College ESL Writers: Applied Grammar and Composing Strategies for Success
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College ESL Writers: Applied Grammar and Composing Strategies for Success

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Table of Contents
  • GALILEO, University System of Georgia
  • GALILEO Open Learning Materials
    • Spring 2018
  • College ESL Writers: Applied Grammar and Composing Strategies for Success
    • Barbara Hall
    • Elizabeth Wallace
      • Recommended Citation
  • Preface
  • A Note to the Instructor
  • A Note to the Student
  • Features
  • CHAPTER 1: WRITING BASICS – WHAT MAKES A GOOD SENTENCE?
    • 1.1 Sentence Writing
      • Learning Objectives
      • Components of a Sentence
        • Subjects
        • Compound Subjects
        • Prepositional Phrases
        • Verbs
          • Action Verbs
          • Linking Verbs
          • Helping Verbs
    • 1.2 Sentence Structure
      • Sentence Patterns
        • Subject–Verb
        • Subject–Linking Verb–Noun
        • Subject–Linking Verb–Adjective
        • Subject–Verb–Adverb
        • Subject–Verb–Direct Object
        • Subject–Verb–Indirect Object–Direct Object
    • 1.3 Pronouns
      • Pronoun Agreement
      • Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement
      • Collective Nouns
      • Subject and Object Pronouns
      • Relative Pronouns
    • 1.4 Adjectives and Adverbs
    • 1.5 Writing basics: End-of-chapter Exercise
  • CHAPTER 2: SENTENCE VARIETY - HOW DO I REFINE MY WRITING?
    • 2.1 Sentence Variety
      • Learning Objectives
      • Incorporating Sentence Variety
      • Using Sentence Variety at the Beginning of Sentences
        • Starting a Sentence with an Adverb
          • Exercise 1
        • Starting a Sentence with a Prepositional Phrase
        • Unmovable Prepositional Phrases
        • Overuse of Prepositional Phrases
        • Starting a Sentence by Inverting Subject and Verb
          • Exercise 2
      • Connecting Ideas to Increase Sentence Variety
        • Joining Ideas Using an –ing Modifier
        • Joining Ideas Using an –ed Modifier
        • Joining Ideas Using a Relative Clause
        • Joining Ideas Using an Appositive
          • Exercise 3
    • 2.2 Coordination and Subordination
      • Learning Objectives
      • Coordination and Sentence Combining
      • Coordinating Conjunctions
      • Conjunctive Adverbs
        • Exercise 1
      • Subordination and Sentence Combining
      • Subordinating Conjunctions
        • Exercise 2
        • Exercise 3
        • Exercise 4
    • 2.3 Sentence Structure Boundaries and Associated Errors
      • Sentence Structure
        • Fragments
          • Common Sentence Errors Which Cause Fragments
            • Exercise 1
        • Run-on Sentences
        • Correcting a Run-on Sentence
          • Punctuation
          • Coordinating Conjunctions (FANBOYS)
          • Dependent Words (Conjunctive Adverbs)
            • Exercise 2
            • Exercise 3
    • 2.4 Parallelism
      • Learning Objectives
      • Using Parallelism
      • Creating Parallelism Using Coordinating Conjunctions
        • Exercise 1
      • Creating Parallelism Using Than or As
        • Exercise 2
      • Creating Parallelism Using Correlative Conjunctions
        • Exercise 3
        • Exercise 4
    • 2.5 Refining Your Writing: End-of-Chapter Exercises
  • CHAPTER 3: WRITING PARAGRAPHS – SEPARATING IDEAS AND SHAPING CONTENT
    • 3.1 Effective Means for Writing a Paragraph
      • Learning Objectives
      • Developing a Topic Sentence
      • Main Idea versus Controlling Idea
        • Exercise 1
      • Characteristics of a Good Topic Sentence
        • Exercise 2
        • Exercise 3
