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The Avifauna of Micronesia, Its Origin, Evolution, and Distribution

By Rollin H. (Rollin Harold) Baker
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Book Description
Table of Contents
  • University of Kansas Publications
  • CONTENTS
  • CONTENTS
  • FIGURES IN TEXT
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DESCRIPTION OF MICRONESIA
    • Climate
    • Soils
    • Surface Water
    • Vegetation
  • GAZETTEER OF ISLANDS OF MICRONESIA
    • Mariana Islands
    • Palau Islands
    • Caroline Islands
    • Marshall Islands
  • ORNITHOLOGICAL EXPLORATION IN MICRONESIA
    • Table 1. Compilation of the Dates (on the Basis of Ten-year Intervals) When Original Descriptions of Birds of Micronesia Appeared.
  • CHECK-LIST OF THE BIRDS OF MICRONESIA
  • DISCUSSION OF THE BIRDS OF MICRONESIA
    • Oceanic Birds
      • Table 2. List of Resident and Nonresident Oceanic Birds of Micronesia
    • Table 2. List of Resident and Nonresident Oceanic Birds of Micronesia
    • Inshore Oceanic Birds
    • Offshore and Pelagic Oceanic Birds
    • Faunal Components
    • Migratory Shore Birds
    • Original Homes of the Shore Birds that Visit Micronesia
      • Table 3. Breeding and Wintering Grounds of the Species of Migratory Shore Birds in Micronesia
    • Table 3. Breeding and Wintering Grounds of the Species of Migratory Shore Birds in Micronesia
    • Routes of Migration
      • Table 4. List of Species of Shore Birds Known From Five Geographical Areas of Micronesia
      • Table 5. Shore Birds Which May Use the Asiatic-Palauan Flyway
      • Table 6. Shore Birds Which May Use the Japanese-Marianan Flyway
      • Table 7. Shore Birds Which May Use the Nearctic-Hawaiian Flyway
      • Table 8. Populations of Migratory Shore Birds Seen at Guam in 1945
      • Table 9. Populations of Migratory Shore Birds Seen at Ulithi Atoll in 1945
      • Table 10. Populations of Migratory Shore Birds Seen at the Palau Islands in 194
    • Table 4. List of Species of Shore Birds Known From Five Geographical Areas of Micronesia
    • Table 5. Shore Birds Which May Use the Asiatic-Palauan Flyway
    • Table 6. Shore Birds Which May Use the Japanese-Marianan Flyway
    • Table 7. Shore Birds Which May Use the Nearctic-Hawaiian Flyway
    • Table 8. Populations of Migratory Shore Birds Seen at Guam in 1945
    • Table 9. Populations of Migratory Shore Birds Seen at Ulithi Atoll in 1945
    • Table 10. Populations of Migratory Shore Birds Seen at the Palau Islands in 194
    • Land and Fresh-water Birds
    • Polynesian Component
    • Melanesian Component
    • Moluccan and Celebesian Components
    • Philippine Component
    • Palearctic Component
      • Table 11. Avifaunal Components Which Make Up the Endemic Resident Land and Fresh-water Bird Population of Micronesia
    • Table 11. Avifaunal Components Which Make Up the Endemic Resident Land and Fresh-water Bird Population of Micronesia
    • Speciation
      • Table 12. Endemism in Families of Native Land and Fresh-water Birds in Micronesia
    • Table 12. Endemism in Families of Native Land and Fresh-water Birds in Micronesia
    • Time of Colonization
    • Factors Causing Dispersal
      • Table 13. Correlation Between Number of Resident Land and Fresh-water Birds and Distance From Large Land Masses of "High" Islands of Micronesia
    • Table 13. Correlation Between Number of Resident Land and Fresh-water Birds and Distance From Large Land Masses of "High" Islands of Micronesia
    • Analysis of Speciation
  • CONSERVATION OF THE AVIFAUNA OF MICRONESIA
  • THE FUTURE OF ORNITHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN MICRONESIA
