Inventors at Work With Chapters on Discovery
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Inventors at Work With Chapters on Discovery

By George Iles
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Book Description
Table of Contents
  • INVENTORS AT WORK
  • CONTENTS
  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY
  • CHAPTER II FORM
    • Strength and Rigidity.
    • Plank and Joist.
    • Girders.
    • The Rail.
    • Dudley’s Track Indicator.
  • CHAPTER III FORM—Continued. BRIDGES
    • Roofs and Bridges Much Alike.
    • Palladio’s Long Neglected Truss.
    • The Burr Bridge Simplified by Howe and Pratt.
    • Advantages of the Cantilever, Arch, and Bowstring Designs.
    • Suspension Bridges and Continuous Girders.
    • Best Proportions for Spans: A Slight Upward Curve is Gainful. Pins or Rivets in Fastening.
  • CHAPTER IV FORM—Continued. WEIGHT AND FRICTION DIMINISHED.
    • Hollow Columns and Tubes.
    • Arches.
    • Circles and Other Curves.
    • Wheels.
    • Angles Replaced by Curves.
  • CHAPTER V FORM—Continued. SHIPS
    • Forms of Ships Adapted to Special Resistances.
    • Experimental Basins.
    • A Viking Ship a Thousand Years Old.
    • Clipper Ships and Modern Steamers.
    • Judgment in Ship Design.
  • CHAPTER VI FORM—Continued. SHAPES TO LESSEN RESISTANCE TO MOTION
    • Projectiles and Vehicles of Like Pattern.
    • Gearing: Conveyors.
    • Propellers.
    • Turbines.
  • CHAPTER VII FORM—Continued. LIGHT ECONOMIZED BY RIGHTLY SHAPED GLASS. HEAT SAVED BY WELL DESIGNED CONVEYORS AND RADIATORS
    • A Shrewd Observer Improves Windows.
    • Delight and Gain as We Watch a Fish in Water.
    • Total Reflection in Artificial Lighting: Holophane Globes.
    • Total Reflection in Binocular Glasses.
    • Lenses Still Much Used.
    • The Production of Optical Surfaces.
    • Bi-focal Spectacles.
    • Economy of Heat.
  • CHAPTER VIII FORM—Continued. TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS SHAPED FOR EFFICIENCY
    • Tools and Implements.
    • Annular Drills.
    • Twist Drills.
    • Lathe and Planer Tools.
    • Machine Tools: Lathes.
    • Emery and Carborundum Wheels.
    • Form in Plastic Arts.
    • Pressing and Stamping.
    • Old and New Means of Conferring Form.
    • Use Creates Beauty.
    • Convenience in the Use of Machines.
    • Resources Rich or Meagre as Affecting Invention.
  • CHAPTER IX FORM—Continued. FORM IN ABORIGINAL ART, AS AFFECTED BY MATERIALS. OLD FORMS PERSIST IN NEW MATERIALS
    • Aboriginal Art.
    • Idiom of Material.
    • Old Forms Repeated in New Materials.
  • CHAPTER X SIZE
    • Cinders Big and Little.
    • Earth Sculpture.
    • Breaking Earth for Removal or Tilth.
    • Work of the Winds.
    • Dimensions in Ignition.
    • Dust Common and Uncommon.
    • Inflammable Dust.
    • Dimensions in Woven Fabrics.
    • The Dimensions of Models.
    • Why Big Ships are Best.
    • Bigness Needs Strong Materials.
    • A Store Continues the Lesson.
    • Summer Holiday Notes.
    • Dimensions Molecular.
    • Reservoirs of Energy.
    • Repulsion by Sound and Light.
    • A Law as a Binding Thread.
  • CHAPTER XI PROPERTIES
    • Food.
    • Weapons and Tools.
    • Properties Modified.
    • Properties in Clothing.
    • Cotton Strengthened and Beautified.
    • Properties in Building Materials.
    • Flame and Electricity as Modifiers.
    • The Bamboo Rich in Utilities.
    • Materials for Basketry.
    • Aluminium and Its Uses.
    • Properties at First Unwelcome are Turned to Account.
    • Evil, Be Thou My Good.
    • Compensating Devices.
    • Properties Long Deemed Useless are Now Gainful.
    • Separation Turns on Diversity of Properties.
    • Properties Newly Discovered and Produced.
    • Edison’s Warehouse as an Aid.
  • CHAPTER XII PROPERTIES—Continued
    • Light Giving Properties.
    • How the Gas Mantle was Invented.
    • Improvements in Electric Lighting: Incandescent Lamps.
    • New Arc Lamps.
    • Hewitt Mercury-Vapor Lamp.
  • CHAPTER XIII PROPERTIES—Continued. STEEL
    • Steels for Strength.
    • The Open Hearth Process.
    • The Gayley Dry-Blast Process.
    • Steels to Order.
    • Heat Treatment.
    • Tempering and Annealing.
    • Steel for Railroad Rails.
    • Invar: A Steel Invariable in Dimensions Whether Warmed or Cooled.
    • Manganese Steel.
    • High-Speed Tool Steels.
    • Alloys for Electro-Magnets.
