The first decade of the Space Age is behind us and now in the hands of the historians. It was a period of dynamic advance, bringing new appreciations of our solar environment and new capabilities to develop and exploit advancing knowledge and techniques. Since the space challenge of the next decade is likely to be just as demanding and rewarding as that of the last one, perhaps we may gain useful perspective by reflecting upon our experiences even as we contemplate tomorrow. Ten years ago our planning for the future required the piecing together and development of the organization and management as well as disciplinary and technical capability for space exploration. Today our planning for the future can be based upon well-established and versatile capabilities in science, engineering, and administration. Reliable space vehicles are available ranging from small sounding rockets to the Titan III and Saturn V class vehicles. The capability of man himself to function usefully in space has been, demonstrated in the successes of Mercury and Gemini and expands rapidly as Apollo proceeds. Ten years ago we could only assert from intuition and prophecy the value of space experimentation to science. Now we can point to the profound influence it has had on the geosciences, on astronomy, and is beginning to have in life sciences. Thanks to our planetary probes, we have known since 1965 that the planet Mars has craters like the Moon. Thanks to our lunar probes, a detailed lunar atlas can be prepared. Ten years ago we could only point forward hopefully to space applications in meteorology, communications, navigation, and geodesy. TTen years ago there was serious question as to whether there would be enough skilled manpower or public interest to carry out a sustained program of space exploration. Today great teams of competent scientists, engineers, and managers are engaged in developing our national space and aeronautical capability and applying its hard-earned technology to the most rewarding applications for commercial, industrial, social, and military purposes. Unparalleled scientific and technological success in our space venture during the past decade not only vastly increased our skills and resources but also developed high confidence in our ability to solve other problems in today's society. Problems of national defense, oceanography, earth resources, the cities, transportation, population, air pollution, and food-these are challenges that cannot be sidestepped and for which the innovative enthusiasm and knowhow of the space program offers guidance, inspiration, and technique. Ten years ago the American space program began by almost doubling its effort each year for several years; today the program is shrinking and has been since 1966. Ten years ago mastering space technology was indeed a major problem. Success was a rare and precious commodity. Today success is routine and failures are rare. A decade ago the American people were caught up in a wave of interest in the space venture and in a determined drive to catch up with the Soviet Union's bold initiative in space. Today Americans can take satisfaction in what our Nation has so far accomplished in space; they should also know that what has been done is only the merest beginning of what can be done. Of course the values of space research, and indeed of all research, must be weighed against their contribution to national needs. In making this judgment it is very important that we fully appreciate the investment we have made and the nature of the dividends we have earned. This useful chronology on Astronautics and Aeronautics, following the pattern of its predecessor volumes, offers first documentation upon the multitudinous events, people, and circumstances of the last year of the first decade of the Space Age.