Poisons: Their Effects and Detection A Manual for the Use of Analytical Chemists and Experts
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Poisons: Their Effects and Detection A Manual for the Use of Analytical Chemists and Experts

By Alexander Wynter Blyth
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Table of Contents
  • POISONS: THEIR EFFECTS AND DETECTION. A MANUAL FOR THE USE OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS AND EXPERTS.
  • PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
  • CONTENTS.
  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
  • PART I.—INTRODUCTORY.
    • I.—The Old Poison-Lore.
    • II.—Growth and Development of the Modern Methods of Chemically Detecting Poisons.
  • PART II.
    • I.—Definition of Poison.
    • II.—Classification of Poisons.
      • A. Poisons causing Death immediately, or in a few minutes.
      • B. Irritant Poisons (symptoms mainly pain, vomiting, and purging).
      • C. Irritant and Narcotic Poisons (symptoms those of an irritant nature, with the addition of more or less pronounced cerebral indications).
      • D. Poisons more especially affecting the Nervous System.
      • I. POISONS WHICH CAUSE COARSE ANATOMICAL CHANGES OF THE ORGANS.
      • II. BLOOD POISONS.
      • III. POISONS WHICH KILL WITHOUT THE PRODUCTION OF COARSE ANATOMICAL CHANGE.
      • IV. POISONOUS PRODUCTS OF TISSUE CHANGE.
      • A.—POISONOUS GASES.
      • B.—ACIDS AND ALKALIES.
      • C.—POISONOUS SUBSTANCES CAPABLE OF BEING SEPARATED BY DISTILLATION FROM EITHER NEUTRAL OR ACID LIQUIDS.
      • D.—ALKALOIDS AND POISONOUS VEGETABLE PRINCIPLES SEPARATED FOR THE MOST PART BY ALCOHOLIC SOLVENTS.
      • E.—POISONS DERIVED FROM LIVING OR DEAD ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.
      • F.—THE OXALIC ACID GROUP.
      • G.—INORGANIC POISONS.
    • A. Poisons causing Death immediately, or in a few minutes.
    • B. Irritant Poisons (symptoms mainly pain, vomiting, and purging).
    • C. Irritant and Narcotic Poisons (symptoms those of an irritant nature, with the addition of more or less pronounced cerebral indications).
    • D. Poisons more especially affecting the Nervous System.
    • I. POISONS WHICH CAUSE COARSE ANATOMICAL CHANGES OF THE ORGANS.
    • II. BLOOD POISONS.
    • III. POISONS WHICH KILL WITHOUT THE PRODUCTION OF COARSE ANATOMICAL CHANGE.
    • IV. POISONOUS PRODUCTS OF TISSUE CHANGE.
    • A.—POISONOUS GASES.
    • B.—ACIDS AND ALKALIES.
    • C.—POISONOUS SUBSTANCES CAPABLE OF BEING SEPARATED BY DISTILLATION FROM EITHER NEUTRAL OR ACID LIQUIDS.
    • D.—ALKALOIDS AND POISONOUS VEGETABLE PRINCIPLES SEPARATED FOR THE MOST PART BY ALCOHOLIC SOLVENTS.
    • E.—POISONS DERIVED FROM LIVING OR DEAD ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.
    • F.—THE OXALIC ACID GROUP.
    • G.—INORGANIC POISONS.
    • III.—Statistics.
      • Criminal Poisoning.
      • IV.—The Connection between Toxic Action and Chemical Composition.
    • Criminal Poisoning.
    • IV.—The Connection between Toxic Action and Chemical Composition.
    • V.—Life-Tests; or the Identification of Poison by Experiments on Animals.
    • VI.—General Method of Procedure in Searching for Poison.
      • AUTENRIETH’S GENERAL PROCESS.
      • I. SUBSTANCES SEPARATED BY DISTILLATION.
      • II. ORGANIC POISONS NOT VOLATILE IN ACID SOLUTION.
      • III. METALS.
    • AUTENRIETH’S GENERAL PROCESS.
    • I. SUBSTANCES SEPARATED BY DISTILLATION.
    • II. ORGANIC POISONS NOT VOLATILE IN ACID SOLUTION.
    • III. METALS.
    • VII.—The Spectroscope as an aid to the Identification of certain Poisons.
      • Examination of Blood, or of Blood-Stains.
    • Examination of Blood, or of Blood-Stains.
  • PART III.—POISONOUS GASES: CARBON MONOXIDE—CHLORINE—HYDRIC SULPHIDE.
    • I.—Carbon Monoxide.
    • II.—Chlorine.
    • III.—Hydric Sulphide (Sulphuretted Hydrogen).
  • PART IV.—ACIDS AND ALKALIES.
    • I.—Sulphuric Acid.
      • Detection and Estimation of Free Sulphuric Acid.
    • Detection and Estimation of Free Sulphuric Acid.
