Elements of Chemistry, In a New Systematic Order, Containing all the Modern Discoveries
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Elements of Chemistry, In a New Systematic Order, Containing all the Modern Discoveries

By Antoine Lavoisier
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Table of Contents
  • ELEMENTS
    • OF
  • CHEMISTRY,
    • IN A
      • NEW SYSTEMATIC ORDER,
        • CONTAINING ALL THE
      • MODERN DISCOVERIES.
      • ILLUSTRATED WITH THIRTEEN COPPERPLATES.
      • TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH,
    • ADVERTISEMENT OF THE TRANSLATOR.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • PREFACE OF THE AUTHOR.
    • CONTENTS.
    • ELEMENTS
      • OF
    • CHEMISTRY.
    • PART I.
    • CHAP. I.
      • Of the Combinations of Caloric, and the Formation of Elastic Aëriform Fluids.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. II.
      • General Views relative to the Formation and Composition of our Atmosphere.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. III.
      • Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and its Division into two Elastic Fluids; the one fit for Respiration, the other incapable of being respired.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. IV.
      • Nomenclature of the several Constituent Parts of Atmospheric Air.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. V.
      • Of the Decomposition of Oxygen Gas by Sulphur, Phosphorus, and Charcoal—and of the Formation of Acids in general.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. VI.
      • Of the Nomenclature of Acids in general, and particularly of those drawn from Nitre and Sea-Salt.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. VII.
      • Of the Decomposition of Oxygen Gas by means of Metals, and the Formation of Metallic Oxyds.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. VIII.
      • Of the Radical Principle of Water, and of its Decomposition by Charcoal and Iron.
      • Experiment First.
      • Experiment Second.
      • Experiment Third.
      • Experiment Fourth.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. IX.
      • Of the quantities of Caloric disengaged from different species of Combustion.
        • Combustion of Phosphorus.
        • Combustion of Charcoal.
        • Combustion of Hydrogen Gas.
        • Of the Formation of Nitric Acid.
        • Of the Combustion of Wax.
        • Combustion of Olive Oil.
    • CHAP. X.
      • Of the Combination of Combustible Substances with each other.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. XI.
      • Observations upon Oxyds and Acids with several Bases—and upon the Composition of Animal and Vegetable Substances.
    • CHAP. XII.
      • Of the Decomposition of Vegetable and Animal Substances by the Action of Fire.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. XIII.
      • Of the Decomposition of Vegetable Oxyds by the Vinous Fermentation.
        • Table I. Materials of Fermentation.
        • Table II. Constituent Elements of the Materials of Fermentation.
        • Table III. Recapitulation of these Elements.
        • Table IV. Product of Fermentation.
        • Table V. Recapitulation of the Products.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. XIV.
      • Of the Putrefactive Fermentation.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. XV.
      • Of the Acetous Fermentation.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. XVI.
      • Of the Formation of Neutral Salts, and of their different Bases.
        • § 1. Of Potash.
        • § 2. Of Soda.
        • § 3. Of Ammoniac.
        • § 4. Of Lime, Magnesia, Barytes, and Argill.
        • § 5. Of Metallic Bodies.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. XVII.
      • Continuation of the Observations upon Salifiable Bases, and the Formation of Neutral Salts.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • PART II.
    • Of the Combination of Acids with Salifiable Bases, and of the Formation of Neutral Salts.
    • INTRODUCTION.
      • TABLE OF SIMPLE SUBSTANCES.
      • Oxydable and Acidifiable simple Substance not Metallic.
      • Oxydable and Acidifiable simple Metallic Bodies
      • Salifiable simple Earthy Substances.
        • Sect. I.—Observations upon the Table of Simple Substances.
      • Table of compound oxydable and acidifiable bases.
      • Sect. II.—Observations upon the Table of Compound Radicals.
      • Sect. III.—Observations upon the Combinations of Light and Caloric with different Substances.
        • [Trancriber's note: The following table has been split into four sections ease reading]
      • TABLE of the binary Combinations of Oxygen with simple Substances
      • Sect. IV.—Observations upon the Combinations of Oxygen with the simple Substances.
      • Table of the combinations of Oxygen with the compound radicals.
      • Sect. V.—Observations upon the Combinations of Oxygen with the Compound Radicals.
      • Table of the Binary Combinations of Azote with the Simple Substances.
      • Sect. VI.—Observations upon the Combinations of Azote with the Simple Substances.
      • Table of the Binary Combinations of Hydrogen with Simple Substances.
      • Sect. VII.—Observations upon Hydrogen, and its Combinations with Simple Substances.
      • Table of the Binary Combinations of Sulphur with Simple Substances.
      • Sect. VIII.—Observations on Sulphur, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Binary Combinations of Phosphorus with the Simple Substances.
