Chemistry: Atoms First 2e

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Description

Contents

Reviews

Language

English

ISBN

978-1-947172-64-7

Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 Essential Ideas

Introduction

1.1 Chemistry in Context

1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter

1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties

1.4 Measurements

1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision

1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Introduction

2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory

2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory

2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism

2.4 Chemical Formulas

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 3 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements

Introduction

3.1 Electromagnetic Energy

3.2 The Bohr Model

3.3 Development of Quantum Theory

3.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)

3.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

3.6 The Periodic Table

3.7 Ionic and Molecular Compounds

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry

Introduction

4.1 Ionic Bonding

4.2 Covalent Bonding

4.3 Chemical Nomenclature

4.4 Lewis Symbols and Structures

4.5 Formal Charges and Resonance

4.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 5 Advanced Theories of Bonding

Introduction

5.1 Valence Bond Theory

5.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals

5.3 Multiple Bonds

5.4 Molecular Orbital Theory

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 6 Composition of Substances and Solutions

Introduction

6.1 Formula Mass

6.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas

6.3 Molarity

6.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 7 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions

Introduction

7.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

7.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions

7.3 Reaction Stoichiometry

7.4 Reaction Yields

7.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 8 Gases

Introduction

8.1 Gas Pressure

8.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law

8.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions

8.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases

8.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory

8.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 9 Thermochemistry

Introduction

9.1 Energy Basics

9.2 Calorimetry

9.3 Enthalpy

9.4 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids

Introduction

10.1 Intermolecular Forces

10.2 Properties of Liquids

10.3 Phase Transitions

10.4 Phase Diagrams

10.5 The Solid State of Matter

10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 11 Solutions and Colloids

Introduction

11.1 The Dissolution Process

11.2 Electrolytes

11.3 Solubility

11.4 Colligative Properties

11.5 Colloids

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 12 Thermodynamics

Introduction

12.1 Spontaneity

12.2 Entropy

12.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

12.4 Free Energy

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts

Introduction

13.1 Chemical Equilibria

13.2 Equilibrium Constants

13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle

13.4 Equilibrium Calculations

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 14 Acid-Base Equilibria

Introduction

14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

14.2 pH and pOH

14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases

14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts

14.5 Polyprotic Acids

14.6 Buffers

14.7 Acid-Base Titrations

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes

Introduction

15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution

15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases

15.3 Coupled Equilibria

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 16 Electrochemistry

Introduction

16.1 Review of Redox Chemistry

16.2 Galvanic Cells

16.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials

16.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium

16.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells

16.6 Corrosion

16.7 Electrolysis

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 17 Kinetics

Introduction

17.1 Chemical Reaction Rates

17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates

17.3 Rate Laws

17.4 Integrated Rate Laws

17.5 Collision Theory

17.6 Reaction Mechanisms

17.7 Catalysis

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals

Introduction

18.1 Periodicity

18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals

18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids

18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals

18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen

18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates

18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen

18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus

18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen

18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur

18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens

18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases

Key Terms

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

Introduction

19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds

19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals

19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds

Key Terms

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 20 Nuclear Chemistry

Introduction

20.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability

20.2 Nuclear Equations

20.3 Radioactive Decay

20.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy

20.5 Uses of Radioisotopes

20.6 Biological Effects of Radiation

Key Terms

Key Equations

Summary

Exercises

Chapter 21 Organic Chemistry

Introduction

21.1 Hydrocarbons

21.2 Alcohols and Ethers

21.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters

21.4 Amines and Amides

Key Terms

Summary

Exercises

Appendix A The Periodic Table

Appendix B Essential Mathematics

Exponential Arithmetic

Significant Figures

The Use of Logarithms and Exponential Numbers

The Solution of Quadratic Equations

Two-Dimensional (x-y) Graphing

Appendix C Units and Conversion Factors

Appendix D Fundamental Physical Constants

Appendix E Water Properties

Appendix F Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases

Appendix G Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances

Appendix H Ionization Constants of Weak Acids

Appendix I Ionization Constants of Weak Bases

Appendix J Solubility Products

Appendix K Formation Constants for Complex Ions

Appendix L Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials

Appendix M Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes

Answer Key

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

Chapter 19

Chapter 20

Chapter 21

Index

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