    • II.—Hydrochloric Acid.
      • Detection and Estimation of Free Hydrochloric Acid.
    • Detection and Estimation of Free Hydrochloric Acid.
    • III.—Nitric Acid.
    • IV.—Acetic Acid.
    • V.—Ammonia.
    • VI.—Caustic Potash and Soda.
    • VII.—Neutral Sodium, Potassium, and Ammonium Salts.
      • Detection and Estimation of Potassic Chlorate.
      • Toxicological Detection of Alkali Salts.
    • Detection and Estimation of Potassic Chlorate.
    • Toxicological Detection of Alkali Salts.
  • PART V.—MORE OR LESS VOLATILE POISONOUS SUBSTANCES CAPABLE OF BEING SEPARATED BY DISTILLATION FROM NEUTRAL OR ACID LIQUIDS.
    • I.—Hydrocarbons.
      • 1. PETROLEUM.
      • 2. COAL-TAR-NAPHTHA—BENZENE.
      • 3. TERPENES—ESSENTIAL OILS—OIL OF TURPENTINE.
      • 4. OIL OF TURPENTINE—SPIRIT OF TURPENTINE—“TURPS.”
    • 1. PETROLEUM.
    • 2. COAL-TAR-NAPHTHA—BENZENE.
    • 3. TERPENES—ESSENTIAL OILS—OIL OF TURPENTINE.
    • 4. OIL OF TURPENTINE—SPIRIT OF TURPENTINE—“TURPS.”
    • II.—Camphor.
    • III.—Alcohols.
      • 1. ETHYLIC ALCOHOL.
      • 2. AMYLIC ALCOHOL.
    • 1. ETHYLIC ALCOHOL.
    • 2. AMYLIC ALCOHOL.
    • IV.—Ether.
    • V.—Chloroform.
      • Poisonous Effects of Chloroform.
    • Poisonous Effects of Chloroform.
    • VI.—Other Anæsthetics.
    • VII.—Chloral.
    • VIII.—Bisulphide of Carbon.
    • IX.—The Tar Acids—Phenol—Cresol.
      • Tests for Carbolic Acid.
    • Tests for Carbolic Acid.
    • X.—Nitro-Benzene.
    • XI.—Dinitro-benzol.
    • XII.—Hydrocyanic Acid.
      • Poisonous Cyanides other than Hydric and Potassic Cyanides.
    • Poisonous Cyanides other than Hydric and Potassic Cyanides.
    • XIII.—Phosphorus.
  • PART VI.—ALKALOIDS AND POISONOUS VEGETABLE PRINCIPLES SEPARATED FOR THE MOST PART BY ALCOHOLIC SOLVENTS.
    • DIVISION I.—VEGETABLE ALKALOIDS.
      • I.—General Methods of Testing and Extracting Alkaloids.
      • II.—Liquid Volatile Alkaloids.
      • III.—The Opium Group of Alkaloids.
      • IV.—The Strychnine or Tetanus-Producing[422] Group of Alkaloids.
      • V.—The Aconite Group of Alkaloids.
      • VI.—The Mydriatic Group of Alkaloids—Atropine—Hyoscyamine—Solanine—Cytisine.
      • VII.—The Alkaloids of the Veratrums.
      • VIII.—Physostigmine.
      • IX.—Pilocarpine.
      • X.—Taxine.
      • XI.—Curarine.
      • XII.—Colchicine.
      • XIII.—Muscarine and the Active Principles of Certain Fungi.
    • I.—General Methods of Testing and Extracting Alkaloids.
    • II.—Liquid Volatile Alkaloids.
    • III.—The Opium Group of Alkaloids.
    • IV.—The Strychnine or Tetanus-Producing[422] Group of Alkaloids.
    • V.—The Aconite Group of Alkaloids.
    • VI.—The Mydriatic Group of Alkaloids—Atropine—Hyoscyamine—Solanine—Cytisine.
    • VII.—The Alkaloids of the Veratrums.
    • VIII.—Physostigmine.
    • IX.—Pilocarpine.
    • X.—Taxine.
    • XI.—Curarine.
    • XII.—Colchicine.
    • XIII.—Muscarine and the Active Principles of Certain Fungi.
    • DIVISION II.—GLUCOSIDES.
      • I.—Digitalis Group.
      • II.—Other Poisonous Glucosides Acting on the Heart.
      • III.—Saponin—Saponin Substances.
    • I.—Digitalis Group.
    • II.—Other Poisonous Glucosides Acting on the Heart.
    • III.—Saponin—Saponin Substances.
    • DIVISION III.—CERTAIN POISONOUS ANHYDRIDES OF ORGANIC ACIDS.
      • I.—Santonin.
      • II.—Mezereon.
    • I.—Santonin.
    • II.—Mezereon.
    • DIVISION IV.—VARIOUS VEGETABLE POISONOUS PRINCIPLES—NOT ADMITTING OF CLASSIFICATION UNDER THE PREVIOUS THREE DIVISIONS.