  • METHODS AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • ACCOUNTS OF THE KINDS OF BIRDS OF MICRONESIA
    • Diomedea nigripes   Audubon
    • Puffinus pacificus chlororhynchus   Lesson
    • Puffinus pacificus cuneatus   Salvin
    • Puffinus tenuirostris   (Temminck)
    • Puffinus nativitatis   Streets
    • Puffinus lherminieri dichrous   Finsch and Hartlaub
      • Table 14. Measurements of Puffinus lherminieri dichrous
    • Table 14. Measurements of Puffinus lherminieri dichrous
    • Pterodroma rostrata rostrata   (Peale)
      • Tahiti Petrel
    • Tahiti Petrel
    • Pterodroma hypoleuca hypoleuca   Salvin
    • Phaëthon aethereus mesonauta   Peters
    • Phaëthon rubricauda rothschildi   (Mathews)
    • Phaëthon lepturus dorotheae   Mathews
      • Table 15. Measurements of Phaëthon lepturus from Micronesia
    • Table 15. Measurements of Phaëthon lepturus from Micronesia
    • Sula dactylatra personata   Gould
    • Sula sula rubripes   Gould
    • Sula leucogaster plotus   (Forster)
    • Phalacrocorax melanoleucus melanoleucus   (Vieillot)
    • Fregata minor minor   (Gmelin)
    • Fregata ariel ariel   (Gray)
    • Butorides striatus amurensis   Schrenck
    • Bubulcus ibis coromandus   (Boddaert)
    • Egretta intermedia intermedia   (Wagler)
    • Demigretta sacra sacra   (Gmelin)
    • Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax   (Linnaeus)
    • Nycticorax caledonicus pelewensis   Mathews
    • Gorsachius goisagi   (Temminck)
    • Gorsachius melanolophus melanolophus   (Raffles)
    • Ixobrychus sinensis   (Gmelin)
      • Table 16. Measurements of Ixobrychus sinensis From Micronesia
    • Table 16. Measurements of Ixobrychus sinensis From Micronesia
    • Ixobrychus eurhythmus   (Swinhoe)
    • Dupetor flavicollis flavicollis   (Latham)
    • Anas oustaleti   Salvadori
    • Anas poecilorhyncha pelewensis   Hartlaub and Finsch
    • Anas querquedula   Linnaeus
    • Anas crecca crecca   Linnaeus
    • Anas crecca carolinensis   Gmelin
    • Anas acuta acuta   Linnaeus
    • Anas acuta tzitzihoa   Vieillot
    • Anas penelope   Linnaeus
    • Anas clypeata   Linnaeus
    • Aythya fuligula   (Linnaeus)
    • Aythya valisineria   (Wilson)
    • Accipiter soloënsis   (Horsfield)
    • Accipiter virgatus gularis   (Temminck and Schlegel)
    • Pandion haliaetus melvillensis   Mathews
    • Falco peregrinus japonensis   Gmelin
    • Megapodius lapérouse senex   Hartlaub
    • Megapodius lapérouse lapérouse   Gaimard
    • Coturnix chinensis lineata   (Scopoli)
    • Gallus gallus   (Linnaeus)
    • Phasianus colchicus   Linnaeus
    • Rallus philippensis pelewensis   (Mayr)
    • Rallus owstoni   (Rothschild)
    • Rallina fasciata   (Raffles)
    • Rallina eurizonoides eurizonoides   (Lafresnaye)
    • Aphanolimnas monasa   (Kittlitz)
    • Poliolimnas cinereus micronesiae   Hachisuka
      • Table 17. Measurements of Three Subspecies of Poliolimnas cinereus
    • Table 17. Measurements of Three Subspecies of Poliolimnas cinereus
    • Gallinula chloropus subsp. near orientalis   Horsfield
    • Gallinula chloropus guami   Hartert
      • Table 18. Measurements of Gallinula chloropus
    • Table 18. Measurements of Gallinula chloropus
    • Porphyrio porphyrio pelewensis   Hartlaub and Finsch
    • Fulica atra atra   Linnaeus
    • Squatarola squatarola   (Linnaeus)
    • Pluvialis dominica fulva   (Gmelin)
    • Charadrius hiaticula semipalmatus   Bonaparte
    • Charadrius dubius curonicus   Gmelin
    • Charadrius alexandrinus nihonensis   Deignan
    • Charadrius mongolus stegmanni   Stresemann
