRONZE FORM, UNGLAZED STONEWARE Han Dynasty (B.C. 206 - A.D. 220) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • CHINESE VESSEL IN BRONZE, IN FORM OF A GOOSE Dating from before the time of Shi-Hwang-ti. Such a piece of work indicates a high level of comfort and humour (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • BETWEEN ROME AND CHINA
    • A CHINESE COVERED JAR OF GREEN-GLAZED EARTHENWARE Han Dynasty (contemporary with the late Roman republic and early Empire) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • VASE OF BRONZE FORM, UNGLAZED STONEWARE Han Dynasty (B.C. 206 - A.D. 220) (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • CHINESE VESSEL IN BRONZE, IN FORM OF A GOOSE Dating from before the time of Shi-Hwang-ti. Such a piece of work indicates a high level of comfort and humour (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • XXXV
      • THE COMMON MAN’S LIFE UNDER THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
      • POMPEII “Note the ruts in roadway worn by chariot wheels.”
      • THE COLISEUM, ROME Photo: Underwood & Underwood
      • INTERIOR OF THE COLISEUM AT IT APPEARS TO-DAY
    • THE COMMON MAN’S LIFE UNDER THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
    • POMPEII “Note the ruts in roadway worn by chariot wheels.”
    • THE COLISEUM, ROME Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • INTERIOR OF THE COLISEUM AT IT APPEARS TO-DAY
    • XXXVI
      • RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTS UNDER THE ROMAN EMPIRE
      • MITHRAS SACRIFICING A BULL, ROMAN (In the British Museum)
      • ISIS AND HORUS
      • BUST OF THE EMPEROR COMMODUS, A.D. 180-192 Represented as the God Mithras, Roman, Circa A.D. 190 (In the British Museum)
    • RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTS UNDER THE ROMAN EMPIRE
    • MITHRAS SACRIFICING A BULL, ROMAN (In the British Museum)
    • ISIS AND HORUS
    • BUST OF THE EMPEROR COMMODUS, A.D. 180-192 Represented as the God Mithras, Roman, Circa A.D. 190 (In the British Museum)
    • XXXVII
      • THE TEACHING OF JESUS
      • EARLY IDEAL PORTRAIT, IN GILDED GLASS, OF JESUS CHRIST IN WHICH THE TRADITIONAL BEARD IS NOT SHOWN
      • THE ROAD FROM NAZARETH TO TIBERIAS Photo: Fannaway
      • DAVID’S TOWER AND WALL OF JERUSALEM Photo: Fannaway
      • A STREET IN JERUSALEM Along such a thoroughfare Christ carried his cross to the place of execution Photo: Fannaway
    • THE TEACHING OF JESUS
    • EARLY IDEAL PORTRAIT, IN GILDED GLASS, OF JESUS CHRIST IN WHICH THE TRADITIONAL BEARD IS NOT SHOWN
    • THE ROAD FROM NAZARETH TO TIBERIAS Photo: Fannaway
    • DAVID’S TOWER AND WALL OF JERUSALEM Photo: Fannaway
    • A STREET IN JERUSALEM Along such a thoroughfare Christ carried his cross to the place of execution Photo: Fannaway
    • XXXVIII
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINAL CHRISTIANITY
      • MOSAIC OF SS. PETER AND PAUL POINTING TO A THRONE, ON GOLD BACKGROUND From the Ninth Century original, in the Church of Sta. Prassede, Rome (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST (Sixth Century Ivory Panel in the British Museum)
    • THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINAL CHRISTIANITY
    • MOSAIC OF SS. PETER AND PAUL POINTING TO A THRONE, ON GOLD BACKGROUND From the Ninth Century original, in the Church of Sta. Prassede, Rome (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST (Sixth Century Ivory Panel in the British Museum)
    • XXXIX
      • THE BARBARIANS BREAK THE EMPIRE INTO EAST AND WEST
      • CONSTANTINE’S PILLAR, CONSTANTINOPLE Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • BASE OF THE “OBELISK OF THEODOSIUS,” CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Thothmes, taken from Egypt to Constantinople by Theodosius and placed upon the pedestal her shown; an interesting example of early Byzantine art. The complete obelisk is seen on page 239. Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
    • THE BARBARIANS BREAK THE EMPIRE INTO EAST AND WEST
    • CONSTANTINE’S PILLAR, CONSTANTINOPLE Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
