The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria
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The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria

By Morris Jastrow
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Table of Contents
  • HANDBOOKS ON THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS
    • EDITED BY MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., PH.D. Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Pennsylvania
      • VOLUME II
    • VOLUME II
  • THE RELIGION OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA
    • BY
    • MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., PH.D. (LEIPZIG) PROFESSOR OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
    • GINN & COMPANY
      • BOSTON · NEW YORK · CHICAGO · LONDON
      • COPYRIGHT, 1893 By MORRIS JASTROW, Jr.
      • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
      • 35.11
      • The Athenæum Press GINN & COMPANY · PROPRIETORS BOSTON · USA
    • BOSTON · NEW YORK · CHICAGO · LONDON
    • COPYRIGHT, 1893 By MORRIS JASTROW, Jr.
    • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
    • 35.11
    • The Athenæum Press GINN & COMPANY · PROPRIETORS BOSTON · USA
    • TO
    • PREFACE.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS.
    • CONTENTS.
    • THE RELIGION OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.
    • CHAPTER I.—INTRODUCTION.
      • SOURCES AND METHODS OF STUDY.
      • I.
      • II.
      • III.
      • IV.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • SOURCES AND METHODS OF STUDY.
    • I.
    • II.
    • III.
    • IV.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER II.
      • THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE.
      • I.
      • II.
      • III.
      • IV.
      • V.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE.
    • I.
    • II.
    • III.
    • IV.
    • V.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER III.
      • GENERAL TRAITS OF THE OLD BABYLONIAN PANTHEON.
    • GENERAL TRAITS OF THE OLD BABYLONIAN PANTHEON.
    • CHAPTER IV.
      • BABYLONIAN GODS PRIOR TO THE DAYS OF HAMMURABI.
      • En-lil or Bel.
      • Nin-lil or Belit.
      • Nin-khar-sag.[27]
      • Nin-girsu.
      • Bau.
      • Ga-tum-dug.[38]
      • En-ki or Ea.
      • Nin-a-gal,
      • Nergal.
      • Shamash.
      • Utu.
      • Â.
      • Nannar and Sin.
      • Innanna.
      • Nanâ.
      • Ishtar.
      • Ninâ.
      • Anu.
      • Nin-si[78]-a.
      • Gal-alim.
      • Nin-shakh
      • Dun-shagga.
      • Lugal-banda.
      • Nin-gul.
      • Dumuzi-zu-aba.
      • Dumu-zi,
      • Lugal-erima.
      • Nin-e-gal and Ningal.
      • Nin-gish-zida,
      • Shul (or Dun)-pa-uddu.
      • Nin-Mar.
      • Pa-sag.
      • Nisaba (or Nidaba).
      • KU(?)-Anna.
      • Umu,
      • Nin-akha-kuddu,[105]
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • BABYLONIAN GODS PRIOR TO THE DAYS OF HAMMURABI.
    • En-lil or Bel.
    • Nin-lil or Belit.
    • Nin-khar-sag.[27]
    • Nin-girsu.
    • Bau.
    • Ga-tum-dug.[38]
    • En-ki or Ea.
    • Nin-a-gal,
    • Nergal.
    • Shamash.
    • Utu.
    • Â.
    • Nannar and Sin.
    • Innanna.
    • Nanâ.
    • Ishtar.
    • Ninâ.
    • Anu.
    • Nin-si[78]-a.
    • Gal-alim.
    • Nin-shakh
    • Dun-shagga.
    • Lugal-banda.
    • Nin-gul.
    • Dumuzi-zu-aba.
    • Dumu-zi,
    • Lugal-erima.
    • Nin-e-gal and Ningal.
    • Nin-gish-zida,
    • Shul (or Dun)-pa-uddu.
    • Nin-Mar.
    • Pa-sag.
    • Nisaba (or Nidaba).
    • KU(?)-Anna.
    • Umu,
    • Nin-akha-kuddu,[105]
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER V.
      • THE CONSORTS OF THE GODS.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE CONSORTS OF THE GODS.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VI.
      • GUDEA'S PANTHEON.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • GUDEA'S PANTHEON.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VII.
      • SUMMARY.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • SUMMARY.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER VIII.
      • THE PANTHEON IN THE DAYS OF HAMMURABI.
      • Marduk.
      • Sarpanitum.
      • Nabu.
      • Tashmitum.
      • Ea.
      • Ea and Marduk.
      • Damkina.
      • Shamash.
      • Innanna.
      • Bel and the Triad of Babylonian Theology.
      • Anu, Bel, and Ea.
      • Belit.
      • Anu and Anatum.
      • Ramman.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE PANTHEON IN THE DAYS OF HAMMURABI.
    • Marduk.
    • Sarpanitum.
