Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection A Series of Essays
Free

Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection A Series of Essays

By Alfred Russel Wallace
Free
Book Description
Table of Contents
  • CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION. A Series of Essays. BY ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE, AUTHOR OF “THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO,” ETC., ETC.
  • PREFACE.
  • PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
  • CONTENTS.
  • I. ON THE LAW WHICH HAS REGULATED THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW SPECIES.[A]
    • Geographical Distribution dependent on Geologic Changes.
    • A Law deduced from well-known Geographical and Geological Facts.
    • The Form of a true system of Classification determined by this Law.
    • Geographical Distribution of Organisms.
    • Geological Distribution of the Forms of Life.
    • High Organization of very ancient Animals consistent with this Law.
    • Objections to Forbes’ Theory of Polarity.
    • Rudimentary Organs.
    • Conclusion.
  • II. ON THE TENDENCY OF VARIETIES TO DEPART INDEFINITELY FROM THE ORIGINAL TYPE.[D]
    • Instability of Varieties supposed to prove the permanent distinctness of Species.
    • The Struggle for Existence.
    • The Law of Population of Species.
    • The Abundance or Rarity of a Species dependent upon its more or less perfect Adaptation to the Conditions of Existence.
    • Useful Variations will tend to Increase; useless or hurtful Variations to Diminish.
    • Superior Varieties will ultimately Extirpate the original Species.
    • The Partial Reversion of Domesticated Varieties explained.
    • Lamarck’s Hypothesis very different from that now advanced.
    • Conclusion.
  • III. MIMICRY, AND OTHER PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCES AMONG ANIMALS.
    • Importance of the Principle of Utility.
    • Popular Theories of Colour in Animals.
    • Importance of Concealment as Influencing Colour.
    • Special Modifications of Colour.
    • Theory of Protective Colouring.
    • Objection that Colour, as being dangerous, should not exist in Nature.
    • Mimicry.
    • Mimicry among Lepidoptera.
    • Lepidoptera mimicking other Insects.
    • Mimicry among Beetles.
    • Beetles mimicking other Insects.
    • Insects mimicking Species of other Orders.
    • Cases of Mimicry among the Vertebrata.
    • Mimicry among Snakes.
    • Mimicry among Birds.
    • Mimicry among Mammals.
    • Objections to Mr. Bates’ Theory of Mimicry.
    • Mimicry by Female Insects only.
    • Cause of the dull Colours of Female Birds.
    • Use of the gaudy Colours of many Caterpillars.
    • Summary.
    • General deductions as to Colour in Nature.
    • Conclusion.
  • IV. THE MALAYAN PAPILIONIDÆ OR SWALLOW-TAILED BUTTERFLIES, AS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION.
    • Special Value of the Diurnal Lepidoptera for enquiries of this nature.
    • Question of the rank of the Papilionidæ.
    • Distribution of the Papilionidæ.
    • Definition of the word Species.
    • Laws and Modes of Variation.
    • Variation as specially influenced by Locality.
    • Remarks on the facts of Local variation.
    • Mimicry.
    • Concluding remarks on Variation in Lepidoptera.
    • Arrangement and Geographical Distribution of the Malayan Papilionidæ.
    • Range of the Groups of Malayan Papilionidæ.
    • Remarkable Peculiarities of the Island of Celebes.
    • Concluding Remarks.
  • V. ON INSTINCT IN MAN AND ANIMALS.
    • How Instinct may be best Studied.
    • Definition of Instinct.
    • Does Man possess Instincts.
    • How Indians travel through unknown and trackless Forests.
  • VI. THE PHILOSOPHY OF BIRDS’ NESTS.
    • Instinct or Reason in the Construction of Birds’ Nests.
    • Do Men build by Reason or by Imitation?
    • Why does each Bird build a peculiar kind of Nest?
    • How do Young Birds learn to Build their First Nest?
    • Do Birds sing by Instinct or by Imitation?
    • How young Birds may learn to build Nests.
    • Man’s Works mainly Imitative.
    • Birds do Alter and Improve their Nests when altered Conditions require it.