    • Magnetic Alloys of Non-Magnetic Ingredients.
    • Anti-Friction Alloys.
    • Influence of Minute Admixtures.
    • BOOKS ON IRON AND STEEL
  • CHAPTER XIV PROPERTIES—Continued
    • Jena Glass.
    • Power Presses in Metal Working.
    • Non-Conductors of Heat.
    • Norwegian Cooking Box.
    • Aladdin oven.
    • Matter Impressed by Its History.
    • Magnetization.
    • The Crystal Foreshadows the Plant.
    • During Long Periods Minute Influences Become Telling.
  • CHAPTER XV PROPERTIES—Continued. RADIO-ACTIVITY
    • Solids are not as Solid as They Seem.
    • Every Property May be Universal.
    • Radium Reveals Properties Unknown Till Now.
    • History of the Universe Rewritten in the Light of Radio-Activity.
    • Faraday’s Prophetic Views.
  • CHAPTER XVI MEASUREMENT
    • Foot and Cubit.
    • The Metric System.
    • Uses of Refined Measurement.
    • Further Refinements Needed.
    • Precise Measurement as a Means of Discovery.
    • Measurements Refined: the Interferometer.
    • Application to Weighing.
    • A Light-Wave as an Unvarying Unit of Length.
  • CHAPTER XVII MEASUREMENT—Continued
    • The Balance in Measurement.
    • Measurement of Time.
    • Time-Pieces Improved.
    • The Best Clocks in the World.
    • Ascertaining the Force of Gravity.
    • Heat Measured.
    • The Measurement of Light.
    • The Sky as a Field for Measurement.
    • Electricity Measured.
    • Weston Instruments.
    • The Bureau of Standards at Washington.
    • Refined Measurement Improves Machinery.
    • Interchangeability Old and New.
    • A Test Shows How Concrete May be Cheaply Strengthened.
    • Industrial Uses of Measurement.
    • Expert Planning and Reform.
  • CHAPTER XVIII NATURE AS TEACHER
    • Forces Take the Easiest Paths.
    • Cities and Roads.
    • Engineering Principles in Vegetation.
    • The Gain of Responsiveness.
    • Scope for Imitation.
    • Strength of the Cylinder.
    • The Heart and the Built-up Gun.
    • The Eye and the Dollond Lenses.
    • Limbs and Lungs as Prototypes.
    • Postal and Telephonic Service.
    • Fibrils of the Ear and Eye.
    • The Electric Eel.
    • A Beaver Tooth and the Self-Sharpening Plow.
    • Shaping a Tube.
    • Lessons from Lower Animals: A Tool-Using Wasp.
    • The Separating Task of the Lungs.
    • Flight.
    • Light.
    • Converting Heat Into Work.
    • Foresight Instead of Hindsight.
  • CHAPTER XIX ORIGINAL RESEARCH
    • Knowledge Necessary.
    • Much is Still to be Discovered.
    • Planning an Inquiry.
    • The Debt to Research in Medicine.
    • Research in Physics and Chemistry.
    • The Example of Germany.
    • Mr. Carnegie’s Aid to Original Research.
  • CHAPTER XX OBSERVATION
    • Think Birds and You Shall See Birds.
    • The Mississippi Jetties of James B. Eads.
    • Observation Suggests an Experiment.
    • Instrumental Aids to Observation.
    • Two Observers of the Skies.
    • The Eye of a Naturalist.
    • The Value of Collections.
    • Accidental Observation.
    • Perforated Sails for Ships.
    • Observations Must be Remembered and Compared: The Value of a New Eye.
    • Any Observation May Have Value.
    • Folk Observation Foreruns Science.
    • A Lesson from a Bank-Swallow.
  • CHAPTER XXI EXPERIMENT
    • Early Talent in Construction.
    • Newton as a Boy—A Tireless Constructor.
    • Watt as an Inquiring Boy.
    • Astonishing Precocity of Ericsson.
    • Rowland’s Early Experiments.
    • The Passion for Experiment.
    • The Chief Impulse in Discovery.
    • Aid from Picturing Power.
    • Eyes and Hands Inform the Brain.
    • Manual Training.
    • How the Phonograph was Born.
    • The Latest Phonograph.
    • Telephone Messages Recorded for Repetition at Will: The Telegraphone.
    • The Gray Telautograph.
    • Machines Cannot Directly Imitate Hands: A Task Must be “Coded.”
    • Sewing Coded in a Machine.
    • Obed Hussey and His Mower.
    • New Modes of Attack.
    • Linotype and Its Use of Wedges.
    • Ingenuity in Copying and Decorating.
    • Frost as a Servant.
    • Polarized Light and X-Rays.
  • CHAPTER XXII AUTOMATICITY AND INITIATION
    • Steam Engines.
    • Self-winding Clocks.
    • Looms and Presses.
    • The Dexter Feeding Mechanism.
    • Self-Acting Appliances in Metallurgy.
    • Directive Paths.
    • The Pianola.
    • Automatic Telephones.
    • Chemical Triggers.
    • Why Weather is Uncertain.