      • Developing Paragraphs That Use Topic Sentences, Supporting Ideas, and Transitions Effectively
      • Identifying Parts of a Paragraph
        • Exercise 4
      • Supporting Sentences
      • Concluding Sentences
        • Exercise 5
      • Transitions
        • Exercise 6
    • 3.2 Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Content
      • Learning Objectives
      • Identifying Common Academic Purposes
        • Summary Paragraphs
        • Analysis Paragraphs
        • Synthesis Paragraphs
        • Evaluation Paragraphs
          • Exercise 1
      • Identifying the Audience
      • Selecting an Appropriate Tone
      • Choosing Appropriate, Interesting Content
    • 3.3 Writing Paragraphs: End-of-Chapter Exercises
  • CHAPTER 4: WRITING ESSAYS – FROM START TO FINISH
    • 4.1 The Writing Process: Prewriting and Drafting
      • Learning Objective
      • Prewriting
      • Choosing a Topic
      • Using Experience and Observations
      • The Importance of Reading as Related to Writing
      • Freewriting
        • Exercise 1
      • More Prewriting Techniques
        • Narrowing the Focus
        • Idea Mapping
      • Topic Checklist – Developing a Good Topic
    • 4.2 Developing a Strong, Clear Thesis Statement
      • Learning Objectives
      • Elements of a Thesis Statement
      • A Strong Thesis Statement
        • Exercise 1
      • Examples of Appropriate Thesis Statements
        • Exercise 2
      • Thesis Statement Revision
    • 4.3 Outlining
      • Learning Objectives
      • Organizing Ideas
      • Methods of Organizing Writing – What You Might See in Freshman Composition
      • Writing an Outline
      • Constructing Topic Outlines
      • Checklist for Writing an Effective Topic Outline
    • 4.4 Writing Introductory Paragraphs
      • Learning Objectives
      • Attracting Interest in Your Introductory Paragraph
    • 4.5 Writing Body Paragraphs
      • Learning Objectives
      • Select Primary Support for Your Thesis
        • Identify the Characteristics of Good Primary Support
        • Prewrite to Identify Primary Supporting Points for a Thesis Statement
          • Exercise 1
        • Select the Most Effective Primary Supporting Points for a Thesis Statement
          • Exercise 2
      • Using Evidence to Support Your Thesis
      • Choose Supporting Topic Sentences
        • Draft Supporting Detail Sentences for Each Primary Support Sentence
    • 4.6 More About the Basic Elements of a First Draft
      • The Role of Topic Sentences
      • The Role of Paragraphs
      • Starting Your First Draft
      • Continuing the First Draft
    • 4.7 Writing a Conclusion
      • The Anatomy of a Strong Conclusion
      • Writing Your Own First Draft
    • 4.8 Writing Essays: End-of-Chapter Exercises
  • CHAPTER 5: REVISING AND EDITING
    • 5.1 Reviewing Your Essay
      • Learning Objectives
      • Understanding the Purpose of Revising and Editing
      • The Importance of Unity and Coherence
        • Creating Unity
          • Exercise 1
        • Creating Coherence
          • Exercise 2
      • Being Clear and Concise
      • Identifying Wordiness
      • Choosing Specific, Appropriate Words
        • Exercise 3
    • 5.2 Completing a Peer Review
      • Questions for Peer Review
      • Another Format for Peer Review
      • Exercise 4
      • Using Feedback Objectively
      • Using Feedback from Multiple Sources
    • 5.3 Editing Your Draft for Standard Grammar and Mechanics
      • Checklist
      • Formatting
    • 5.4 Keeping Track of Your Sentence-Level Grammar Errors
  • CHAPTER 6: WORKING WITH WORDS – USAGE, FORM, & CONTEXT
    • 6.1 Commonly Confused Words
      • Learning Objectives
      • Recognizing Commonly Confused Words in Your Writing
        • Commonly Confused Words
          • Exercise 1
