The Historians' History of the World in Twenty-Five Volumes, Volume 4
Greece to the Roman Conquest
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The Historians' History of the World in Twenty-Five Volumes, Volume 4 Greece to the Roman Conquest

By Various
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Table of Contents
  • THE HISTORIANS’ HISTORY OF THE WORLD
  • Contributors, and Editorial Revisers.
  • CONTENTS
  • THE EVOLUTION OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY
    • I
    • II
    • III
  • CHAPTER XXXVII. THE REIGN OF TERROR IN ATHENS
    • LYSANDER
    • CRUELTIES OF THE THIRTY
    • THE SYCOPHANTS
    • THE REVOLT OF THRASYBULUS
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XXXVIII. THE DEMOCRACY RESTORED
    • THE END OF ALCIBIADES
    • LIFE AT ATHENS
    • ARISTOPHANES
    • EURIPIDES
  • CHAPTER XXXIX. SOCRATES AND THE SOPHISTS
    • THE PROSECUTION OF SOCRATES
    • PLATO’S ACCOUNT OF THE LAST HOURS OF SOCRATES
    • GROTE’S ESTIMATE OF SOCRATES
  • CHAPTER XL. THE RETREAT OF THE TEN THOUSAND
    • THE AFFAIRS OF PERSIA
    • XENOPHON’S ACCOUNT OF CUNAXA
    • THE RETREAT
    • XENOPHON’S PICTURE OF THE HARDSHIPS
    • END OF THE MARCH
    • THE MEANING OF XENOPHON’S FEAT
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XLI. THE SPARTAN SUPREMACY
    • GROTE’S COMPARISON OF SPARTAN AND ATHENIAN RULE
    • HARSHNESS OF THE SPARTAN HEGEMONY
    • DEGENERACY OF SPARTA
  • CHAPTER XLII. SPARTA IN ASIA
    • WAR OF LACEDÆMON AND ELIS
    • CINADON’S PLOT
    • AGESILAUS IN ASIA
    • PERSIAN GOLD
    • WAR RISES IN GREECE
    • LYSANDER’S PLOT
    • AGESILAUS RECALLED
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XLIII. THE CORINTHIAN WAR
    • BATTLE OF CNIDUS
    • THE BATTLE OF CORONEA
    • LAND AFFAIRS OF THE CORINTHIAN WAR
    • THE GREAT DEEDS OF CONON
    • CONON REBUILDS THE LONG WALLS
    • THE EMBASSY OF ANTALCIDAS
    • THE KING’S PEACE
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XLIV. THE RISE OF THEBES
    • MANTINEA CRUSHED
    • THE OLYNTHIAN WAR
    • THE SURPRISE OF THEBES
    • FATE OF EVAGORAS AND THE ASIATIC GREEKS
    • THE REVOLT OF THEBES
    • THE SECOND ATHENIAN LEAGUE
    • CORCYRA
    • THE TRIAL OF TIMOTHEUS
    • THE CONGRESS AT SPARTA
    • ATHENS ABANDONS THEBES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XLV. THE DAY OF EPAMINONDAS
    • SPARTA INVADES BŒOTIA
    • THE BATTLE OF LEUCTRA
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF LEUCTRA
    • JASON OF THESSALY
    • VON STERN ON THE THEBAN POLICY
    • A CONGRESS AT ATHENS
    • MANTINEA RESTORED
    • THE ARCADIAN REVOLUTION
    • SPARTAN INTOLERANCE OF COWARDICE
    • THE THEBANS IN THE PELOPONNESUS
    • FOUNDING OF MESSENE
    • ATHENS IN LEAGUE WITH SPARTA
    • SECOND INVASION OF PELOPONNESUS
    • EXPEDITION INTO THESSALY
    • AN EMBASSY TO PERSIA AND A CONGRESS AT THEBES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER XLVI. WHEN THEBES WAS SUPREME
    • JOINT WORK OF EPAMINONDAS AND PELOPIDAS
    • THE END OF PELOPIDAS
    • THE BATTLE OF MANTINEA AND THE DEATH OF EPAMINONDAS
    • XENOPHON’S ACCOUNT OF HOW EPAMINONDAS FOUGHT
    • GROTE’S ESTIMATE OF EPAMINONDAS
    • CONFUSION FOLLOWING EPAMINONDAS’ FALL
  • CHAPTER XLVII. THE TYRANTS IN SICILY
  • CHAPTER XLVIII. THE RISE OF MACEDONIA