    • BASE OF THE “OBELISK OF THEODOSIUS,” CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Thothmes, taken from Egypt to Constantinople by Theodosius and placed upon the pedestal her shown; an interesting example of early Byzantine art. The complete obelisk is seen on page 239. Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
    • XL
      • THE HUNS AND THE END OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE
      • HEAD OF BARBARIAN CHIEF (In the British Museum)
    • THE HUNS AND THE END OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE
    • HEAD OF BARBARIAN CHIEF (In the British Museum)
    • XLI
      • THE BYZANTINE AND SASSANID EMPIRES
      • THE CHURCH (NOW A MOSQUE) OF S. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Theodosius in in the foreground statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • THE MAGNIFICENT ROOF-WORK IN S. SOPHIA Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
      • THE RAVENNA PANEL, DEPICTING JUSTINIAN AND HIS COURT Photo: Alinari
      • THE ROCK HEWN TEMPLE AT PETRA Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • THE BYZANTINE AND SASSANID EMPIRES
    • THE CHURCH (NOW A MOSQUE) OF S. SOPHIA, CONSTANTINOPLE The obelisk of Theodosius in in the foreground statue on left Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
    • THE MAGNIFICENT ROOF-WORK IN S. SOPHIA Photo: Sebah & Foaillier
    • THE RAVENNA PANEL, DEPICTING JUSTINIAN AND HIS COURT Photo: Alinari
    • THE ROCK HEWN TEMPLE AT PETRA Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • XLII
      • THE DYNASTIES OF SUY AND TANG IN CHINA
      • CHINESE EARTHENWARE ART OF THE TANG DYNASTY, 616-906 Specimens in glazed earthenware, in brown, green and buff, discovered in tombs in China (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • THE DYNASTIES OF SUY AND TANG IN CHINA
    • CHINESE EARTHENWARE ART OF THE TANG DYNASTY, 616-906 Specimens in glazed earthenware, in brown, green and buff, discovered in tombs in China (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • XLIII
      • MUHAMMAD AND ISLAM
      • AT PRAYER IN THE DESERT Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • LOOKING ACROSS THE SEA OF SAND Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • MUHAMMAD AND ISLAM
    • AT PRAYER IN THE DESERT Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • LOOKING ACROSS THE SEA OF SAND Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • XLIV
      • THE GREAT DAYS OF THE ARABS
      • JERUSALEM, SHOWING THE MOSQUE OF OMAR Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • VIEW OF CAIRO MOSQUES Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • THE GREAT DAYS OF THE ARABS
    • JERUSALEM, SHOWING THE MOSQUE OF OMAR Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • VIEW OF CAIRO MOSQUES Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • XLV
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATIN CHRISTENDOM
      • STATUE OF CHARLEMAGNE IN FRONT OF NOTRE DAME, PARIS The figure is entirely imaginary and romantic. There is no contemporary portrait of Charlemagne Photo: Rischgitz
    • THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATIN CHRISTENDOM
    • STATUE OF CHARLEMAGNE IN FRONT OF NOTRE DAME, PARIS The figure is entirely imaginary and romantic. There is no contemporary portrait of Charlemagne Photo: Rischgitz
    • XLVI
      • THE CRUSADES AND THE AGE OF PAPAL DOMINION
      • CRUSADER TOMBS IN EXETER CATHEDRAL Photo: Mansell
      • VIEW OF CAIRO Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
      • THE HORSES OF S. MARK, VENICE Originally on the arch of Trajan at Constantinople, the Doge Dandalo V took them after the Fourth Crusade, to Venice, whence Napoleon I removed them to Paris, but in 1815 they were returned to Venice. During the Great War of 1914-18 they were hidden away for fear of air raids. Photo: D. McLeish
      • A COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • THE CRUSADES AND THE AGE OF PAPAL DOMINION
    • CRUSADER TOMBS IN EXETER CATHEDRAL Photo: Mansell
