Civil Government in the United States Considered with Some Reference to Its Origins
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Civil Government in the United States Considered with Some Reference to Its Origins

By John Fiske
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Table of Contents
  • CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES CONSIDERED WITH SOME REFERENCE TO ITS ORIGINS
  • CONTENTS.
  • CHAPTER I.
    • CHAPTER II.
      • Section 1. The New England Township.
        • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
      • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
    • Section 1. The New England Township.
      • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
    • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
    • CHAPTER III.
      • Section 1. The County in its Beginnings.
        • Section 2. The Modern County in Massachusetts.
        • Section 3. The Old Virginia County.
      • Section 2. The Modern County in Massachusetts.
      • Section 3. The Old Virginia County.
    • Section 1. The County in its Beginnings.
      • Section 2. The Modern County in Massachusetts.
      • Section 3. The Old Virginia County.
    • Section 2. The Modern County in Massachusetts.
    • Section 3. The Old Virginia County.
    • CHAPTER IV.
      • Section 1. Various Local Systems.
        • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
        • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
      • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
      • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
    • Section 1. Various Local Systems.
      • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
      • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
    • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
    • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
    • CHAPTER V.
      • THE CITY.
        • Section 1. Direct and Indirect Government.
        • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
        • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
      • Section 1. Direct and Indirect Government.
      • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
      • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
    • THE CITY.
      • Section 1. Direct and Indirect Government.
      • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
      • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
    • Section 1. Direct and Indirect Government.
    • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
    • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
    • CHAPTER VI.
      • Section 1. The Colonial Governments.
        • Section 2. The Transition from Colonial to State Governments.
        • Section 3. The State Governments.
      • Section 2. The Transition from Colonial to State Governments.
      • Section 3. The State Governments.
    • Section 1. The Colonial Governments.
      • Section 2. The Transition from Colonial to State Governments.
      • Section 3. The State Governments.
    • Section 2. The Transition from Colonial to State Governments.
    • Section 3. The State Governments.
    • CHAPTER VII.
    • CHAPTER VIII.
      • Section 1. Origin of the Federal Union.
        • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
        • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
        • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
        • Section 5. The Federal Judiciary.
        • Section 6. Territorial Government.
        • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
        • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
      • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
      • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
      • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
      • Section 5. The Federal Judiciary.
      • Section 6. Territorial Government.
      • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
      • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
    • Section 1. Origin of the Federal Union.
      • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
      • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
      • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
      • Section 5. The Federal Judiciary.
      • Section 6. Territorial Government.
      • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
      • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
    • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
    • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
    • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
    • Section 5. The Federal Judiciary.
    • Section 6. Territorial Government.
    • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
    • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
    • APPENDIX.
    • CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES, CONSIDERED WITH SOME REFERENCE TO ITS ORIGINS.
    • CHAPTER I.
      • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
    • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • CHAPTER II.
      • Section 1. The New England Township.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
        • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
        • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
        • Section 1. THE NEW ENGLAND TOWNSHIP. There is a good account in Martin's Text Book on Civil Government in the United States. N. T. & Chicago, 1875.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
      • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
      • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
      • Section 1. THE NEW ENGLAND TOWNSHIP. There is a good account in Martin's Text Book on Civil Government in the United States. N. T. & Chicago, 1875.
    • Section 1. The New England Township.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
      • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
      • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
      • Section 1. THE NEW ENGLAND TOWNSHIP. There is a good account in Martin's Text Book on Civil Government in the United States. N. T. & Chicago, 1875.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 2. Origin of the Township.
    • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • Section 1. THE NEW ENGLAND TOWNSHIP. There is a good account in Martin's Text Book on Civil Government in the United States. N. T. & Chicago, 1875.
    • CHAPTER III.
      • Section 1. The County in its Beginnings.
    • Section 1. The County in its Beginnings.
    • Section 2. The Modern County in Massachusetts.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 3. The Old Virginia County.
      • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
        • Section 1. THE COUNTY IN ITS BEGINNINGS. This subject is treated in connection with the township in several of the books above mentioned. See especially Howard, Local Const. Hist.
      • Section 1. THE COUNTY IN ITS BEGINNINGS. This subject is treated in connection with the township in several of the books above mentioned. See especially Howard, Local Const. Hist.
    • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
      • Section 1. THE COUNTY IN ITS BEGINNINGS. This subject is treated in connection with the township in several of the books above mentioned. See especially Howard, Local Const. Hist.
    • Section 1. THE COUNTY IN ITS BEGINNINGS. This subject is treated in connection with the township in several of the books above mentioned. See especially Howard, Local Const. Hist.