      • I.—Ergot of Rye.
      • II.—Picrotoxin, the Active Principle of the Cocculus indicus (Indian Berry, Levant Nut).
      • III.—The Poison of Illicium Religiosum—A Japanese Plant.
      • IV.—Picric Acid and Picrates.
      • V.—Cicutoxin.
      • VI.—Æthusa Cynapium (Fool’s Parsley).
      • VII.—Œnanthe Crocata.
      • VIII.—Oil of Savin.
      • IX.—Croton Oil.
      • X.—The Toxalbumins of Castor-Oil Seeds and of Abrus.
      • XI.—Ictrogen.
      • XII.—Cotton Seeds.
      • XIII.—Lathyrus Sativus.
      • XIV.—Arum—Bryony—Locust Tree—Male Fern.
    • I.—Ergot of Rye.
    • II.—Picrotoxin, the Active Principle of the Cocculus indicus (Indian Berry, Levant Nut).
    • III.—The Poison of Illicium Religiosum—A Japanese Plant.
    • IV.—Picric Acid and Picrates.
    • V.—Cicutoxin.
    • VI.—Æthusa Cynapium (Fool’s Parsley).
    • VII.—Œnanthe Crocata.
    • VIII.—Oil of Savin.
    • IX.—Croton Oil.
    • X.—The Toxalbumins of Castor-Oil Seeds and of Abrus.
    • XI.—Ictrogen.
    • XII.—Cotton Seeds.
    • XIII.—Lathyrus Sativus.
    • XIV.—Arum—Bryony—Locust Tree—Male Fern.
  • PART VII.—POISONS DERIVED FROM LIVING OR DEAD ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.
    • DIVISION I.—POISONS SECRETED BY LIVING ANIMALS.
      • I.—Poisonous Amphibia.
      • II.—The Poison of the Scorpion.
      • III.—Poisonous Fish.
      • IV.—Poisonous Spiders and Other Insects.
      • V.—Snake Poison.
    • I.—Poisonous Amphibia.
    • II.—The Poison of the Scorpion.
    • III.—Poisonous Fish.
    • IV.—Poisonous Spiders and Other Insects.
    • V.—Snake Poison.
    • DIVISION II.—PTOMAINES—TOXINES.
      • Isolation of Ptomaines.
      • Diamines.
    • Isolation of Ptomaines.
    • Diamines.
    • DIVISION III.—FOOD POISONING.
  • PART VIII.—THE OXALIC ACID GROUP OF POISONS.
    • CERTAIN OXALIC BASES—OXALMETHYLINE—OXALPROPYLINE.
  • PART IX.—INORGANIC POISONS.
    • I.—PRECIPITATED FROM A HYDROCHLORIC ACID SOLUTION BY HYDRIC SULPHIDE—PRECIPITATE YELLOW OR ORANGE.[700] Arsenic—Antimony—Cadmium.
      • 1. ARSENIC.
      • 2. ANTIMONY.
      • 3. CADMIUM.
    • 1. ARSENIC.
    • 2. ANTIMONY.
    • 3. CADMIUM.
    • II.—PRECIPITATED BY HYDRIC SULPHIDE IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID SOLUTION—BLACK. Lead—Copper—Bismuth—Silver—Mercury.
      • 1. LEAD.
      • 2. COPPER.
      • 3. BISMUTH.
      • 4. SILVER.
      • 5. MERCURY.
    • 1. LEAD.
    • 2. COPPER.
    • 3. BISMUTH.
    • 4. SILVER.
    • 5. MERCURY.
    • III.—PRECIPITATED BY HYDRIC SULPHIDE FROM A NEUTRAL SOLUTION. Zinc—Nickel—Cobalt.
      • 1. ZINC.
      • 2. NICKEL—COBALT.
    • 1. ZINC.
    • 2. NICKEL—COBALT.
    • IV.—PRECIPITATED BY AMMONIUM SULPHIDE. Iron—Chromium—Thallium—Aluminium—Uranium.
      • 1. IRON.
      • 2. CHROMIUM.
      • 3. THALLIUM.
      • 4. ALUMINIUM.
      • 5. URANIUM.
    • 1. IRON.
    • 2. CHROMIUM.
    • 3. THALLIUM.
    • 4. ALUMINIUM.
    • 5. URANIUM.
    • V.—ALKALINE EARTHS.
      • Barium.
    • Barium.
  • APPENDIX.
    • Treatment by Antidotes or otherwise of Cases of Poisoning.
      • I. Instruments:—
      • II. Emetics:—
      • III. Antidotes:—
    • I. Instruments:—
    • II. Emetics:—
    • III. Antidotes:—
    • TREATMENT.
    • DOMESTIC READY REMEDIES FOR POISONING.
  • INDEX.
  • Transcriber’s Notes
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