    • VIEW OF CAIRO Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • THE HORSES OF S. MARK, VENICE Originally on the arch of Trajan at Constantinople, the Doge Dandalo V took them after the Fourth Crusade, to Venice, whence Napoleon I removed them to Paris, but in 1815 they were returned to Venice. During the Great War of 1914-18 they were hidden away for fear of air raids. Photo: D. McLeish
    • A COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA Photo: Lehnert & Landrock
    • XLVII
      • RECALCITRANT PRINCES AND THE GREAT SCHISM
      • MILAN CATHEDRALA COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA View showing the exquisite carvings characteristic of the 98 spires of the edifice
      • A TYPICAL CRUSADER: DON RODRIGO DE CARDENAS From the Church of S. Pedro at Ocana, Spain (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
      • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY This series is from casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum of the original brass statuettes in the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam
    • RECALCITRANT PRINCES AND THE GREAT SCHISM
    • MILAN CATHEDRALA COURTYARD IN THE ALHAMBRA View showing the exquisite carvings characteristic of the 98 spires of the edifice
    • A TYPICAL CRUSADER: DON RODRIGO DE CARDENAS From the Church of S. Pedro at Ocana, Spain (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
    • COSTUMES OF THE BURGUNDIAN NOBILITY: FLEMISH WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY This series is from casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum of the original brass statuettes in the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam
    • XLVIII
      • THE MONGOL CONQUESTS
      • TARTAR HORSEMEN (From a Chinese Print in the British Museum)
    • THE MONGOL CONQUESTS
    • TARTAR HORSEMEN (From a Chinese Print in the British Museum)
    • XLIX
      • THE INTELLECTUAL REVIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS
      • AN EARLY PRINTING PRESS (From an old print)
      • ANCIENT BRONZE FIGURE FROM BENIN, W. AFRICA Note evidence in attire of knowledge of early European explorers (In the British Museum)
      • ANOTHER ANCIENT NEGRO BRONZE OF A EUROPEAN (In the British Museum)
      • EARLY ITALIAN ENGRAVING OF A SAILING SHIP (In the British Museum)
    • THE INTELLECTUAL REVIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS
    • AN EARLY PRINTING PRESS (From an old print)
    • ANCIENT BRONZE FIGURE FROM BENIN, W. AFRICA Note evidence in attire of knowledge of early European explorers (In the British Museum)
    • ANOTHER ANCIENT NEGRO BRONZE OF A EUROPEAN (In the British Museum)
    • EARLY ITALIAN ENGRAVING OF A SAILING SHIP (In the British Museum)
    • L
      • THE REFORMATION OF THE LATIN CHURCH
      • PORTRAIT OF LUTHER (From an early German engraving in the British Museum)
      • A MAJOLICA DISH PAINED IN COLOURS An allegory of the Church triumphant over heretics and infidels. Italian (Urbino), dated 1543 (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • THE REFORMATION OF THE LATIN CHURCH
    • PORTRAIT OF LUTHER (From an early German engraving in the British Museum)
    • A MAJOLICA DISH PAINED IN COLOURS An allegory of the Church triumphant over heretics and infidels. Italian (Urbino), dated 1543 (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • LI
      • THE EMPEROR CHARLES V
      • THE CHARLES V PORTRAIT BY TITIAN (In the Gallery del Prado, Madrid) Photo: Anderson
      • INTERIOR OF ST. PETER’S, ROME, SHOWING THE HIGH ALTAR Photo: Alinari
    • THE EMPEROR CHARLES V
    • THE CHARLES V PORTRAIT BY TITIAN (In the Gallery del Prado, Madrid) Photo: Anderson
    • INTERIOR OF ST. PETER’S, ROME, SHOWING THE HIGH ALTAR Photo: Alinari
    • LII
      • THE AGE OF POLITICAL EXPERIMENTS; OF GRAND MONARCHY AND PARLIAMENTS AND REPUBLICANISM IN EUROPE
      • CROMWELL DISSOLVES THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND SO BECOMES AUTOCRAT OF THE ENGLISH REPUBLIC (From a contemporary satirical print in the British Museum)
      • THE COURT AT VERSAILLES (From the print after Watteau in the British Museum)
      • THE SACK OF A VILLAGE DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (From Callot’s “Miseres de la Guerre”)