    • CHAPTER IV.
      • Section 1. Various Local Systems.
        • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
        • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
      • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • Section 1. Various Local Systems.
      • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 2. Settlement of the Public Domain.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 3. The Representative Township-County System in the West.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
      • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • CHAPTER V.
      • Section 1. Direct and Indirect Government.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
        • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
        • Section 1. DIRECT AND INDIRECT GOVERNMENT.—The transition from direct to indirect government, as illustrated in the gradual development of a township into a city, may be profitably studied in Quincy's Municipal History of Boston, Boston, 1852; and in Winsor's Memorial History of Boston, vol. iii. pp. 189-302, Boston, 1881.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
      • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
      • Section 1. DIRECT AND INDIRECT GOVERNMENT.—The transition from direct to indirect government, as illustrated in the gradual development of a township into a city, may be profitably studied in Quincy's Municipal History of Boston, Boston, 1852; and in Winsor's Memorial History of Boston, vol. iii. pp. 189-302, Boston, 1881.
      • CHAPTER VI.
        • Section 1. The Colonial Governments.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 1. The Colonial Governments.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. The Transition from Colonial to State Governments.
      • Section 3. The State Governments.
        • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
      • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • Section 1. Direct and Indirect Government.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
      • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
      • Section 1. DIRECT AND INDIRECT GOVERNMENT.—The transition from direct to indirect government, as illustrated in the gradual development of a township into a city, may be profitably studied in Quincy's Municipal History of Boston, Boston, 1852; and in Winsor's Memorial History of Boston, vol. iii. pp. 189-302, Boston, 1881.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 2. Origin of English Boroughs and Cities.
    • Section 3. The Government of Cities in the United States.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • Section 1. DIRECT AND INDIRECT GOVERNMENT.—The transition from direct to indirect government, as illustrated in the gradual development of a township into a city, may be profitably studied in Quincy's Municipal History of Boston, Boston, 1852; and in Winsor's Memorial History of Boston, vol. iii. pp. 189-302, Boston, 1881.
    • CHAPTER VI.
      • Section 1. The Colonial Governments.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 1. The Colonial Governments.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 2. The Transition from Colonial to State Governments.
    • Section 3. The State Governments.
      • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • CHAPTER VII.
      • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
      • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
    • CHAPTER VIII.
      • Section 1. Origin of the Federal Union.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
        • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
      • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
      • Section 5. The Federal Judiciary.
        • Section 6. Territorial Government.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
        • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
        • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 6. Territorial Government.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • APPENDIX A.
        • THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
      • THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
      • ARTICLE II. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.[6]
        • ARTICLE III. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.[8]
        • ARTICLE IV. THE STATES AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.[10]
        • ARTICLE V. POWER OF AMENDMENT.[13]
      • ARTICLE III. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.[8]
      • ARTICLE IV. THE STATES AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.[10]
      • ARTICLE V. POWER OF AMENDMENT.[13]
    • Section 1. Origin of the Federal Union.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
      • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 2. The Federal Congress.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 3. The Federal Executive.
    • Section 4. The Nation and the States.
    • Section 5. The Federal Judiciary.
      • Section 6. Territorial Government.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
      • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
      • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 6. Territorial Government.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 7. Ratification and Amendments.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • Section 8. A Few Words about Politics.
    • QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT.
    • APPENDIX A.
      • THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
    • THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
    • ARTICLE II. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.[6]
      • ARTICLE III. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.[8]
      • ARTICLE IV. THE STATES AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.[10]
      • ARTICLE V. POWER OF AMENDMENT.[13]
    • ARTICLE III. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.[8]
    • ARTICLE IV. THE STATES AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.[10]
    • ARTICLE V. POWER OF AMENDMENT.[13]
    • APPENDIX C.
      • MAGNA CHARTA.[25]
        • THE GRANT OF THE GREAT CHARTER.
      • THE GRANT OF THE GREAT CHARTER.
    • MAGNA CHARTA.[25]
      • THE GRANT OF THE GREAT CHARTER.
    • THE GRANT OF THE GREAT CHARTER.
  • APPENDIX D.
    • A PART OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS.
  • APPENDIX E.
    • THE FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT.
      • THE OATH OF A MAGESTRATE, FOR THE P'RSENT.
    • THE OATH OF A MAGESTRATE, FOR THE P'RSENT.
    • APPENDIX F.
    • APPENDIX G.
      • APPENDIX I.
        • SECOND SUBJECT.
