Chemistry OpenStax College
Paul Flowers
Science & Math
Chemistry OpenStax College

Chemistry is designed for the two-semester general chemistry course. For many students, this course provides the foundation to a career in chemistry, while for others, this may be their only college-level science course. As such, this textbook provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of chemistry and understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them. The text has been developed to meet the scope and sequence of most general chemistry courses. At the same time, the book includes a number of innovative features designed to enhance student learning. A strength of Chemistry is that instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom.

Get Chemistry at OpenStax College

1. About OpenStax College
2. About OpenStax College’s Resources
3. About Chemistry
4. Atom-First Alternate Sequencing
5. Ancillaries
6. About Our Team
Chapter 1. Essential Ideas
1.1. Chemistry in Context*
1.2. Phases and Classification of Matter*
1.3. Physical and Chemical Properties*
1.4. Measurements*
1.5. Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision*
1.6. Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results*
Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
2.1. Early Ideas in Atomic Theory*
2.2. Evolution of Atomic Theory*
2.3. Atomic Structure and Symbolism*
2.4. Chemical Formulas*
2.5. The Periodic Table*
2.6. Molecular and Ionic Compounds*
2.7. Chemical Nomenclature*
Chapter 3. Composition of Substances and Solutions
3.1. Formula Mass and the Mole Concept*
3.2. Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas*
3.3. Molarity*
3.4. Other Units for Solution Concentrations*
Chapter 4. Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
4.1. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations*
4.2. Classifying Chemical Reactions*
4.3. Reaction Stoichiometry*
4.4. Reaction Yields*
4.5. Quantitative Chemical Analysis*
Chapter 5. Thermochemistry
5.1. Energy Basics*
5.2. Calorimetry*
5.3. Enthalpy*
Chapter 6. Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
6.1. Electromagnetic Energy*
6.2. The Bohr Model*
6.3. Development of Quantum Theory*
6.4. Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)*
6.5. Periodic Variations in Element Properties*
Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
7.1. Ionic Bonding*
7.2. Covalent Bonding*
7.3. Lewis Symbols and Structures*
7.4. Formal Charges and Resonance*
7.5. Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds*
7.6. Molecular Structure and Polarity*
Chapter 8. Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
8.1. Valence Bond Theory*
8.2. Hybrid Atomic Orbitals*
8.3. Multiple Bonds*
8.4. Molecular Orbital Theory*
Chapter 9. Gases
9.1. Gas Pressure*
9.2. Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law*
9.3. Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions*
9.4. Effusion and Diffusion of Gases*
9.5. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory*
9.6. Non-Ideal Gas Behavior*
Chapter 10. Liquids and Solids
10.1. Intermolecular Forces*
10.2. Properties of Liquids*
10.3. Phase Transitions*
10.4. Phase Diagrams*
10.5. The Solid State of Matter*
10.6. Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids*
Chapter 11. Solutions and Colloids
11.1. The Dissolution Process*
11.2. Electrolytes*
11.3. Solubility*
11.4. Colligative Properties*
11.5. Colloids*
Chapter 12. Kinetics
12.1. Chemical Reaction Rates*
12.2. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates*
12.3. Rate Laws*
12.4. Integrated Rate Laws*
12.5. Collision Theory*
12.6. Reaction Mechanisms*
12.7. Catalysis*
Chapter 13. Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
13.1. Chemical Equilibria*
13.2. Equilibrium Constants*
13.3. Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle*
13.4. Equilibrium Calculations*
Chapter 14. Acid-Base Equilibria
14.1. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases*
14.2. pH and pOH*
14.3. Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases*
14.4. Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions*
14.5. Polyprotic Acids*
14.6. Buffers*
14.7. Acid-Base Titrations*
Chapter 15. Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
15.1. Precipitation and Dissolution*
15.2. Lewis Acids and Bases*
15.3. Multiple Equilibria*
Chapter 16. Thermodynamics
16.1. Spontaneity*
16.2. Entropy*
16.3. The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics*
16.4. Free Energy*
Chapter 17. Electrochemistry
17.1. Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions*
17.2. Galvanic Cells*
17.3. Standard Reduction Potentials*
17.4. The Nernst Equation*
17.5. Batteries and Fuel Cells*
17.6. Corrosion*
17.7. Electrolysis*
Chapter 18. Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
18.1. Periodicity*
18.2. Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals*
18.3. Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids*
18.4. Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals*
18.5. Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen*
18.6. Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates*
18.7. Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen*
18.8. Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus*
18.9. Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen*
18.10. Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur*
18.11. Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens*
18.12. Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases*
Chapter 19. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
19.1. Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds*
19.2. Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals*
19.3. Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds*
Chapter 20. Organic Chemistry
20.1. Hydrocarbons*
20.2. Alcohols and Ethers*
20.3. Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters*
20.4. Amines and Amides*
Chapter 21. Nuclear Chemistry
21.1. Nuclear Structure and Stability*
21.2. Nuclear Equations*
21.3. Radioactive Decay*
21.4. Transmutation and Nuclear Energy*
21.5. Uses of Radioisotopes*
21.6. Biological Effects of Radiation*
Appendix A. The Periodic Table*
Appendix B. Essential Mathematics*
B.1. Exponential Arithmetic
B.2. Significant Figures
B.3. The Use of Logarithms and Exponential Numbers
B.4. The Solution of Quadratic Equations
B.5. Two-Dimensional (x-y) Graphing
Appendix C. Units and Conversion Factors*
Appendix D. Fundamental Physical Constants*
Appendix E. Water Properties*
Appendix F. Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases*
Appendix G. Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances*
Appendix H. Ionization Constants of Weak Acids*
Appendix I. Ionization Constants of Weak Bases*
Appendix J. Solubility Products*
Appendix K. Formation Constants for Complex Ions*
Appendix L. Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials*
Appendix M. Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes*
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
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