      • Strategies to Avoid Commonly Confused Words
        • Exercise 2
    • 6.2 Spelling
      • Learning Objectives
      • Common Spelling Rules
        • Exercise 1
      • Commonly Misspelled Words
        • Commonly Misspelled Words
        • Exercise 2
      • Homonyms
        • Commonly Misused Homonyms
          • Exercise 3
    • 6.3 Word Choice
      • Learning Objectives
      • Using a Dictionary and Thesaurus
      • Using Proper Connotations
        • Exercise 1
      • Avoiding Slang
        • Exercise 2
      • Avoiding Clichés
        • Exercise 3
      • Avoiding Overly General Words
        • Exercise 4
      • Synonyms
        • Exercise 5
        • Exercise 6
      • Antonyms
        • Common Antonyms
        • Exercise 7
    • 6.4 Word Form – Adjectives and Adverbs / Prefixes and Suffixes
      • Learning Objectives
      • Adjectives and Adverbs
        • Comparative versus Superlative
          • Exercise 2
        • Irregular Words: Good, Well, Bad, and Badly
        • Good versus Well
        • Bad versus Badly
        • Better and Worse
        • Best and Worst
          • Exercise 3
          • Exercise 4
      • Prefixes
        • Common Prefixes
        • Exercise 5
        • Exercise 6
      • Suffixes
        • Exercise 7
    • 6.5 Using Context Clues
      • Learning Objectives
      • Brief Definition or Restatement
      • Synonyms and Antonyms
      • Examples
        • Exercise 1
        • Exercise 2
    • 6.6 Working with Words: End-of-Chapter Exercises
  • CHAPTER 7: OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
    • 7.1 Sentence Structure
      • Learning Objectives
      • Basic Sentence Structures
      • The Structure of Questions
      • Adjectives
    • 7.2 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
      • Learning Objectives
      • Misplaced Modifiers
        • Exercise 1
      • Dangling Modifiers
    • 7.3 Negative Statements
      • Learning Objectives
        • Exercise 1
      • Double Negatives
        • Exercise 2
    • 7.4 Count and Noncount Nouns and Articles
      • Learning Objectives
      • Count and Noncount Nouns
        • Table of Count Nouns
        • Table of Types of Noncount Nouns
        • Exercise 1
      • Definite and Indefinite Articles
      • Two Article Rules – Reminders
        • Exercise 2
        • Exercise 3
    • 7.5 Pronouns
      • Learning Objectives
      • Types of Pronouns
        • Table of Pronoun Types
        • Exercise 1
      • Common Pronoun Errors
        • Exercise 2
      • Relative Pronouns
        • Exercise 3
        • Exercise 4
    • 7.6 Pronoun Agreement
      • Learning Objectives
      • Agreement in Number
      • Agreement in Person
        • Exercise 1
      • Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement
      • Collective Nouns
        • Exercise 2
      • Subject and Object Pronouns
        • Exercise 3
      • Who versus Whom
        • Exercise 4
    • 7.7 Overview of Verb Forms
      • Learning Objectives
      • Regular Verb Forms
      • Irregular Verb Forms
        • Table of Irregular Verbs
        • Exercise 1
      • Gerunds
        • Table of Gerunds and Verbs
      • Infinitives
        • Table of Infinitives and Verbs
        • Table of Infinitives and Gerund Verbs
        • Exercise 2
    • 7.8 Verb Tenses
      • Learning Objectives
      • Simple Verb Tenses
        • Table of Regular Simple Present Tense Verbs
        • Table of Regular Simple Past Tense Verbs
        • Table of Regular Simple Future Tense Verbs
        • Exercise 1
        • Exercise 2
        • Exercise 3
      • To Be, To Do, and To Have
        • Table of Verb Forms of To Be, To Do, and To Have
        • Exercise 4
      • Perfect Verb Tenses
        • Exercise 5
      • Progressive Verb Tenses