    • Nabu.
    • Tashmitum.
    • Ea.
    • Ea and Marduk.
    • Damkina.
    • Shamash.
    • Innanna.
    • Bel and the Triad of Babylonian Theology.
    • Anu, Bel, and Ea.
    • Belit.
    • Anu and Anatum.
    • Ramman.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER IX.
      • THE GODS IN THE TEMPLE LISTS AND IN THE LEGAL AND COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE GODS IN THE TEMPLE LISTS AND IN THE LEGAL AND COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER X.
      • THE MINOR GODS IN THE PERIOD OF HAMMURABI.
      • Gula.
      • Malik and Bunene.
      • Nin-igi-nangar-bu, Gushgin-banda, Nin-kurra, and Nin-zadim.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE MINOR GODS IN THE PERIOD OF HAMMURABI.
    • Gula.
    • Malik and Bunene.
    • Nin-igi-nangar-bu, Gushgin-banda, Nin-kurra, and Nin-zadim.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XI.
      • SURVIVALS OF ANIMISM IN THE BABYLONIAN RELIGION.
      • Anunnaki and Igigi.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • SURVIVALS OF ANIMISM IN THE BABYLONIAN RELIGION.
    • Anunnaki and Igigi.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XII.
      • THE ASSYRIAN PANTHEON.
      • Ashur.
      • Ishtar.
      • Anu.
      • Dagan.
      • Shamash.
      • Ramman.
      • Shala.
      • Nin-ib.
      • Gula.
      • Nergal.
      • Sin.
      • Nusku.
      • Bel-Marduk.
      • Bel.
      • Belit.
      • Sarpanitum.
      • Nabu.
      • Tashmitum.
      • Ea.
      • Damkina.
      • Nin-gal.
      • Dibharra.
      • Damku, Sharru-ilu, and Sha-nit(?)-ka.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE ASSYRIAN PANTHEON.
    • Ashur.
    • Ishtar.
    • Anu.
    • Dagan.
    • Shamash.
    • Ramman.
    • Shala.
    • Nin-ib.
    • Gula.
    • Nergal.
    • Sin.
    • Nusku.
    • Bel-Marduk.
    • Bel.
    • Belit.
    • Sarpanitum.
    • Nabu.
    • Tashmitum.
    • Ea.
    • Damkina.
    • Nin-gal.
    • Dibharra.
    • Damku, Sharru-ilu, and Sha-nit(?)-ka.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XIII.
      • THE TRIAD AND THE COMBINED INVOCATION OF DEITIES.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE TRIAD AND THE COMBINED INVOCATION OF DEITIES.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XIV.
      • THE NEO-BABYLONIAN PERIOD.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE NEO-BABYLONIAN PERIOD.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XV.
      • THE RELIGIOUS LITERATURE OF BABYLONIA.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE RELIGIOUS LITERATURE OF BABYLONIA.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XVI.
      • THE MAGICAL TEXTS.
      • Demons.
      • Sorcerers and Sorceresses.
      • The Exorcisers.
      • The Gods of the Incantation Texts.
      • The Ritual and Formulas.
      • Incantations and Prayers.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE MAGICAL TEXTS.
    • Demons.
    • Sorcerers and Sorceresses.
    • The Exorcisers.
    • The Gods of the Incantation Texts.
    • The Ritual and Formulas.
    • Incantations and Prayers.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XVII.
      • THE PRAYERS AND HYMNS.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE PRAYERS AND HYMNS.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XVIII.
      • PENITENTIAL PSALMS.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • PENITENTIAL PSALMS.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XIX.
      • ORACLES AND OMENS.
      • Dreams.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • ORACLES AND OMENS.
    • Dreams.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XX.
      • VARIOUS CLASSES OF OMENS.
      • Omens From Planets and Stars.
      • Omen Calendars.
      • Omens From Terrestrial Phenomena.
      • Omens from the Actions of Animals.
      • Omens From Dreams.
      • Omens From Individual Experiences.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • VARIOUS CLASSES OF OMENS.
    • Omens From Planets and Stars.
    • Omen Calendars.
    • Omens From Terrestrial Phenomena.
    • Omens from the Actions of Animals.
    • Omens From Dreams.
    • Omens From Individual Experiences.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XXI.
      • THE COSMOLOGY OF THE BABYLONIANS.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE COSMOLOGY OF THE BABYLONIANS.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XXII.
      • THE ZODIACAL SYSTEM OF THE BABYLONIANS.
      • Planets, Stars, and Calendar.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE ZODIACAL SYSTEM OF THE BABYLONIANS.
    • Planets, Stars, and Calendar.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XXIII.
      • THE GILGAMESH EPIC.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE GILGAMESH EPIC.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XXIV.
      • MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
      • The Etana Legend.
      • The Legend of Dibbarra.
      • The Myth of the Storm-God Zu.
      • The Adapa Legend.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • MYTHS AND LEGENDS.
    • The Etana Legend.
    • The Legend of Dibbarra.
    • The Myth of the Storm-God Zu.
    • The Adapa Legend.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XXV.
      • THE VIEWS OF LIFE AFTER DEATH.
      • Location and Names of the Gathering Place of the Dead.
      • The Condition of the Dead and the Impossibility of an Escape from Aralû.
      • The Pantheon of Aralû.
      • The Tombs and the Burial Customs.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE VIEWS OF LIFE AFTER DEATH.
    • Location and Names of the Gathering Place of the Dead.
    • The Condition of the Dead and the Impossibility of an Escape from Aralû.
    • The Pantheon of Aralû.
    • The Tombs and the Burial Customs.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XXVI.
      • THE TEMPLES AND THE CULT.
      • The Construction and Character of the Zikkurats.
      • The Temple and the Sacred Quarter.
      • The Names of the Zikkurats and Temples.
      • The History of the Temples.
      • The Sacred Objects in the Temples,—Altars, Vases, Images, Basins, Ships.
      • The Priests and Priestesses.
      • Sacrifices and Votive Offerings.
      • Festivals.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE TEMPLES AND THE CULT.
    • The Construction and Character of the Zikkurats.
    • The Temple and the Sacred Quarter.
    • The Names of the Zikkurats and Temples.
    • The History of the Temples.
    • The Sacred Objects in the Temples,—Altars, Vases, Images, Basins, Ships.
    • The Priests and Priestesses.
    • Sacrifices and Votive Offerings.
    • Festivals.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAPTER XXVII.
      • CONCLUSION.
      • General Estimate and Influence.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CONCLUSION.
    • General Estimate and Influence.
    • FOOTNOTES:
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY.
      • NOTE.
    • NOTE.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY.
      • I.
      • Excavations.—Method of Decipherment.—History of Babylonia and Assyria.—Origin and General Aspects of Babylonian And Assyrian Culture.—General Bibliography.
        • (a) Excavations and Decipherment.
        • (b) History.
        • (c) Origin and General Aspects of Babylonian-Assyrian Culture.
        • (d) Bibliography.
      • (a) Excavations and Decipherment.
      • (b) History.
      • (c) Origin and General Aspects of Babylonian-Assyrian Culture.
      • (d) Bibliography.
      • II.
        • General Works and Articles on the Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.
      • General Works and Articles on the Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.
      • III.
        • Pantheon, Gods, Spirits, Heroes.
      • Pantheon, Gods, Spirits, Heroes.
      • IV.
        • Religious Texts.
      • Religious Texts.
      • V.
        • Cosmology.
      • Cosmology.
      • VI.
        • The Gilgamesh Epic
        • (including the Deluge Story.)
      • The Gilgamesh Epic
      • (including the Deluge Story.)
      • VII.
        • Beliefs, Legends, Ethics, and Special Phrases of the Religion.
      • Beliefs, Legends, Ethics, and Special Phrases of the Religion.
      • VIII.
        • Temples and Cult.
      • Temples and Cult.
      • IX.
        • Bearings on the Old Testament; General Influence.
      • Bearings on the Old Testament; General Influence.
    • I.
    • Excavations.—Method of Decipherment.—History of Babylonia and Assyria.—Origin and General Aspects of Babylonian And Assyrian Culture.—General Bibliography.
      • (a) Excavations and Decipherment.
      • (b) History.
      • (c) Origin and General Aspects of Babylonian-Assyrian Culture.
      • (d) Bibliography.
    • (a) Excavations and Decipherment.
    • (b) History.
    • (c) Origin and General Aspects of Babylonian-Assyrian Culture.
    • (d) Bibliography.
    • II.
      • General Works and Articles on the Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.
    • General Works and Articles on the Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.
    • III.
      • Pantheon, Gods, Spirits, Heroes.
    • Pantheon, Gods, Spirits, Heroes.
    • IV.
      • Religious Texts.
    • Religious Texts.
    • V.
      • Cosmology.
    • Cosmology.
    • VI.
      • The Gilgamesh Epic
      • (including the Deluge Story.)
    • The Gilgamesh Epic
    • (including the Deluge Story.)
    • VII.
      • Beliefs, Legends, Ethics, and Special Phrases of the Religion.
    • Beliefs, Legends, Ethics, and Special Phrases of the Religion.
    • VIII.
      • Temples and Cult.
    • Temples and Cult.
    • IX.
      • Bearings on the Old Testament; General Influence.
    • Bearings on the Old Testament; General Influence.
    • INDEX.
    • ANNOUNCEMENTS
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