      • Sect. IX.—Observations upon Phosphorus, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Binary Combinations of Charcoal.
      • Sect. X.—Observations upon Charcoal, and its Combinations with Simple Substances.
      • Sect. XI.—Observations upon the Muriatic, Fluoric, and Boracic Radicals, and their Combinations.
      • Sect. XII.—Observations upon the Combinations of Metals with each other.
      • Table of the Combinations of Azote in the state of Nitrous Acid with the Salifiable Bases, arranged according to the affinities of these Bases with the Acid.
      • Table of the Combinations of Azote, completely saturated with Oxygen, in the state of Nitric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of the affinity with the Acid.
      • Sect. XIII.—Observations upon the Nitrous and Nitric Acids, and their Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Sulphuric Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
      • Sect. XIV.—Observations upon Sulphuric Acid and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of the Sulphurous Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
      • Sect. XV.—Observations upon Sulphurous Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XVI.—Observations upon Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids, and their Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Carbonic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XVII.—Observations upon Carbonic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Muriatic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Table Of the Combinations of Oxygenated Muriatic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XIX.—Observations upon Muriatic and Oxygenated Muriatic Acids, and their Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Nitro-muriatic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity, so far as is known.
      • Sect. XX.—Observations upon the Nitro-Muriatic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Fluoric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XXI.—Observations upon the Fluoric Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Boracic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XXII.—Observations upon Boracic Add and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Arseniac Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XXIII.—Observations upon Arseniac Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Sect. XXIV.—Observations upon Molybdic Acid, and its Combinations with Acidifiable Bases[43].
      • Table of the Combinations of Tungstic Acid with the Salifiable Bases.
      • Sect. XXV.—Observations upon Tungstic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Tartarous Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XXVI.—Observations upon Tartarous Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Sect. XXVII.—Observations upon Malic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases[45].
      • Table of the Combinations of Citric Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
      • Sect. XXVIII.—Observations upon Citric Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Pyro-lignous Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
      • Sect. XXIX.—Observations upon Pyro-lignous Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Sect. XXX.—Observations upon Pyro-tartarous Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases[46].
      • Table of the Combinations of Pyro-mucous Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
      • Sect. XXXI.—Observations upon Pyro-mucous Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of the Oxalic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity(A).
      • Sect. XXXII.—Observations upon Oxalic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Sect. XXXIII.—Observations upon Acetous Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Acetic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
      • Sect. XXXIV.—Observations upon Acetic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Succinic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XXXV.—Observations upon Succinic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Sect. XXXVI.—Observations upon Benzoic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases[48].
      • Sect. XXXVII.—Observations upon Camphoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases[49].
      • Sect. XXXVIII.—Observations upon Gallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases[50].
      • Sect. XXXIX.—Observations upon Lactic Acid, and its Combinations with Salifiable Bases[51].
      • Table of the Combinations of Saccholactic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XL.—Observations upon Saccholactic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Table of the Combinations of Formic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XLI.—Observations upon Formic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Sect. XLII.—Observations upon Bombic Acid, and its Combinations with Acidifiable Bases[52].
      • Table of the Combinations of Sebacic Acid, with the Salifiable Bases, in the Order of Affinity.
      • Sect. XLIII.—Observations upon Sebacid Acid, and its Combinations.
      • Sect. XLIV.—Observations upon the Lithic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salifiable Bases[53].
      • Table of the Combinations of the Prussic Acid with the Salifiable Bases, in the order of affinity.
      • Observations upon the Prussic Acid, and its Combinations.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • PART III.
      • Description of the Instruments and Operations of Chemistry.
    • INTRODUCTION.
    • CHAP. I.
      • Of the Instruments necessary for determining the Absolute and Specific Gravities of Solid and Liquid Bodies.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. II.
      • Of Gazometry, or the Measurement of the Weight and Volume of Aëriform Substances.
      • SECT. I.
        • Description of the Pneumato-chemical Apparatus.
      • SECT. II.
        • Of the Gazometer.
      • SECT. III.
        • Some other methods of measuring the volume of Gasses.
      • SECT. IV.
        • Of the method of Separating the different Gasses from each other.
      • SECT. V.
        • Of the necessary corrections upon the volume of the Gasses, according to the pressure of the Atmosphere.
      • SECT. VI.
        • Of Corrections relative to the Degrees of the Thermometer.
      • SECT. VII.
        • Example for calculating the Corrections relative to the Variations of Pressure and Temperature.
        • CASE.
        • Calculation before Combustion.
        • Calculation after Combustion.
        • Result.
      • SECT. VIII.
        • Method of determining the Absolute Gravity of the different Gasses.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. III.
      • Description of the Calorimeter, or Apparatus for measuring Caloric.
    • CHAP. IV.
      • Of Mechanical Operations for Division of Bodies.
