Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of U.S. Human Spaceflight Symposium
Stephen J. Garber
Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of U.S. Human Spaceflight Symposium
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Human spaceflight is the driver for most activities that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) undertakes. While NASA certainly has a rich aviation research heritage and has also done pathbreaking scientific and applications work using robotic spacecraft, human spaceflight is a difficult and expensive endeavor that engenders great popular enthusiasm and support for NASA. Much of this public interest stems from pushing boundaries of adventure, by exploring the unique and challenging physical environment of space. Humans can also perform tasks in space that machines cannot. We can think, analyze, and make judgment calls based on experience and intuition in real time. This NASA history document contains sixteen fascinating essays about the past and future of spaceflight, written by some of the most important and famous figures in the space community. A confluence of anniversaries made the spring of 2001 a propitious time for reflection on a forty-year record of achievement and on what may lie ahead in the years to come. The fortieth anniversary of Alan Shepard's first spaceflight, the first time an American flew in space, took place on 5 May 2001. The fortieth anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's spaceflight, the first time a human traveled into space and orbited Earth, took place on 12 April 2001. Coincidentally, this date was also the twentieth anniversary of the launch of STS-1, the first Space Shuttle flight. In addition, 25 May was the fortieth anniversary of President John F. Kennedy's famous "urgent needs" speech in which he proposed putting an American on the Moon "before this decade is out," initiating the Apollo Project. Last but not least, the Expedition One crew to the ISS had finished its historic first mission in the spring of 2001.

Front Cover
Table of Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments—Stephen J. Garber
Introduction—John M. Logsdon
Opening Remarks—Daniel S. Goldin
Keynote Address
Human Spaceflight and American Society: The Record So Far—Charles Murray
Perspectives on the Past Forty Years of Human Spaceflight
The Spaceflight Revolution Revisited—William Sims Bainbridge
Mutual Influence: U.S.S.R.-U.S. Interactions During the Space Race—Asif Siddiqi
Making Human Spaceflight as Safe as Possible—Frederick D. Gregory
What If? Paths Not Taken—John M. Logsdon
The Experience of Spaceflight
Apollo and Beyond—Buzz Aldrin
Breaking in the Space Shuttle—Robert Crippen
Going Commercial—Charles Walker
Science in Orbit—Mary Ellen Weber
Training for the Future—T.J. Creamer
Perspectives on the Next Forty Years of Human Spaceflight
Expanding the Frontiers of Knowledge—Neil de Grasse Tyson
Pushing Human Frontiers—Robert Zubrin
About an Element of Human Greatness—Homer Hickam
The Ethics of Human Spaceflight—Laurie Zoloth
Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration—James Garvin
The International Space Station and the Future of Human Spaceflight
Preparing for New Challenges—William Shepherd
About the Authors
NASA History Series
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