    • THE AGE OF POLITICAL EXPERIMENTS; OF GRAND MONARCHY AND PARLIAMENTS AND REPUBLICANISM IN EUROPE
    • CROMWELL DISSOLVES THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND SO BECOMES AUTOCRAT OF THE ENGLISH REPUBLIC (From a contemporary satirical print in the British Museum)
    • THE COURT AT VERSAILLES (From the print after Watteau in the British Museum)
    • THE SACK OF A VILLAGE DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (From Callot’s “Miseres de la Guerre”)
    • LIII
      • THE NEW EMPIRES OF THE EUROPEANS IN ASIA AND OVERSEAS
      • EUROPEANS TIGER HUNTING IN INDIA (From the engraving of the picture by Zoffany in the British Museum)
      • THE LAST EFFORT AND FALL OF TIPPOO SULTAN (From the engraving of the picture by Singleton in the British Museum)
    • THE NEW EMPIRES OF THE EUROPEANS IN ASIA AND OVERSEAS
    • EUROPEANS TIGER HUNTING IN INDIA (From the engraving of the picture by Zoffany in the British Museum)
    • THE LAST EFFORT AND FALL OF TIPPOO SULTAN (From the engraving of the picture by Singleton in the British Museum)
    • LIV
      • THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
      • GEORGE WASHINGTON (From a painting by Gilbert Stuart)
      • THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, NEAR BOSTON (From the engraving of the picture by John Trumbull in the British Museum)
    • THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
    • GEORGE WASHINGTON (From a painting by Gilbert Stuart)
    • THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, NEAR BOSTON (From the engraving of the picture by John Trumbull in the British Museum)
    • LV
      • THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE RESTORATION OF MONARCHY IN FRANCE
      • THE TRIAL OF LOUIS XVI (From a print in the British Museum)
      • THE EXECUTION OF MARIE ANTOINETTE, QUEEN OF FRANCE, OCTOBER 16, 1793 (From a print in the British Museum)
    • THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE RESTORATION OF MONARCHY IN FRANCE
    • THE TRIAL OF LOUIS XVI (From a print in the British Museum)
    • THE EXECUTION OF MARIE ANTOINETTE, QUEEN OF FRANCE, OCTOBER 16, 1793 (From a print in the British Museum)
    • LVI
      • THE UNEASY PEACE IN EUROPE THAT FOLLOWED THE FALL OF NAPOLEON
      • PORTRAIT OF NAPOLEON (CORONATION) (From a print in the British Museum)
    • THE UNEASY PEACE IN EUROPE THAT FOLLOWED THE FALL OF NAPOLEON
    • PORTRAIT OF NAPOLEON (CORONATION) (From a print in the British Museum)
    • LVII
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL KNOWLEDGE
      • EARLY ROLLING STOCK ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY IN THE FIRST DAYS OF THE RAILWAY
      • EARLY TRAVELLING ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY, 1833
      • THE STEAMBOAT: CLERMONT, 1807, U.S.A.
      • EIGHTEENTH CENTURY SPINNING WHEEL In the Ipswich Museum
      • MODEL OF ARKWRIGHT’S SPINNING JENNY, 1769 From the specifications in the Patent Office
      • AN EARLY WEAVING MACHINE From an engraving by W. Hincks in the British Museum
    • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL KNOWLEDGE
    • EARLY ROLLING STOCK ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY IN THE FIRST DAYS OF THE RAILWAY
    • EARLY TRAVELLING ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY, 1833
    • THE STEAMBOAT: CLERMONT, 1807, U.S.A.
    • EIGHTEENTH CENTURY SPINNING WHEEL In the Ipswich Museum
    • MODEL OF ARKWRIGHT’S SPINNING JENNY, 1769 From the specifications in the Patent Office
    • AN EARLY WEAVING MACHINE From an engraving by W. Hincks in the British Museum
    • LVIII
      • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
      • INCIDENT IN THE DAYS OF THE SLAVE TRADE From a print after Morland in the British Museum
      • EARLY FACTORY, IN COLEBROOKDALE From a print the British Museum
    • THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
    • INCIDENT IN THE DAYS OF THE SLAVE TRADE From a print after Morland in the British Museum
    • EARLY FACTORY, IN COLEBROOKDALE From a print the British Museum
    • LIX
      • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN POLITICAL AND SOCIAL IDEAS
      • CARL MARX Photo: Linde & Co.