  • CHAPTER XXIII SIMPLIFICATION
    • Simplicity of Build Desirable.
    • Simplification Has Limits.
    • Directness.
    • Contrivances Which Pay a Double Debt.
    • Ascertaining Solid Contents.
    • Measuring Refraction.
    • Omission of Needless Elements.
    • Printers Abandon Useless Work.
    • Electricity Used as Produced.
    • Short Cuts in Engineering.
    • Painting by Immersion.
    • Churning the Air in a Telescopic Tube.
    • Loose Cards Replace Books.
    • Unit Systems.
    • Numbering as a Fine Art.
    • Classifying Books.
    • An Advance in Scientific Signaling.
  • CHAPTER XXIV THEORIES HOW REACHED AND USED
    • Theories as Finder Thoughts.
    • Modern Views of Matter.
    • Elasticity Explained.
    • Guesses and Proof.
    • The Knitting Faculty.
    • The Detection of Likeness Beneath Diversity.
    • The Part Played by Imagination.
    • Theories Must be Verified.
    • A Word for Discursiveness.
  • CHAPTER XXV THEORIZING—Continued
    • Analogy as a Guide.
    • Rules that Work Both Ways.
    • Turbines Reversed.
    • Hydraulic Pressure as a Counterbalance.
    • Engine and Pump.
    • Fans.
    • Electrical Reciprocity.
    • Ovens and Safes.
    • Cube Root Easily Found.
    • From Effect to Cause.
    • Profit in Contraries.
    • Judgment in Theorizing: Rules Have Limits.
    • Do Not Pay More than 100 Cents for a Dollar.
    • Judgment Moves to New Fields.
  • CHAPTER XXVI NEWTON, FARADAY AND BELL AT WORK
    • How Newton Discovered the Law of Gravitation.
    • Michael Faraday’s Method of Working.
    • Faraday’s Orderliness and Imagination.
    • How Light Becomes a Bearer of Speech.
    • The Cardinal Discovery.
    • The Telephone Brought in.
    • Variations of Light Necessary.
    • Special Treatment of the Selenium.
    • A Perfected Transmitter.
    • Experiments Without a Telephone.
  • CHAPTER XXVII BESSEMER, CREATOR OF CHEAP STEEL. NOBEL, INVENTOR OF NEW EXPLOSIVES
    • Bessemer’s Early Achievements.
    • Bessemer’s Steel Process.
    • Bessemer’s Versatility.
    • Improves the Drying of Oils.
    • Alfred Nobel and His Explosives.
    • Nobel Profits by an Accident.
    • Nobel Invents Smokeless Powder.
    • Nobel, Bodily Weak, was Strong in Mind and Will.
    • Invention Organized.
    • Great Combinations Create New Opportunities.
    • Team-Work in Research and Invention.
    • Group Attack.
  • CHAPTER XXVIII COMPRESSED AIR
    • Compressed Air. In Effect Cold Steam for Driving Hammers, Drills, and Picks.
    • Air-Lifts.
    • Liquids Lifted by Expanding Air.
    • A Jack-of-All-Trades.
    • Removing Dust and Dirt.
    • Sand-blast.
    • Air Compressors.
    • A Centralized Air Plant.
    • Westinghouse Air Brakes and Signals.
  • CHAPTER XXIX CONCRETE AND ITS REINFORCEMENT
    • Concrete Reinforced by a Backbone of Steel. Joseph Monier, the Pioneer.
    • Disposal of Steel in Reinforced Concrete.
    • Molds for Reinforced Concrete.
    • Buildings of Reinforced Concrete.
    • Resistance to Fire and Rust.
    • Tanks, Standpipes, Reservoirs.
    • New York Subway.
    • Bridges.
  • CHAPTER XXX MOTIVE POWERS PRODUCED WITH NEW ECONOMY
    • Steam Engines.
    • Mechanical Draft.
    • Automatic Stoking.
    • Boilers.
    • Superheaters.
    • Improved Condensers.
    • Steam Turbines.
    • The Parsons Steam Turbine.
    • Marine Steam Turbines.
  • CHAPTER XXXI MOTIVE POWERS PRODUCED WITH NEW ECONOMY—Continued. HEATING SERVICES
    • Gas-Power.
    • Producer Gas.
    • A Gas Producer.
    • Mond Gas.
    • Blast Furnace Gases.
    • Gas Engines.
    • Steam and Gas Engines Compared.
    • Oil Engines.
    • Gasoline Engines.
    • Alcohol Engines.
    • Steam and Gas Motors United.
    • Heating and Power Production United.
    • Heating and Ventilating by Fans.
    • District Steam Heating.
    • Isolated Plants.
    • Gas for Heat, Light and Power.
    • Electric Traction.
  • CHAPTER XXXII A FEW SOCIAL ASPECTS OF INVENTION
    • The Drift to Cities.
    • The Factory System and Checks Thereto.
    • Handicrafts Revived.
    • Tendencies Against Centralization.
    • New Domestic Architecture.
    • Electricity at Home.
    • Suggested Exhibits.
    • NOTE ON THE LITERATURE OF INVENTION AND DISCOVERY
  • INDEX
  • TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES
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