    • EARLY HISTORY OF MACEDONIA
    • PHILIP THE ORGANISER
    • MILITARY DISCIPLINE
    • MACEDONIAN CULTURE
    • OLYMPIAS, MOTHER OF ALEXANDER
    • THE MACEDONIAN PHALANX
    • THE WAXING OF PHILIP
  • CHAPTER XLIX. THE TRIUMPHS OF PHILIP
    • DEMOSTHENES, THE ORATOR
    • ÆSCHINES, THE RIVAL OF DEMOSTHENES
    • THE UNPOPULARITY OF DEMOSTHENES
    • PHILIP’S BETTER SIDE
    • THE SACRED WAR
    • THE FIRST PHILIPPIC
    • PHILIP AND ATHENS
    • A TREATY OF PEACE
    • PUNISHMENT OF THE PHOCIANS
    • THE ATTITUDE OF THE ATHENIANS
    • THE MACEDONIAN PARTY
    • THE PATRIOTIC PARTY
    • PHILIP’S INTRIGUES AND THE OUTBREAK OF WAR
    • THE THIRD PHILIPPIC
    • PHILIP RETURNS TO THE FRAY
    • SIEGE OF PERINTHUS AND BYZANTIUM
    • DECLINE OF PHILIP’S PRESTIGE; THE SCYTHIAN EXPEDITION
    • THE CRUSADE AGAINST AMPHISSA
    • ALLIANCE BETWEEN ATHENS AND THEBES
    • THE ARMIES IN THE PLAIN OF CHÆRONEA
    • THE BATTLE OF CHÆRONEA
    • PHILIP TAKES THEBES
    • PEACE OF DEMADES
    • PHILIP IN PELOPONNESUS
    • POLITICAL SCHEMES; FAMILY BROILS
    • THE DEATH OF PHILIP
    • A SUMMING UP OF PHILIP’S CHARACTER
    • GROTE’S ESTIMATE OF PHILIP
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER L. ALEXANDER THE GREAT
    • PHILIP AND ALEXANDER COMPARED BY JUSTIN
    • ALEXANDER’S YOUTH ACCORDING TO QUINTUS CURTIUS
      • Aristotle as His Teacher
      • Bucephalus
    • ALEXANDER’S FIRST DEEDS
    • DEMOSTHENES RIDICULES ALEXANDER
    • ALEXANDER DASHES THROUGH GREECE
    • ALEXANDER WINNOWS THE NORTH
    • THE REVOLT OF THEBES
    • THE FATE OF THEBES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LI. ALEXANDER INVADES ASIA
    • SCHEMES OF CONQUEST
    • THE PROBLEM AND THE TROOPS
    • THE SIZE OF THE ARMY
    • THE PHALANX AND THE CAVALRY
    • THE LIGHT TROOPS
    • THE CONDITION OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE
    • THE ENTRY INTO ASIA, ACCORDING TO ARRIAN
    • THE BATTLE OF THE GRANICUS
      • Courage and Danger of Alexander
    • EFFECTS OF ALEXANDER’S VICTORY
  • CHAPTER LII. ISSUS AND TYRE
    • HALICARNASSUS
    • GORDIUM
    • DARIUS MUSTERS A NEW HOST
    • DARIUS AT ISSUS
    • PREPARING FOR BATTLE
    • THE BATTLE OF ISSUS
      • Flight of Darius
    • FROM ISSUS TO TYRE
    • THE SIEGE OF TYRE
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LIII. FROM GAZA TO ARBELA
    • THE SIEGE OF GAZA ACCORDING TO ARRIAN
    • INCIDENTS FROM QUINTUS CURTIUS
    • ALEXANDER IN EGYPT
    • THE VISIT TO AMMON
    • ALEXANDER LEAVES EGYPT
    • THE BATTLE OF ARBELA
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LIV. THE FALL OF PERSIA
    • THE ENTRY INTO BABYLON DESCRIBED BY QUINTUS CURTIUS
    • AT THE BORDER OF PERSIA
    • A SHEPHERD GUIDE
    • THE RELEASED CAPTIVES; SACKING PERSEPOLIS
    • CURTIUS TELLS OF THE ENORMOUS LOOT
    • CURTIUS DESCRIBES AN ORGY AND THE BURNING OF PERSEPOLIS
    • THE NEW MEANING OF THE CONQUEST
    • THE PURSUIT OF DARIUS
    • CONSPIRACIES AGAINST ALEXANDER
    • CAPTURE OF BESSUS
    • LIMIT OF ALEXANDER’S PROGRESS NORTHWARD
    • ALEXANDER MURDERS HIS FRIEND
    • REMORSE OF ALEXANDER
    • CONSPIRACY OF THE ROYAL PAGES
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LV. THE CONQUEST OF INDIA
    • THE WAR WITH PORUS
    • THE EASTERN LIMIT