        • Exercise 6
      • Maintaining Consistent Verb Tense
        • Exercise 7
    • 7.9 Modal Auxiliaries
      • Learning Objectives
      • Modal Auxiliaries
        • Table of Modal Auxiliaries
        • Exercise 1
      • Modals and Present Perfect Verbs
        • Exercise 2
    • 7.10 Subject-Verb Agreement
      • Learning Objectives
      • Agreement
      • Regular Verbs and Agreement
        • Exercise 1
      • Verbs: Be, Have, and Do
        • Be
        • Have
        • Do
          • Exercise 2
      • Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement
      • Compound Subjects
      • Separation of Subjects and Verbs
      • Indefinite Pronouns
      • Collective Nouns
      • The Subject Follows the Verb
      • Here or There
      • Questions
        • Exercise 3
        • Exercise 4
    • 7.11 Preposition Use
      • Learning Objectives
      • In, At, and On
        • Exercise 1
      • Prepositions after Verbs or Phrasal Verbs
        • Table of Verbs and Prepositions
        • Exercise 2
      • Prepositions after Adjectives
        • Table of Adjectives and Prepositions
        • Exercise 3
    • 7.12 Overview of English Grammar: End-of-Chapter Exercises
  • Common Prepositions
  • CHAPTER 8: PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
    • 8.1 Commas
      • Learning Objectives
      • Commas after an Introductory Word(s) or Phrase(s)
        • Exercise 1
      • Commas in a List of Items
      • Commas and Coordinating Adjectives
        • Exercise 2
      • Commas before Conjunctions in Compound Sentences (FANBOYS)
        • Exercise 3
      • Commas before and after Interrupting Words
        • Exercise 4
      • Commas in Dates, Addresses, and the Greetings and Closings of Letters
        • Exercise 5
        • Exercise 6
      • Commas to Introduce a Quote
    • 8.2 Semicolons
      • Learning Objectives
      • Semicolons to Join Two Independent Clauses
      • Semicolons to Join Items in a List
        • Exercise 1
    • 8.3 Colons
      • Learning Objectives
      • Colons to Introduce a List
      • Colons to Introduce Examples or Explanations
        • Exercise 1
    • 8.4 Quotes
      • Learning Objectives
      • Direct Quotations
      • Punctuating Direct Quotations
      • Quotations within Quotations
      • Titles
        • Exercise 1
    • 8.5 Apostrophes
      • Learning Objectives
      • Possession
      • Contractions
        • Exercise 1
    • 8.6 Parentheses
      • Learning Objectives
        • Exercise 1
    • 8.7 Dashes
      • Learning Objectives
        • Exercise 1
    • 8.8 Hyphens
      • Learning Objectives
      • Hyphens between Two Adjectives That Work as One
      • Hyphens When a Word Breaks at the End of a Line
    • 8.9 Capitalization
      • Learning Objectives
      • Capitalize the First Word of a Sentence
      • Capitalize Proper Nouns
        • Exercise 1
      • Capitalize Days of the Week, Months of the Year, and Holidays
      • Capitalize Titles
        • Exercise 2
        • Exercise 3
    • 8.10 End-of-Chapter Exercises
      • Learning Objectives
      • Punctuation Exercises
      • Capitalization Exercises
  • CHAPTER 9: GOOD WRITING – MODELS AND SAMPLES
    • 9.1 Qualities of Good Writing
      • More Qualities of Good Writing
    • 9.2 Samples of Good Paragraph Writing
    • 9.3 Samples of Good Essay Writing
  • CHAPTER 10: SUGGESTED WRITING TOPICS & GRADING RUBRICS
    • 10.1 Suggested Writing Topics
    • 10.2 Sample Grading Rubrics
      • Sample Rubric #1 - High Intermediate/Advanced Academic Writing Courses
      • Sample Rubric #2 - High Intermediate/Advanced Academic Writing Courses
      • Sample Rubric #3 – Freshman Composition Courses
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