    • Conclusion.
  • VII. A THEORY OF BIRDS’ NESTS; Showing the relation of certain differences of colour in Female Birds, to their mode of Nidification.
    • Changed Conditions and persistent Habits as influencing Nidification.
    • Classification of Nests.
    • Sexual differences of Colour in Birds.
    • The Law which connects the Colours of Female Birds with the mode of Nidification.
    • What the Facts Teach us.
    • Colour more variable than Structure or Habits, and therefore the Character which has generally been Modified.
    • Exceptional Cases confirmatory of the above Explanation.
    • Real or apparent Exceptions to the Law stated at page 240.
    • Various modes of Protection of Animals.
    • Females of some Groups require and obtain more Protection than the Males.
    • Conclusion.
  • VIII. CREATION BY LAW.
    • Mr. Darwin’s Metaphors liable to Misconception.
    • A Case of Orchis-structure explained by Natural Selection.
    • Adaptation brought about by General Laws.
    • Beauty in Nature.
    • How new Forms are produced by Variation and Selection.
    • The Objection that there are Limits to Variation.
    • Objection to the Argument from Classification.
    • The “Times,” on Natural Selection.
    • Intermediate or generalized Forms of extinct Animals, an indication of Transmutation or Development.
    • Conclusion.
    • A Demonstration of the Origin of Species by Natural Selection.
  • IX. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RACES UNDER THE LAW OF NATURAL SELECTION.
    • Wide differences of opinion as to Man’s Origin.
    • Outline of the Theory of Natural Selection.
    • Different effects of Natural Selection on Animals and on Man.
    • Influence of external Nature in the development of the Human Mind.
    • Extinction of Lower Races.
    • The Origin of the Races of Man.
    • The Bearing of these Views on the Antiquity of Man.
    • Their Bearing on the Dignity and Supremacy of Man.
    • Their Bearing on the future Development of Man.
    • Summary.
    • Conclusion.
  • X. THE LIMITS OF NATURAL SELECTION AS APPLIED TO MAN.
    • What Natural Selection can Not do.
    • The Brain of the Savage shown to be Larger than he Needs it to be.
    • The Use of the Hairy Covering of Mammalia.
    • The constant absence of Hair from certain parts of Man’s Body a remarkable Phenomenon.
    • Savage Man feels the Want of this Hairy Covering.
    • Man’s Naked Skin could not have been produced by Natural Selection.
    • Feet and Hands of Man, considered as Difficulties on the Theory of Natural Selection.
    • The Origin of some of Man’s Mental Faculties, by the preservation of Useful Variations, not possible.
    • Difficulty as to the Origin of the Moral Sense.
    • Summary of the Argument as to the Insufficiency of Natural Selection to account for the Development of Man.
    • The Origin of Consciousness.
    • The Nature of Matter.
    • Conclusion.
  • NOTES.
    • NOTE A. (Page 360.)
    • NOTE B. (Page 365.)
  • INDEX.
    • Footnotes
    • Transcriber's Notes & Errata
    No review for this book yet, be the first to review.
      No comment for this book yet, be the first to comment
      You May Also Like
      Also Available On
      App store smallGoogle play small
      Categories
      Curated Lists
      • Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (Information Science and Statistics)
        by Christopher M. Bishop
        Data mining
        by I. H. Witten
        The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction
        by Various
        See more...
      • CK-12 Chemistry
        by Various
        Concept Development Studies in Chemistry
        by John Hutchinson
        An Introduction to Chemistry - Atoms First
        by Mark Bishop
        See more...
      • Microsoft Word - How to Use Advanced Algebra II.doc
        by Jonathan Emmons
        Advanced Algebra II: Activities and Homework
        by Kenny Felder
        de2de
        by
        See more...
      • The Sun Who Lost His Way
        by
        Tania is a Detective
        by Kanika G
        Firenze_s-Light
        by
        See more...
      • Java 3D Programming
        by Daniel Selman
        The Java EE 6 Tutorial
        by Oracle Corporation
        JavaKid811
        by
        See more...