    • THE MARCH TO THE WEST
    • THE BRAVE MALLIANS
    • ALEXANDER’S SEVERE WOUND AND THE ARMY’S GRIEF
    • THE DESERT MARCH
    • EXCESSES AND CRUELTIES DESCRIBED BY CURTIUS
    • THE RETURN OF NEARCHUS
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LVI. THE END OF ALEXANDER
    • HIS PROJECTS
    • THE MARRIAGE OF GREECE WITH PERSIA
    • THE MUTINY
    • THE LAST EXPEDITION
    • GRIEF FOR HEPHÆSTION
    • TO BABYLON
    • LAST ILLNESS
    • THE DEATH-BED OF ALEXANDER
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LVII. VARIOUS ESTIMATES OF ALEXANDER
    • HIS VICES AND VIRTUES (ARRIAN)
    • HIS FAVOUR WITH FORTUNE (ÆLIANUS)
    • IF ALEXANDER HAD ATTEMPTED ROME (LIVY)
      • A Patriotic Estimate of Rome’s Greatness
    • HIS INVINCIBILITY (GROTE)
    • HIS MEANNESS (MÉNARD AND ROLLIN)
    • HIS EVIL INFLUENCE (NIEBUHR)
    • HIS MOTIVES (DROYSEN)
    • HIS EFFECT ON FEDERALISATION (PÖHLMANN)
    • HIS HERITAGE (HEGEL)
    • ALEXANDER’S TRUE GLORY (WHEELER)
  • CHAPTER LVIII. GREECE DURING THE LIFE OF ALEXANDER
    • CONFEDERACY AGAINST MACEDONIA
    • WAR IN GREECE
    • AFFAIRS AT ATHENS
    • DEMOSTHENES AND ÆSCHINES
    • DEIFICATION OF ALEXANDER; THE GOLD OF HARPALUS
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LIX. THE SUCCESSORS OF ALEXANDER
    • COUNCIL AT BABYLON AFTER ALEXANDER’S DEATH
    • PERDICCAS, MELEAGER, EUMENES, AND THE PUPPET KING
    • THE COMPACT
    • THE PARTITION
    • ALEXANDER’S POSTHUMOUS PLANS
    • ALEXANDER’S FUNERAL DESCRIBED BY DIODORUS
    • ALEXANDER’S HEIRS
      • Arrhidæus, the Imbecile
      • The Diadochi
      • The Women Claimants
    • DEATH OF PERDICCAS
    • THE FEATS OF EUMENES
    • THE EMPIRE OF ANTIGONUS
    • POLYSPERCHON VERSUS CASSANDER
    • LYSIMACHUS
    • CASSANDER IN POWER
    • THE NAME OF KING ASSUMED
    • THE SIEGE OF RHODES
    • THE FALL OF ANTIGONUS
    • DEMETRIUS AT LARGE
    • DEATH OF CASSANDER; DEMETRIUS WINS AND LOSES
    • LYSIMACHUS, ARSINOE, AND AGATHOCLES
    • SELEUCUS; ANTIGONUS; THE PTOLEMIES
    • PTOLEMY CERAUNUS IN MACEDONIA
    • ANARCHY IN MACEDONIA
    • ANTIGONUS GONATAS
    • THE CHREMONIDEAN WAR
    • PYRRHUS’ SON TAKES MACEDONIA
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LX. AFFAIRS IN GREECE PROPER AFTER ALEXANDER’S DEATH
    • THE LAMIAN WAR
    • RETURN OF DEMOSTHENES; DEATH OF LEOSTHENES
    • LEONNATUS
    • DEATH OF LEONNATUS; NAVAL WAR; WAR IN THESSALY
    • DISSOLUTION OF THE LEAGUE
    • THE CAPITULATION
    • THE END OF DEMOSTHENES
    • GROTE’S ESTIMATE OF DEMOSTHENES
    • ANTIPATER IN GREECE
    • THE DEATHS OF ANTIPATER AND OF DEMADES
    • POLYSPERCHON AND CASSANDER
    • OLYMPIAS AND EUMENES
    • IMPERIAL EDICT RECALLING EXILES
    • CONTEST AT ATHENS
    • INTRIGUES OF PHOCION
    • PHOCION’S DISGRACE
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LXI. THE FAILURE OF GRECIAN FREEDOM
    • HELLAS AT PEACE
    • ATHENS UNDER DEMETRIUS; SPARTA BEHIND WALLS
    • THE LAST ACTS OF OLYMPIAS’ POWER
    • PTOLEMY IN GREECE
    • ATHENS PASSIVE AND SERVILE
    • SUCCESS OF DEMETRIUS IN GREECE
    • BATTLE OF IPSUS
  • CHAPTER LXII. THE EXPLOITS OF PYRRHUS
    • THE ANTECEDENTS OF PYRRHUS
    • THE LAST ADVENTURES OF DEMETRIUS
    • THE END OF LYSIMACHUS, KING OF MACEDON
    • DEATH OF SELEUCUS
    • INVASION OF THE GAULS