        • THIRD SUBJECT.
        • FOURTH SUBJECT.
        • FIFTH SUBJECT.
      • SECOND SUBJECT.
      • THIRD SUBJECT.
      • FOURTH SUBJECT.
      • FIFTH SUBJECT.
    • APPENDIX I.
      • SECOND SUBJECT.
      • THIRD SUBJECT.
      • FOURTH SUBJECT.
      • FIFTH SUBJECT.
    • SECOND SUBJECT.
    • THIRD SUBJECT.
    • FOURTH SUBJECT.
    • FIFTH SUBJECT.
  • APPENDIX J.
    • THE NEW YORK CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1890.
      • SECTION 1. Title five of the Penal Code, entitled "Of crimes against the elective franchise," is hereby amended so as to read as follows:
        • Section 41_f_. Whosoever shall violate any provision of this title, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than three months nor more than one year. The offenses described in section[53] forty-one and forty-one-a of this act are hereby declared to be infamous crimes. When a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed, forfeit any office to which he may have been elected at the election with reference to which such offense was committed; and when a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one-a of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed be excluded from the right of suffrage for a period of five years after such conviction, and it shall be the duty of the county clerk of the county in which any such conviction shall be had, to transmit a certified copy of the record of conviction to the clerk of each county of the state, within ten days thereafter, which said certified copy shall be duly filed by the said county clerks in their respective offices. Any candidate for office who refuses or neglects to file a statement as prescribed in section forty-one-d of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, punishable as above provided and shall also forfeit his office.
        • Section 2. Section forty-one of the Penal Code, as it existed prior to the passage of this act, is hereby repealed.
      • Section 41_f_. Whosoever shall violate any provision of this title, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than three months nor more than one year. The offenses described in section[53] forty-one and forty-one-a of this act are hereby declared to be infamous crimes. When a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed, forfeit any office to which he may have been elected at the election with reference to which such offense was committed; and when a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one-a of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed be excluded from the right of suffrage for a period of five years after such conviction, and it shall be the duty of the county clerk of the county in which any such conviction shall be had, to transmit a certified copy of the record of conviction to the clerk of each county of the state, within ten days thereafter, which said certified copy shall be duly filed by the said county clerks in their respective offices. Any candidate for office who refuses or neglects to file a statement as prescribed in section forty-one-d of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, punishable as above provided and shall also forfeit his office.
      • Section 2. Section forty-one of the Penal Code, as it existed prior to the passage of this act, is hereby repealed.
      • Section 3. This act shall take effect immediately. APPENDIX K.
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    • SECTION 1. Title five of the Penal Code, entitled "Of crimes against the elective franchise," is hereby amended so as to read as follows:
      • Section 41_f_. Whosoever shall violate any provision of this title, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than three months nor more than one year. The offenses described in section[53] forty-one and forty-one-a of this act are hereby declared to be infamous crimes. When a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed, forfeit any office to which he may have been elected at the election with reference to which such offense was committed; and when a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one-a of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed be excluded from the right of suffrage for a period of five years after such conviction, and it shall be the duty of the county clerk of the county in which any such conviction shall be had, to transmit a certified copy of the record of conviction to the clerk of each county of the state, within ten days thereafter, which said certified copy shall be duly filed by the said county clerks in their respective offices. Any candidate for office who refuses or neglects to file a statement as prescribed in section forty-one-d of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, punishable as above provided and shall also forfeit his office.
      • Section 2. Section forty-one of the Penal Code, as it existed prior to the passage of this act, is hereby repealed.
    • Section 41_f_. Whosoever shall violate any provision of this title, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not less than three months nor more than one year. The offenses described in section[53] forty-one and forty-one-a of this act are hereby declared to be infamous crimes. When a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed, forfeit any office to which he may have been elected at the election with reference to which such offense was committed; and when a person is convicted of any offense mentioned in section forty-one-a of this act he shall in addition to the punishment above prescribed be excluded from the right of suffrage for a period of five years after such conviction, and it shall be the duty of the county clerk of the county in which any such conviction shall be had, to transmit a certified copy of the record of conviction to the clerk of each county of the state, within ten days thereafter, which said certified copy shall be duly filed by the said county clerks in their respective offices. Any candidate for office who refuses or neglects to file a statement as prescribed in section forty-one-d of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, punishable as above provided and shall also forfeit his office.
    • Section 2. Section forty-one of the Penal Code, as it existed prior to the passage of this act, is hereby repealed.
    • Section 3. This act shall take effect immediately. APPENDIX K.
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