    • Charadrius leschenaultii   Lesson
    • Numenius phaeopus variegatus   (Scopoli)
    • Numenius tahitiensis   (Gmelin)
    • Numenius madagascariensis   (Linnaeus)
    • Limosa lapponica baueri   Naumann
    • Tringa nebularia   (Gunnerus)
    • Tringa melanoleuca   (Gmelin)
    • Tringa glareola   Linnaeus
    • Actitis hypoleucos   Linnaeus
    • Heteroscelus brevipes   (Vieillot)
    • Heteroscelus incanus   (Gmelin)
    • Arenaria interpres interpres   (Linnaeus)
    • Gallinago megala   Swinhoe
    • Gallinago gallinago gallinago   (Linnaeus)
    • Crocethia alba   (Pallas)
    • Calidris tenuirostris   (Horsfield)
    • Erolia minuta ruficollis   (Pallas)
    • Erolia subminuta   (Middendorff)
    • Erolia melanotos   (Vieillot)
    • Erolia acuminata   (Horsfield)
    • Erolia ferruginea   (Pontoppidan)
    • Limicola falcinellus sibirica   Dresser
    • Phalaropus lobatus   (Linnaeus)
    • Larus argentatus vegae   Palmén
    • Chlidonias leucopterus   (Temminck)
    • Sterna hirundo longipennis   Nordmann
    • Sterna sumatrana sumatrana   Raffles
      • Table 19. Measurements of Gallinula chloropus
    • Table 19. Measurements of Gallinula chloropus
    • Sterna lunata   Peale
    • Sterna anaetheta anaetheta   Scopoli
    • Sterna fuscata oahuensis   Bloxham
    • Sterna albifrons sinensis   Gmelin
    • Thalasseus bergii pelecanoides   (King)
      • Table 20. Measurements of Thalasseus bergii in the Pacific Area
    • Table 20. Measurements of Thalasseus bergii in the Pacific Area
    • Procelsterna cerulea saxatilis   W. K. Fisher
    • Anous stolidus pileatus   (Scopoli)
      • Table 21. Measurements of Anoüs stolidus of the Pacific Area
    • Table 21. Measurements of Anoüs stolidus of the Pacific Area
    • Anous tenuirostris marcusi   (Bryan)
      • Table 22. Measurements of Anoüs tenuirostris of the Pacific Area
    • Table 22. Measurements of Anoüs tenuirostris of the Pacific Area
    • Gygis alba candida   (Gmelin)
      • Table 23. Measurements of Subspecies of Gygis alba From the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Area
      • Table 24. Measurements of Gygis alba From the Pacific Area
    • Table 23. Measurements of Subspecies of Gygis alba From the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Area
    • Table 24. Measurements of Gygis alba From the Pacific Area
    • Gygis alba pacifica   (Lesson)
    • Columba livia   Gmelin
    • Ptilinopus porphyraceus ponapensis   (Finsch)
      • Table 25. Measurements of Ptilinopus porphyraceus in Micronesia
    • Table 25. Measurements of Ptilinopus porphyraceus in Micronesia
    • Ptilinopus porphyraceus hernsheimi   (Finsch)
    • Ptilinopus porphyraceus pelewensis   Hartlaub and Finsch
    • Ptilinopus roseicapillus   (Lesson)
      • Table 26. Measurements of Ptilinopus roseicapillus
    • Table 26. Measurements of Ptilinopus roseicapillus
    • Ducula oceanica monacha   (Momiyama)
      • Table 27. Measurements of Ducula oceanica
    • Table 27. Measurements of Ducula oceanica
    • Ducula oceanica teraokai   (Momiyama)
    • Ducula oceanica townsendi   (Wetmore)
    • Ducula oceanica oceanica   (Lesson and Garnot)
    • Ducula oceanica ratakensis   (Takatsukasa and Yamashina)
    • Streptopelia bitorquata dusumieri   (Temminck)
    • Gallicolumba canifrons   (Hartlaub and Finsch)
    • Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura   (Temminck)
      • Table 28. Measurements of Gallicolumba xanthonura
    • Table 28. Measurements of Gallicolumba xanthonura
    • Gallicolumba xanthonura kubaryi   (Finsch)
    • Caloenas nicobarica pelewensis   Finsch
    • Trichoglossus rubiginosus   (Bonaparte)