    • DEFENCE OF THE TEMPLE AT DELPHI
    • PYRRHUS AND THE ROMANS
    • PYRRHUS SUMMONED BY THE TARENTINES
    • PYRRHUS IN SICILY; HIS RETURN TO ITALY
    • MAGNA GRÆCIA SUBDUED BY THE ROMANS
    • RETURN OF PYRRHUS TO MACEDONIA
    • EXPEDITION OF PYRRHUS AGAINST SPARTA
    • DEATH OF PYRRHUS
    • ANTIGONUS GONATAS
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LXIII. THE LEAGUES AND THEIR WARS
    • THE ÆTOLIANS
    • THE ÆTOLIAN LEAGUE
    • THE ACHÆAN LEAGUE AND ARATUS OF SICYON
    • ARATUS CONTROLS THE LEAGUE
    • ARATUS TAKES CORINTH
    • SPARTA UNDER CLEOMENES
    • ANTIGONUS CALLED IN
    • THE SOCIAL WAR
    • ALLIANCE WITH ROME
    • GREEK FREEDOM PROCLAIMED
    • THE ÆTOLIANS CRUSHED
    • GREECE AT THE MERCY OF “FRIENDLY” ROME
    • ROME AGAINST PHILIP
    • PERSEUS, KING OF MACEDONIA
    • THE HUMILIATION OF GREECE
    • FOOTNOTES
  • CHAPTER LXIV. THE FINAL DISASTERS
    • THE MACEDONIAN INSURRECTION
    • THE ACHÆAN WAR
    • THE DESTRUCTION OF CORINTH
    • GREECE UNDER THE ROMANS
  • CHAPTER LXV. THE KINGDOM OF THE SELEUCIDÆ
    • SELEUCUS
    • ANTIOCHUS SOTER
    • SELEUCUS PHILOPATOR
  • CHAPTER LXVI. THE KINGDOM OF THE PTOLEMIES
    • PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS
    • PTOLEMY EUERGETES
    • PTOLEMY PHILOPATOR
    • EPIPHANES
    • PHILOMETOR AND PHYSCON
    • ROMAN INTERFERENCE
    • PTOLEMY AULETES; CLEOPATRA AND THE END
  • CHAPTER LXVII. SICILIAN AFFAIRS
    • AGATHOCLES
    • PYRRHUS AND THE ROMANS
  • GREECE
  • CONCLUDING SUMMARY THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HELLENIC SPIRIT
  • BRIEF REFERENCE-LIST OF AUTHORITIES BY CHAPTERS
    • Chapter XXXVII. The Reign of Terror in Athens
    • Chapter XXXVIII. The Democracy Restored
    • Chapter XXXIX. Socrates and the Sophists
    • Chapter XL. The Retreat of the Ten Thousand
    • Chapter XLI. The Spartan Supremacy
    • Chapter XLII. Sparta in Asia
    • Chapter XLIII. The Corinthian War
    • Chapter XLIV. The Rise of Thebes
    • Chapter XLV. The Day of Epaminondas
    • Chapter XLVI. When Thebes was Supreme
    • Chapter XLVII. The Tyrants in Sicily
    • Chapter XLVIII. The Rise of Macedonia
    • Chapter XLIX. The Triumphs of Philip
    • Chapter L. Alexander the Great
    • Chapter LI. Alexander Invades Asia
    • Chapter LII. Issus and Tyre
    • Chapter LIII. From Gaza to Arbela
    • Chapter LIV. The Fall of Persia
    • Chapter LV. The Conquest of India
    • Chapter LVI. The End of Alexander
    • Chapter LVII. Various Estimates of Alexander
    • Chapter LVIII. Greece During the Life of Alexander
    • Chapter LIX. The Successors of Alexander
    • Chapter LX. Affairs in Greece Proper After Alexander’s Death
    • Chapter LXI. The Failure of Grecian Freedom
    • Chapter LXII. The Exploits of Pyrrhus
    • Chapter LXIII. The Leagues and their Wars
    • Chapter LXIV. The Final Disasters
    • Chapter LXV. The Kingdom of the Seleucidæ
    • Chapter LXVI. The Kingdom of the Ptolemies
    • Chapter LXVII. Sicilian Affairs
  • A GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GRECIAN HISTORY
    • A BRIEF SURVEY OF THE SOURCES
      • FOOTNOTES
    • LIST OF AUTHORS QUOTED, CITED, OR CONSULTED; WITH CRITICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES
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