      • SECT. I.
        • Of Trituration, Levigation, and Pulverization.
      • SECT. II.
        • Of Sifting and Washing Powdered Substances.
      • SECT. III.
        • Of Filtration.
      • SECT. IV.
        • Of Decantation.
    • CHAP. V.
      • Of Chemical Means for separating the Particles of Bodies from each other; without Decomposition, and for uniting them again.
      • SECT. I.
        • Of the Solution of Salts.
      • SECT. II.
        • Of Lixiviation.
      • SECT. III.
        • Of Evaporation.
      • SECT. IV.
        • Of Cristallization.
      • SECT. V.
        • Of Simple Distillation.
      • SECT. VI.
        • Of Sublimation.
    • CHAP. VI.
      • Of Pneumato-chemical Distillations, Metallic Dissolutions, and some other operations which require very complicated instruments.
      • SECT. I.
        • Of Compound and Pneumato-chemical Distillations.
      • SECT. II.
        • Of Metallic Dissolutions.
      • SECT. III.
        • Apparatus necessary in Experiments upon Vinous and Putrefactive Fermentations.
      • SECT. IV.
        • Apparatus for the Decomposition of Water.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. VII.
      • Of the Composition and Application of Lutes.
    • CHAP. VIII.
      • Of Operations upon Combustion and Deflagration.
      • SECT. I.
        • Of Combustion in general.
      • SECT. II.
        • Of the Combustion of Phosphorus.
      • SECT. III.
        • Of the Combustion of Charcoal.
      • SECT. IV.
        • Of the Combustion of Oils.
      • SECT. V.
        • Of the Combustion of Alkohol.
      • SECT. VI.
        • Of the Combustion of Ether.
      • SECT. VII.
        • Of the Combustion of Hydrogen Gas, and the Formation of Water.
      • SECT. VIII.
        • Of the Oxydation of Metals.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • CHAP. IX.
      • Of Deflagration.
    • CHAP. X.
      • Of the Instruments necessary for Operating upon Bodies in very high Temperatures.
      • SECT. I.
        • Of Fusion.
      • SECT. II.
        • Of Furnaces.
      • SECT. III.
        • Of increasing the Action of Fire, by using Oxygen Gas instead of Atmospheric Air.
        • FINIS.
    • APPENDIX.
      • No. I.
        • Table for Converting Lines, or Twelfth Parts of an Inch, and Fractions of Lines, into Decimal Fractions of the Inch.
      • No. II.
        • Table for Converting the Observed Heighths of Water in the Jars of the Pneumato-Chemical Apparatus, expressed in Inches and Decimals, into Corresponding Heighths of Mercury.
      • No. III.
        • Table for Converting the Ounce Measures used by Dr Priestly into French and English Cubical Inches.
      • No. IV. Additional.
        • Table for Reducing the Degrees of Reaumeur's Thermometer into its corresponding Degrees of Fahrenheit's Scale.
      • No. V. Additional.
        • Rules for converting French Weights and Measures into correspondent English Denominations[62].
        • § 1. Weights.
        • I. To reduce French to English Troy Weight.
        • II. To Reduce English Troy to Paris Weight.
        • III. To Reduce English Averdupois to Paris Weight.
      • § 2. Long and Cubical Measures.
        • IV. To Reduce Paris Long Measure to English.
        • V. To Reduce English Long Measure to French.
        • VI. To Reduce French Cube Measure to English.
        • VII. To Reduce English Cube Measure to French.
      • § 3. Measure of Capacity.
        • No. VI.
        • Table of the Weights of the different Gasses, at 28 French inches, or 29.84 English inches barometrical pressure, and at 10° (54.5°) of temperature, expressed in English measure and English Troy weight.
        • No. VII.
        • Tables of the Specific Gravities of different bodies.
        • § 1. Metallic Substances.
        • GOLD.
        • SILVER.
        • PLATINA.
        • COPPER AND BRASS.
        • IRON AND STEEL.
        • TIN.
        • § 2. Precious Stones.
        • § 3. Silicious Stones.
        • § 4. Various Stones, &c.
        • § 5. Liquids.
        • § 6. Resins and Gums
        • § 7. Woods.
        • No. VIII. ADDITIONAL.
        • No. IX.
        • Tables for Converting Ounces, Drams, and Grains, Troy, into Decimals of the Troy Pound of 12 Ounces, and for Converting Decimals of the Pound Troy into Ounces, &c.
        • I. For Grains.
        • II. For Drams.
        • III. For Ounces.
        • IV. Decimals of the Pound into Ounces, &c.
        • No. X.
        • For Grains.
        • For Drams.
        • For Ounces.
        • For Pounds.
        • THE END.
      • FOOTNOTES:
    • THE PLATES
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