      • Table 29. Measurements of Trichoglossus rubiginosus
    • Table 29. Measurements of Trichoglossus rubiginosus
    • Cuculus canorus telephonus   Heine
    • Cuculus saturatus horsfieldi   Moore
    • Eudynamis taitensis   (Sparrman)
    • Otus podarginus   (Hartlaub and Finsch)
    • Asio flammeus flammeus   (Pontoppidan)
    • Asio flammeus ponapensis   Mayr
    • Caprimulgus indicus jotaka   Temminck and Schlegel
    • Caprimulgus indicus phalaena   Hartlaub and Finsch
    • Collocalia inexpectata pelewensis   Mayr
      • Table 30. Measurements of Collocalia inexpectata in Micronesia
    • Table 30. Measurements of Collocalia inexpectata in Micronesia
    • Collocalia inexpectata bartschi   Mearns
    • Collocalia inquieta inquieta   (Kittlitz)
      • Table 31. Measurements of Collocalia inquieta
    • Table 31. Measurements of Collocalia inquieta
    • Collocalia inquieta rukensis   Kuroda
    • Collocalia inquieta ponapensis   Mayr
    • Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina   Swainson
      • Table 32. Measurements of Halcyon cinnamomina
    • Table 32. Measurements of Halcyon cinnamomina
    • Halcyon cinnamomina pelewensis   Wiglesworth
    • Halcyon cinnamomina reichenbachii   (Hartlaub)
    • Halcyon chloris teraokai   Kuroda
      • Table 33. Measurements of Halcyon chloris in Micronesia
    • Table 33. Measurements of Halcyon chloris in Micronesia
    • Halcyon chloris orii   Takatsukasa and Yamashina
    • Halcyon chloris albicilla   (Dumont)
    • Halcyon chloris owstoni   Rothschild
    • Eurystomus orientalis connectens   Stresemann
    • Hirundo rustica gutturalis   Scopoli
    • Edolisoma tenuirostre monachum   (Hartlaub and Finsch)
      • Table 34. Measurements of Edolisoma tenuirostre in Micronesia
    • Table 34. Measurements of Edolisoma tenuirostre in Micronesia
    • Edolisoma tenuirostre nesiotis   (Hartlaub and Finsch)
    • Edolisoma tenuirostre insperatum   (Finsch)
    • Dicrurus macrocercus harterti   S. Baker
    • Corvus kubaryi   Reichenow
      • Table 35. Measurements of Corvus kubaryi
    • Table 35. Measurements of Corvus kubaryi
    • Luscinia calliope calliope   (Pallas)
    • Monticola solitaria philippensis   (Müller)
    • Turdus obscurus obscurus   Gmelin
    • Psamathia annae   Hartlaub and Finsch
      • Table 36. Measurements of Psamathia annae
    • Table 36. Measurements of Psamathia annae
    • Acrocephalus luscinia luscinia   (Quoy and Gaimard)
      • Table 37. Measurements of Acrocephalus luscinia
    • Table 37. Measurements of Acrocephalus luscinia
    • Acrocophalus luscinia syrinx   (Kittlitz)
    • Acrocephalus luscinia yamashinae   (Takatsukasa)
    • Acrocephalus luscinia nijoi   (Yamashina)
    • Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae   Oustalet
      • Table 38. Measurements of Rhipidura rufifrons in Micronesia
    • Table 38. Measurements of Rhipidura rufifrons in Micronesia
    • Rhipidura rufifrons saipanensis   Hartert
    • Rhipidura rufifrons mariae   R. H. Baker
    • Rhipidura rufifrons versicolor   Hartlaub and Finsch
    • Rhipidura rufifrons kubaryi   Finsch
    • Rhipidura lepida   Hartlaub and Finsch
      • Table 39. Measurements of Rhipidura lepida
    • Table 39. Measurements of Rhipidura lepida
    • Metabolus rugensis   (Hombron and Jacquinot)
      • Table 40. Measurements of Metabolus rugensi
    • Table 40. Measurements of Metabolus rugensi
    • Monarcha godeffroyi   Hartlaub
    • Monarcha takatsukasae   (Yamashina)
      • Table 41. Measurements of Monarcha takatsukasae
    • Table 41. Measurements of Monarcha takatsukasae
    • Myiagra oceanica erythrops   Hartlaub and Finsch
