Life and Habit
Free

Life and Habit

By Samuel Butler
Free
Book Description

Published in 1878, this is the first book in which Butler attacks Darwinism, and sets out an alternative, neo-Lamarckian theory which explores the role of memory in shaping organisms. Butler initially wrote the book as a tribute and complement to Darwin's theory. Darwin chose to ignore the attack, but Butler continued to challenge the scientific establishment with three additional books.

Table of Contents
  • Life and Habit
  • PREFACE.
  • AUTHOR’S PREFACE.
  • CONTENTS.
  • CHAPTER I. ON CERTAIN ACQUIRED HABITS.
  • CHAPTER II. CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS KNOWERS—THE LAW AND GRACE.
  • CHAPTER III. APPLICATION OF FOREGOING CHAPTERS TO CERTAIN HABITS ACQUIRED AFTER BIRTH WHICH ARE COMMONLY CONSIDERED INSTINCTIVE.
  • CHAPTER IV. APPLICATION OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES TO ACTIONS AND HABITS ACQUIRED BEFORE BIRTH.
  • CHAPTER V. PERSONAL IDENTITY.
  • CHAPTER VI. PERSONAL IDENTITY—(continued).
  • CHAPTER VII. OUR SUBORDINATE PERSONALITIES.
  • CHAPTER VIII. APPLICATION OF THE FOREGOING CHAPTERS—THE ASSIMILATION OF OUTSIDE MATTER.
  • CHAPTER IX. ON THE ABEYANCE OF MEMORY.
  • CHAPTER X. WHAT WE SHOULD EXPECT TO FIND IF DIFFERENTIATIONS OF STRUCTURE AND INSTINCT ARE MAINLY DUE TO MEMORY.
  • CHAPTER XI. INSTINCT AS INHERITED MEMORY.
  • CHAPTER XII. INSTINCTS OF NEUTER INSECTS.
  • CHAPTER XIII. LAMARCK AND MR. DARWIN.
  • CHAPTER XIV. MR. MIVART AND MR. DARWIN.
  • CHAPTER XV. CONCLUDING REMARKS.
  • APPENDIX AUTHOR’S ADDENDA
    • I See Page 13
    • II See Page 18
    • III See Page 25
    • IV. See Page 239
  • FOOTNOTES
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