      • SCIENCE IN THE COAL MINE Portable Electric Loading Conveyor Photo: Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, Columbus, Ohio
      • CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAIL OF THE FORTH BRIDGE Photo: Baker & Hurtzig
    • THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN POLITICAL AND SOCIAL IDEAS
    • CARL MARX Photo: Linde & Co.
    • SCIENCE IN THE COAL MINE Portable Electric Loading Conveyor Photo: Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, Columbus, Ohio
    • CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAIL OF THE FORTH BRIDGE Photo: Baker & Hurtzig
    • LX
      • THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES
      • ONE OF THE FIRST AMERICAN RIVER STEAMERS
      • ABRAHAM LINCOLN
    • THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES
    • ONE OF THE FIRST AMERICAN RIVER STEAMERS
    • ABRAHAM LINCOLN
    • LXI
      • THE RISE OF GERMANY TO PREDOMINANCE IN EUROPE
    • THE RISE OF GERMANY TO PREDOMINANCE IN EUROPE
    • LXII
      • THE NEW OVERSEAS EMPIRES OF STEAMSHIP AND RAILWAY
      • RAILWAY BRIDGE OVER THE GORGE, VICTORIA FALLS, OF THE ZAMBESI, SOUTHERN RHODESIA Photo: British South African Co.
    • THE NEW OVERSEAS EMPIRES OF STEAMSHIP AND RAILWAY
    • RAILWAY BRIDGE OVER THE GORGE, VICTORIA FALLS, OF THE ZAMBESI, SOUTHERN RHODESIA Photo: British South African Co.
    • LXIII
      • EUROPEAN AGGRESSION IN ASIA AND THE RISE OF JAPAN
      • JAPANESE SOLDIER ON THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
      • A STREET IN TOKIO
    • EUROPEAN AGGRESSION IN ASIA AND THE RISE OF JAPAN
    • JAPANESE SOLDIER ON THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (In the Victoria and Albert Museum)
    • A STREET IN TOKIO
    • LXIV
      • THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN 1914
      • GIBRALTAR Photo: C. Sinclair
      • STREET IN HONG KONG Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • THE BRITISH EMPIRE IN 1914
    • GIBRALTAR Photo: C. Sinclair
    • STREET IN HONG KONG Photo: Underwood & Underwood
    • LXV
      • THE AGE OF ARMAMENT IN EUROPE, AND THE GREAT WAR OF 1914-18
      • BRITISH TANK IN THE BATTLE OF THE MENIN ROAD The crew came out for a breath of fresh air during a lull Photo: British Official
      • THE RUINS OF YPRES (ONCE A DELIGHTFUL OLD FLEMISH TOWN) To show the complete destructiveness of modern war Photo: Topical
      • THE DEVASTATION OF MODERN WAR Wire entanglements in the foreground Photo: Photopress
    • THE AGE OF ARMAMENT IN EUROPE, AND THE GREAT WAR OF 1914-18
    • BRITISH TANK IN THE BATTLE OF THE MENIN ROAD The crew came out for a breath of fresh air during a lull Photo: British Official
    • THE RUINS OF YPRES (ONCE A DELIGHTFUL OLD FLEMISH TOWN) To show the complete destructiveness of modern war Photo: Topical
    • THE DEVASTATION OF MODERN WAR Wire entanglements in the foreground Photo: Photopress
    • LXVI
      • THE REVOLUTION AND FAMINE IN RUSSIA
      • A VIEW IN PETERSBURG UNDER BOLSHEVIK RULE A wooden house has been demolished for firewood By courtesy of Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton
    • THE REVOLUTION AND FAMINE IN RUSSIA
    • A VIEW IN PETERSBURG UNDER BOLSHEVIK RULE A wooden house has been demolished for firewood By courtesy of Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton
    • LXVII
      • THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE WORLD
      • PASSENGER AEROPLANE FLYING OVER NORTHOLT (Photo taken by another ’plane by the Central Aerophoto Co.)
      • A PEACEFUL GARDEN IN ENGLAND Given wisdom, all mankind might live in such gardens
    • THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE WORLD
    • PASSENGER AEROPLANE FLYING OVER NORTHOLT (Photo taken by another ’plane by the Central Aerophoto Co.)
    • A PEACEFUL GARDEN IN ENGLAND Given wisdom, all mankind might live in such gardens
    • CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE
    • INDEX
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