      • Table 42. Measurements of Adult Specimens of Myiagra oceanica
    • Table 42. Measurements of Adult Specimens of Myiagra oceanica
    • Myiagra oceanica freycineti   Oustalet
    • Myiagra oceanica oceanica   Pucheran
    • Myiagra oceanica pluto   Finsch
    • Muscicapa narcissina narcissina   Temminck
    • Muscicapa griseisticta   (Swinhoe)
    • Colluricincla tenebrosa   (Hartlaub and Finsch)
      • Table 43. Measurements of Colluricincla tenebrosus
    • Table 43. Measurements of Colluricincla tenebrosus
    • Artamus leucorhynchus pelewensis   Finsch
      • Table 44. Measurements of Artamus leucorhynchus pelewensis Finsch
    • Table 44. Measurements of Artamus leucorhynchus pelewensis Finsch
    • Aplonis opacus opacus   (Kittlitz)
      • Table 45. Measurements of Adult Specimens of Aplonis opacus
    • Table 45. Measurements of Adult Specimens of Aplonis opacus
    • Aplonis opacus ponapensis   Takatsukasa and Yamashina
    • Aplonis opacus angus   Momiyama
    • Aplonis opacus kurodai   Momiyama
    • Aplonis opacus orii   (Takatsukasa and Yamashina)
    • Aplonis opacus guami   Momiyama
    • Aplonis opacus aeneus   (Takatsukasa and Yamashina)
    • Aplonis pelzelni   Finsch
      • Table 46. Measurements of Aplonis pelzelni
    • Table 46. Measurements of Aplonis pelzelni
    • Aplonis corvinus   (Kittlitz)
    • Sturnus philippensis   (Forster)
    • Sturnus cineraceus   Temminck
    • Cleptornis marchei   (Oustalet)
      • Table 47. Measurements of Cleptornis marchei
    • Table 47. Measurements of Cleptornis marchei
    • Myzomela cardinalis rubratra   (Lesson)
      • Table 48. Measurements of Myzomela cardinalis of Micronesia
    • Table 48. Measurements of Myzomela cardinalis of Micronesia
    • Myzomela cardinalis dichromata   Wetmore
    • Myzomela cardinalis major   Bonaparte
    • Myzomela cardinalis saffordi   Wetmore
      • Table 49. Measurements of Adult Males of Myzomela cardinalis saffordi from the Mariana Islands
    • Table 49. Measurements of Adult Males of Myzomela cardinalis saffordi from the Mariana Islands
    • Myzomela cardinalis kurodai   Momiyama
    • Myzomela cardinalis kobayashii   Momiyama
    • Zosterops conspicillata conspicillata   (Kittlitz)
      • Table 50. Measurements of the Subspecies of Zosterops conspicillata
    • Table 50. Measurements of the Subspecies of Zosterops conspicillata
    • Zosterops conspicillata saypani   Dubois
    • Zosterops conspicillata rotensis   Takatsukasa and Yamashina
    • Zosterops conspicillata semperi    Hartlaub
    • Zosterops conspicillata owstoni   Hartert
    • Zosterops conspicillata takatsukasai   Momiyama
    • Zosterops conspicillata hypolais   Hartlaub and Finsch
    • Zosterops cinerea cinerea   (Kittlitz)
      • Table 51. Measurements of Zosterops cinerea
    • Table 51. Measurements of Zosterops cinerea
    • Zosterops cinerea ponapensis   Finsch
    • Zosterops cinerea finschii   (Hartlaub)
    • Rukia palauensis   (Reichenow)
      • Table 52. Measurements of Rukia
    • Table 52. Measurements of Rukia
    • Rukia oleaginea   (Hartlaub and Finsch)
    • Rukia ruki   (Hartert)
    • Rukia sanfordi   (Mayr)
    • Erythrura trichroa trichroa   (Kittlitz)
      • Table 53. Measurements of Erythrura trichroa in Micronesia
    • Table 53. Measurements of Erythrura trichroa in Micronesia
    • Erythrura trichroa clara   Takatsukasa and Yamashina
    • Erythrura trichroa pelewensis   Kuroda
    • Lonchura nigerrima minor   (Yamashina)
    • Lonchura punctulata cabanisi   (Sharpe)
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
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